Polish AmericansTable of ContentsIntroduction . 2Collections . 4Selected Published Sources. 15Published Primary Sources . 15Published Secondary Sources . 17Other Repositories . 191Return to Table of Contents

IntroductionPoles are the second largest ethnic group in Michigan (Detroit and Grand Rapids area) and havebeen a significant part of the history of Detroit and the state of Michigan.The first Polish mass migration took place in the late 19th and early 20th centuries followingyears of aggression and occupation by its neighbors. During that time about 2.5 million ethnicPoles came to the United States in search of freedom and economic stability.The Detroit's area large Polish community was for many years concentrated in Poletown andHamtramck, a suburb of Detroit. Hamtramck was originally settled by German farmers. Itbecame a dominantly Polish industrial town in 1914, when the Dodge Brothers automotive plantwas opened providing great employment opportunities. These Polish communities became vitalcenters of immigrant social life, with small businesses, press, and cultural, political, veterans,patriotic and professional organizations. The heart of Polonia, however, was its Polish RomanCatholic church and its parishes. Poles were able to keep their identity by cultivating theircultural traditions, language and faith.In addition to the auto industry in the Detroit area, Poles worked in copper mines (UpperPeninsula), iron mines (Western Upper Peninsula), and in the lumber mills. However, the greatmajority became factory workers and farmers.The second wave of new Polish immigrants (over 200,000) came to the U.S. following WWII,when Poland became part of the Soviet Union bloc. Of these, 38,000 came to Michigan.The next large population of immigrants arrived between the late 1960s and early 1990s andconsisted of refugees, and non-immigrants on temporary visas. Many of these Poles werepolitical refugees from the SOLIDARITY, the Polish trade union movement. Of this group 34%were professionals, while 27% were skilled workers.According to the 2000 U.S. Census, Michigan is home to the third largest Polish population(854,844) after New York (986,141) and Illinois (932,996). The current population of Michigan'sPolish Americans is concentrated in Wayne, Macomb and Oakland counties. Troy became thecenter of Poles in Michigan, after their migration from Hamtramck."Poles were the largest immigrant group in Detroit during its greatest era and they contributedenormously to its greatness. It was their intelligence, skill, hard work, and dedication that helpedto make Detroit the Motor City and the Arsenal of Democracy. They brought piety, a love ofGod, beauty, sociability, and a human scale to one of the bleakest industrial areas in thecountry."Thaddeus C. Radzilowski, Ph.D.,"The Polish Experience in Detroit"This guide is designed to inform interested researchers of the existence of unique PolishAmerican materials at the Bentley Historical Library, University of Michigan. It lists allmanuscript collections and selected publications currently held at the library reflecting the life,2Return to Table of Contents

history and culture of Polish Americans in Michigan. These materials are open to researchers forthe study of the social, political, religious, and economic dimensions of this ethnic group.3Return to Table of Contents

CollectionsAmerican-Polish music from Detroit [sound recording]. 2 sound discs (130 min.). Recordings by Stas' Wisniach and His Orchestra, Johnny Sadrack and His Orchestra, TedKoltowicz and His Sparks of Fire Orchestra, Ted Gomulka and His Orchestra, Ted Lachand His Orchestra, Eddie ("Hoyt") Nabozny, Clarence Witkowski ("Clare Wite") and HisOrchestra, John Chrzasz and the Michigan Polka-Tels, Walt Cieslik and theAmbassadors. Produced by Laurie A. (Gomulka) Palazzolo. Mirlyn Catalog RecordAmericanization Committee of Detroit (Mich.). Papers, 1914-1931 200 items Microfilm copy available (mf 543c). Correspondence, minutes of meetings, reports and other materials concerning theassimilation of the foreign-born residents of Detroit and the committee's educationalprograms on behalf of the city's immigrant population during World War I and after. Mirlyn Catalog RecordAnn Arbor Polish Film Festival. Ann Arbor Polish Film Festival collection, 1993-2011. 0.3 linear feet and 1 oversize folder. The Ann Arbor Polish Film Festival is an annual cultural event organized by the PolishCultural Fund-Ann Arbor in cooperation with the Polish-American Congress Ann ArborChapter, the University of Michigan's Polish Club, and the University of Michigan. Sinceits beginning in 1993, the Festival has promoted Polish culture by offering audiences anopportunity to see a broad range of narrative forms and visual styles present incontemporary Polish cinema, including documentaries, animated shorts, and featurefilms. These works are not only commentaries on life in contemporary Poland, but alsoreflect the views of Polish artists interpreting diverse issues around the world. The collection includes program announcement flyers, newsletters, posters, and relatedmaterial; also DVD of Ewa Pieta talking about Polish films with clips; and CD-Rs ofdocuments, primarily announcements and news notes. Mirlyn Catalog RecordBentley, Alvin M. (Alvin Morell), 1918-1969. Photograph series. 2 linear ft. Republican U.S