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23. EXTENSION PROGRAMS (for IFAS only)Overview of Extension ProgramMy position as an extension specialist at UF/IFAS was established as a shared position with theFlorida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FWC). I am expected to provide guidance tothe FWC and other conservation organizations on the design and implementation of applied research,policies, and outreach efforts related to conservation and human-wildlife conflicts. I provideleadership and coordination for statewide extension efforts that: 1) provide information to help guidethe FWC’s and other conservation agencies’ research, management, and outreach efforts; and2) engage Florida residents in conservation behaviors. As part of my research effort, I evaluate:1) Florida residents’ attitudes towards the environment and wildlife; 2) experiences with wildlife andwildlife-related conflicts; and 3) preferences for conservation programs. I then translate thisscience-based research into extension educational efforts (including the development, delivery andevaluation of programs) to assist the FWC, other conservation agencies and UF/IFAS Extension tobetter engage Florida residents in behaviors that reduce human-wildlife conflicts and promote theconservation and management of wildlife, native habitats, and ecosystem services.27

I provide leadership and coordinate extension efforts in two broad areas: Program 1: Improving government agencies’ and conservation organizations’ capacity toengage with Florida residents to implement conservation practices (20% FTE) Program 2: Improving Florida residents’ understanding and management of wildlife andother resources (10% FTE)I have obtained 518,000 in grant funding that supports my extension programs (see Section 18). Idisseminate information and engage my clientele via:Educational MethodsPeer-reviewed journal publicationsReports submitted to clienteleEDIS documentsFact sheetsIndividual meetings with government staff,Extension faculty, and other stakeholdersPresentations at conferences, workshops,industry and government agency meetingsIn-service trainings (ISTs)WorkshopsInstructional multimedia presentationsNumber10 related to my Extension efforts (see Section 16f)17 final reports (12 first authored by me; see Section 16k)7 interim reports and memos15 (see Section 16g)2 fact sheets sent to 5,876 landowners (1,012,741 acres) 700 contact hours40 (see also Sections 17d and 17e)21 (designed and implemented a workshop on conservationeasements and land trusts)2 (see Section 14)To enhance the effectiveness of my extension program and pursue my professional development, Ihave attended 3 ISTs: the 10th Watershed In-Service Training (Sustaining Florida's Current andFuture Water Supply through Innovative Solutions and Policy); How to Write SMART Objectives;and Bloom's Taxonomy.My extension programs fit under UF/IFAS’s Florida Extension Roadmap High-Priority Initiative 3 –Enhancing and conserving Florida’s natural resources and environmental quality, and are designedto address the broader societal challenge of resource sustainability and conservation in Floridacommunities. In collaboration with Extension colleagues, I have earned 1 national and 2 state awardsin recognition of these outreach efforts (see Section 27).Program 1 – Improving government agencies’ and conservation organizations’ capacity toengage with Florida residents to implement conservation practicesA. SituationMy position was jointly funded by the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FWC).The FWC employs 2,112 full-time staff and is responsible for managing and protecting over 575species of wildlife, including 121 endangered and threatened species. The Division of Habitat andSpecies Conservation (HSC) – with which I primarily work – has a core mission to increase ormaintain populations of all native species and their habitats on a statewide basis. HSC works withprivate and public landowners and local, state and federal governments to conserve habitat and28

wildlife. HSC also develops and implements species management and recovery plans, and workswith industry and the public to prevent and control species invasions. HSC managers and staff areprimarily composed of natural scientists and technical experts with no training in human dimensionsor economics – which are critical to designing effective conservation and outreach programs. Myextension program addresses this need and knowledge gap. I assist HSC in designing andimplementing programs that promote conservation behaviors by Florida residents.Other extension clients: Through extension efforts with HSC I have formed collaborations with othergovernment agencies and conservation groups that integrate human dimensions of wildlifeconservation and economics into their decision-making: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS): Principal federal government agency responsiblefor administering the Endangered Species Act (ESA), leading efforts to recover and conservethreatened and endangered species by fostering partnerships with key stakeholders, andmanaging the national wildlife refuge system. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS): Federal agency responsible for conducting large-scale,multidisciplinary investigations on managing biological resources, in order to provideimpartial scientific information to resource managers, planners, and other customers. United States Department of Agriculture (USDA): Federal agency responsible forpromoting agricultural production practices that preserve natural resources by improving thestewardship of forests, watersheds, and private working lands. Florida Panther Recovery Implementation Team (FPRIT): Mandate to facilitate therecovery of the Florida panther. Composed of 10 representatives from FWC, USFWS, theNational Park Service (NPS), environmental organizations, sportsmen and huntingassociations, private landowner groups, and the Florida Cattlemen’s Association (FCA). Florida Panther Outreach Team: composed of the FWC, USFWS, NPS, and conservationorganizations (Defenders of Wildlife, the Conservancy of Southwest Florida, the FloridaWildlife Federation, and the Audubon Society). The team engages in statewide outreach toeducate Florida residents on the panther and how to mitigate conflicts with the panther. Florida Forest Service (FFS): State government agency with the mission to protect andmanage Florida’s forest resources. The FFS provides private landowners with technicalinformation and funding to promote forest resources stewardship. Palm Beach County Department of Environmental Resources Management (ERM):County government agency that administers environmental programs designed to protect,preserve, and enhance Palm Beach County’s natural resources. The Nature Conservancy (TNC): an international conservation organization that partnerswith public and private organizations to attain land and water conservation through theimplementation of green infrastructure and changes to land development practices. The Everglades Foundation: a science-based, non-profit organization dedicated solely toprotecting and restoring the American Everglades ecosystem.B. Program objectivesThe specific objectives of my extension program are to:1. increase agencies’ knowledge and understanding of Florida residents’ attitudes towardswildlife and willingness to engage in actions to mitigate human-wildlife conflicts;29

2. improve the effectiveness of agency programs in engaging key stakeholders and Floridaresidents in conservation behaviors; and3. improve social science capacity within agencies to address conservation issues.C. Educational methods and activitiesObjective 1: increase agencies’ knowledge and understanding of Florida residents’ attitudestowards wildlife and willingness to engage in actions to mitigate human-wildlife conflicts.To obtain this objective, I translated my applied research findings into educational materials aboutFlorida residents’: 1) tolerance for the Florida panther (endangered), Florida black bear, and coyote;2) willingness to engage in actions to mitigate conflicts with these species; and 3) expectations of theFWC and other agencies in terms of managing wildlife. I disseminated educational materials, andassociated recommendations on how State and Federal agencies’ outreach programming may beimproved, as follows:Educational Methods11 presentations4 posters5 written reportsMeetingsClients and Number of Contacts 126 individual contacts: FWC Imperiled Species Management Section, which includes the FWC BearManagement Program and the FWC Florida Panther Program ( 40 managersand biologists, including 9 bear biologists, 3 panther biologists, and 23contractors) FWC Wildlife Impact Management Section (31 managers and biologists,including 9 wildlife assistance biologists and 17 nonnative fish and wildlifebiologists) FPRIT (25 individuals) Panther Outreach Team (23 individuals) Florida Cattlemen’s Association ( 7 committee directors, officers, andmembers)Presented to FWC, USFWS, and USGS managers and staff at the FloridaCooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit Cooperating Committee Meetings(2016, 2018), and the FWC Commission Meetings (2017)Submitted to the FWC, USFWS, and FPRIT (see Section 16k) 279 hours of in-person and phone meetings with agency staffIn addition, I conducted the following activities to assist the FWC in its management and outreachefforts related to the Florida black bear: Analysis of survey data collected by the FWC Black Bear Management Program on whetherFlorida residents had followed recommendations to mitigate human-bear conflicts, in order toinform their outreach to residents who report conflicts with bears Redesigned the telephone survey that the FWC Black Bear Management Programadministers every 4 months to individuals who report human-bear conflicts, in order to bettertrack whether people are receiving and understanding the information provided by the FWC30

Objective 2: improve the effectiveness of agency programs in engaging key stakeholders andFlorida residents in conservation behaviors.To obtain this objective, I translated my applied research findings into educational materials about:1) rangeland owners’ preferences for programs to conserve habitat for the Florida panther (tofacilitate range expansion and recovery of the endangered panther); 2) county governments’willingness to work with the FWC to secure garbage against black bears (to reduce human-bearconflicts); 3) private agricultural landowners’ ( 20 acres of land) willingness to engage in voluntarypartnerships with the FWC to manage wildlife, habitat and imperiled species on their lands; and4) Florida residents’ and non-native pet owners’ support for FWC efforts to manage the invasionrisks posed by the trade in non-native species in Florida. I disseminated educational materials, andassociated recommendations on how State and Federal agencies’ conservation and outreachprograms may be improved, as follows:Educational Methods13 presentations2 posters1 conference paper12 written reports2 information brochuresWorking groupMeetingsClients and Number of Contacts 176 individual contacts: FWC Conservation Planning Services ( 50 managers and biologists,including 40 Conservation Planning Services biologists who work withprivate landowners) FWC Imperiled Species Management Section ( 40 managers and biologists) FWC Wildlife Impact Management Section (31 managers and biologists) FPRIT (25 individuals) Panther Outreach Team (23 individuals) Florida Cattlemen’s Association ( 7 committee directors, officers, andmembers)Presented to FWC, USFWS, and USGS managers and staff at the FloridaCooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit Cooperating Committee Meetings(2018), and the FWC Commission Meetings (2017)Presented to the Southeastern Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies: Pienaar, E. F., D. Telesco and S. Barrett (Presenter) Understanding People’sWillingness to Implement Measures to Manage Human-Bear Conflict inFlorida. Southeastern Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (SEAFWA),Baton Rouge, Louisiana, October 16 – 19, 2016.Note: Telesco is the Bear Management Program Coordinator and Barrett is theDatabase Manager for the FWC Florida Black Bear Management Program.Submitted to the FWC, USFWS, and FPRIT (see Section 16k)Information brochures related to the Florida Private Landowner Wildlife HabitatMonitoring Survey and government conservation assistance programs mailed to5,876 landowners who own and manage 1,012,741 acres of landI serve on the Big Bend Bear Stakeholder Group. The Big Bend Bear ManagementUnit includes Citrus, Dixie, Gilchrist, Hernando, Lafayette, Levy, and Pascocounties and contains the Chassahowitzka subpopulation of the Florida black bear.This group works with county governments, residents, and other key stakeholdersto conserve the Florida black bear. 226 hours of in-person and phone meetings with agency staffI also conducted the following extension activities: I provided data for use by the FWC Director of the Office of Conservation Planning Services31

in his February 2016 presentation to the FWC Commissioners as support for FWC’s PrivateLands Innovation Strategic Initiative (see below for more information).I provided comments on a cost-share program to be implemented by FWC to retrofit all 32dumpsters in Mexico Beach, FL to reduce conflicts with bears.I attended the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA) meeting related tobioenergy production, 2017.Objective 3: improve social science capacity within agencies to address conservation issues.To obtain this objective, I translated my applied research findings into educational materials about:1) the value that residents of Palm Beach County place on the county’s natural areas (to advise andassist ERM in its efforts to raise sufficient finances to continue funding the program); and 2) thevalue that Florida residents place on the restoration of the Everglades (to advise and assist theEverglades Foundation in its efforts to restore the Everglades). I was also part of a largerinterdisciplinary, multi-state effort to inform national wildlife refuges’ efforts to secure theirconservation objectives in the face of climate change and sea level rise. I am assisting the TNC intheir efforts to work with municipalities, counties, and developers to secure freshwater resources inFlorida (by advising them on the economic valuation of green infrastructure). And I conductedtraining sessions with FWC managers and senior staff to instruct them in social science methods. Idisseminated educational materials, and associated recommendations on how clients’ conservationand outreach programs may be improved, as follows:Educational Methods2 presentations1 workshop3 written reports3 EDIS documentsMeetingsClients and Number of Contacts42 individual contacts: 1 presentation to the Board of County Commissioners in Palm Beach. Thisboard serves as the legislative and policy-setting body for county government,enacts countywide laws, and authorizes programs and all expenditures ofcounty funds. They also act as the Environmental Control Board for the county(7 commissioners). 1 presentation on ecosystem services valuation at the Big Bend Estuary andWatershed Restoration Planning Meeting ( 35 county government officials,independent consultants, scientists and agency personnel).FWC Social Sciences Workshop: I served as the environmental economicsinstructor for a 3-day workshop, which focused on how social sciences may be usedto inform FWC decision-making ( 40 senior managers).Submitted to Palm Beach County ERM, the Everglades Foundation, USGS, and 4national wildlife refuges (see Section 16k)EDIS documents on economic valuation approaches (see Sections 16g and 16k).These documents were downloaded 5,576 times between 2014 and 2017. 113 hours of in-person and phone meetings with agency and organization staffIn addition, I provided the Coastal Wildlife Conservation Initiative Coordinator at FWC with adviceabout a pilot Community Based Social Marketing program that will be implemented in partnershipwith the Florida Department of Environmental Protection’s Coastal Management Program. Finally, Iassisted the FWC in recruiting an in-house economist to develop projects that will assist the FWC inits wildlife management efforts.32

D. Impacts and outcomesObjective 1: increase agencies’ knowledge and understanding of Florida residents’ attitudestowards wildlife and willingness to engage in actions to mitigate human-wildlife conflicts.First order outcomes8 attained: 76.7% increase in FWC Wildlife Impact Management Section (WIM) biologists’ knowledgeabout: 1) Florida residents’ and hunters’ knowledge of and tolerance for the coyote;2) Florida residents’ willingness to secure anthropogenic food attractants to prevent conflictswith coyotes; and 3) Florida residents’ and hunters’ preferences for how the FWC shouldmanage the coyote population (based on surveys of 18 WIM managers and biologists).Second order outcomes9 attained: 92.3% of WIM managers and biologists agreed or strongly agreed that they would useinformation provided (on people’s tolerance for coyotes and their preferences formanagement of the coyote population) to inform their decision-making and how they engagewith Florida residents (based on surveys of 18 WIM managers and biologists)Objective 2: improve the effectiveness of agency programs in engaging private landowners andFlorida residents in conservation behaviors.First order outcomes attained: 62.5% increase in Florida Panther Recovery Implementation Team (FPRIT) members’knowledge of the Florida cattlemen’s culture, and how this informs their willingness toengage with government agencies to attain conservation outcomes10 (based on surveys of allFPRIT members) 87.5% increase in FPRIT members’ knowledge related to cattlemen’s preferences for pantherand habitat conservation programs (based on surveys of all FPRIT members) 50% increase in FWC Landowner Assistance Program biologists’ knowledge about: 1) whichwildlife species landowners consider to be conflict or problem species; 2) landowners’knowledge of, and interest in, land management plans, financial assistance programs andtechnical assistance programs; 3) landowners’ opinions of and level of past interaction withthe FWC; and 4) landowners’ willingness to work with the FWC to conserve imperiledspecies (based on surveys of all senior and regional managers in the program). 88.3% increase in FWC Wildlife Impact Management Section (WIM) biologists’ knowledgeabout: 1) Florida residents’ understanding of the invasion risks associated with non-nativespecies; 2) Florida residents’ and pet trade stakeholders’ support for additional managementactions to mitigate the invasion risks associated with the pet trade; 3) Florida residents’ andFirst order outcomes encompass gains in knowledge, a necessary first step towards changing individuals’and agencies’ behavior and actions.9Second order outcomes encompass changes in the behavior of institutions and stakeholder groups, changesin behavior that directly affect resources of concern, and investment in infrastructure.10Note that while there is a representative from the Florida Cattlemen’s Association on the FPRIT, themajority of representatives are from government agencies and do not work closely with the cattlemencommunity.833

pet trade stakeholders’ willingness to contribute financially to efforts to mitigate invasionrisks; and 4) Florida residents’ knowledge of current management actions that are intended tomitigate invasion risks (based on surveys of 18 WIM managers and biologists).Second order outcomes attained: Based on my applied research findings, the USFWS altered the design of the Florida PantherPayment for Ecosystem Services pilot program, specifically the structure of the payment andthe contract duration. In 2016, the USDA NRCS invested 630,000 towards funding thispilot program. The FWC utilized private landowner survey data and findings that I presented to them as thefoundation for their Private Lands Innovation Strategic Initiative. This initiative aims tostrengthen trust and working relationships between the FWC and private landowners. Toattain these goals, the FWC hired 9 additional biologists and a human dimensions specialist towork on improving working relationships with private landowners. A total of 40Conservation Planning Services (CPS) staff implement the initiative. The CPS works with 600 private landowners ( 500,000 acres of land) each year to manage their land for wildlife. One of the key insights of my bear-related research was that municipal decision-makers findmaps on the location of human-bear conflicts particularly useful in deciding how toimplement bear-resistant garbage management. The FWC has used these maps todemonstrate that county-wide implementation of bear-resistant garbage management (whichis cost prohibitive) is not required to mitigate human-bear conflicts, in order to increasecounties’ willingness to engage in bear-resistant garbage management. 87.5% of FPRIT members ‘strongly agreed’ and 12.5% of members ‘agreed’ they will useinformation provided in their decision-making (based on surveys of all FPRIT members) 92.3% of managers and biologists in the FWC Wildlife Impact Management Section agreedor strongly agreed that they would use information provided (on people’s preferences for howthe pet trade invasion risk should be managed) to inform their decision-making and how theyengage with Florida residents (based on surveys of 18 WIM managers and biologists)Objective 3: improve social science capacity within the FWC and other agencies to addressconservation issues.Second order outcomes attained: ERM used survey results that I provided to obtain permission from Palm Beach County’sAdministration to investigate how a “green utility fee” may be added to water utility bills tofinance continued management of the Natural Areas Program. In the interim, the Countyhas allocated 2 million to maintaining the program (based on the economic value of theprogram to residents), while ERM works with the County to secure necessary funding. Other stakeholder groups have used my published research findings and recommendations towrite comments on government agencies’ management of species. For example, the HumaneSociety used my research findings to comment on the FWC’s management of the Floridablack bear and the USFWS’ 5-year review of the endangered status of the Florida pantherunder the ESA. These written comments are part of the official record when agencies makedecisions on the listing status and management of species.34

Third order outcomes11 attained: Funds raised by Palm Beach County (through the implementation of a green utility fee)would be used to finance the management of 31,445 acres of natural areas (scrub, wetlands,forest, woodlands) that are owned and managed by the county ( 6.4 million per yearallocated to revegetation and removal of invasive plants, maintaining recreationinfrastructure, parking lots, fences, and signs, providing educational materials for visitors,and monitoring the natural areas to maintain ecosystem health). The Everglades Foundation is using ecosystem services valuation results to develop anEnd-Point Everglades Restoration Plan, which is intended to replace the ComprehensiveEverglades Restoration Plan (CERP)12. This plan will provide stakeholders, resourcemanagers, and local, state, and federal policymakers with a detailed roadmap for Evergladesrestoration, including priority restoration projects, cost estimates, and timelines forcompletion. The plan will demonstrate how different restoration scenarios will affecthydrological conditions, water quality, habitat, native and imperiled species, the economy ofsouth Florida, and the welfare of Florida residents.Program 2 – Improving Florida residents understanding and conservation of wildlife andother resourcesA. SituationFlorida is the third most populous state in the United States. The human population increased from6.79 million in 1970 to over 20.6 million in 2016. Human population growth in Florida has resultedin urban sprawl, which has encroached on wildlife habitat and has adversely impacted ecosystemservices (e.g. water purification, flood mitigation). Loss of rangelands and agricultural lands, and thewildlife habitat that these lands contain, constitutes a significant threat to wildlife and resourcesconservation in Florida.Suburban and urban developments also provide high-caloric food sources that are attractive towildlife (e.g. garbage, pet food). Wildlife that become food conditioned (i.e. they routinely seek outanthropogenic food sources) may cause property damage (e.g. destruction of screen enclosures andgarbage cans), and may also attack or kill domestic animals and people. Wildlife that enter humandevelopments are at higher risk of vehicle mortality and euthanization (to protect human safety).There are multiple actions that can be taken at the individual, household and community levels toachieve coexistence between people and wildlife (e.g., securing food attractants). Privatelandowners may also manage their lands to secure wildlife habitat and environmental quality. Theseactions are usually voluntary. Extension education efforts are required to inform Florida residents11Third order outcomes describe a situation in which some social and/or environmental qualities aremaintained, restored or improved.12In 2000, CERP was signed into law. CERP described 68 projects that would remove barriers to flow, storewater to rehydrate wetlands, provide for the water supply needs of agriculture and municipalities, andmaintain food control for developed areas. To date, none of the 68 CERP projects are completed. Key waterstorage components of CERP have been deemed too costly or not feasible, which means that the originalconception of CERP cannot be attained.35

and landowners about options to secure habitat, conserve wildlife, and prevent human-wildlifeconflicts. This program fills that need.The key target audiences for this extension program are: 1) private agricultural and rangelandowners; and 2) Florida residents.B. Program objectivesI work with Extension faculty (county agents and specialists) to attain the following objectives:increase Florida residents’ and private landowners’ knowledge of wildlife, and their willingness toengage in appropriate measures to conserve wildlife, habitat and other natural resources.C. Educational methods and activitiesI have engaged in the following activities:Educational Methods4 presentations2 ISTs1 workshopClients and Number of Contacts 276 individual contactsI gave a lightning round presentation about my Extension program to the NaturalResources Extension agents at the IFAS Extension Symposium (Alachua County,2017)I presented at the Wildlife and Invasive Species Educational (W.I.S.E.) Workshops: Florida panther presentation (Sumter County, 2016): 113 attendees; 86%UF/IFAS Florida Master Gardeners; 23% UF/IFAS Florida Master Naturalists;1% UF/IFAS Extension Faculty; 11% other (Native Plant Society, RainbowSprings State Park volunteer, County government) Invasion and disease risks associated with the herpetological trade (SumterCounty, 2018): 125 attendeesI presented information about the Florida panther at the UF/IFAS Extension office,Sarasota County: 38 attendees; 37% UF/IFAS Florida Master Gardeners; 3%UF/IFAS Florida Master Naturalists; 53% other (State and Federal governmentemployees, teachers, medical services); 8% childrenI designed the Living with Wildlife in Florida program (more information below).As part of this program, I conducted an IST on Living with the Florida Black Bear(Orange County, 2018). Attendees included: 5 Extension agents representing Lake, Orange, Polk, Seminole, and VolusiaCounties 9 Florida Master Naturalist Program (FMNP) instructors and graduatesI presented information about conservation incentive programs at the NaturalResources In-Service Training (Alachua County, 2016). Attendees: 29 countyExtension agentsI collaborated with Jessica Sullivan (County Extension faculty, Osceola County),Raoul Boughton (Extension Specialist, Ona Range Station) and Chris Demers(Extension Program Manager – Florida Forest Stewardship Program) to design andimplement a workshop: Is a Conservation Easement Right for Your Land? (moreinformation provided below)32 attendees at the workshop hosted in Osceola County: 11 landowners/farmers/ranchers (own 350,000 acres of land; mean land size 36

1 community event2 conference papers1 posterWorking group12 EDIS documents1 news releaseMeetings19,447 acres) 10 government agency representatives 5 Extension agents 6 other attendees (realtors, attorneys)I worked with the USFWS and FWC to disseminate information about the Floridablack bear to attendees at the Cedar Key Arts Festival (Levy County): 178 adults 37 childrenJessica Sullivan and I presented a paper and poster on the conservation easementworkshop to IFAS Extension agents at the Florida Association of CountyAgriculture Agents (FACAA) Mid-year Meeting and Professional DevelopmentConference (see Section 17d), in order to engage them in further statewideimplementation of this workshop.Presentation to the Extension Professionals Association of Florida (EPAF): Davis J. (Presenter), B. Moffis, R. Boughton, J. Daniels, C. Demers, S. Enloe,J. Hill, S. Johnson, M. Orlando, E. F. Pienaar, D. Westervelt, A. Clothier, R.Stout, W. Lester Creating a Wildlife and Invasive Species EducationalProgram for Florida Master Naturalists and Florida Master Gardeners.Extension Professionals Association of Florida (EPAF) 2016 ProfessionalImprovement & Administrative Conference, Daytona Beach, Florida,September 27 - 28, 2016.I serve as the Extension Specialist Leader on the Citizen Awareness of FoodSystems and the Environment Priority Working Group (more information providedbelow).E

evaluation of programs) to assist the FWC, other conservation agencies and UF/IFAS Extension to . (12 first authored by me; see Section 16k) 7 interim reports and memos EDIS documents 15 (see Section 16g) Fact sheets 2 fact sheets sent to 5,876 landowners (1,012,741 acres) . (NIFA) meeting related to bioenergy production, 2017.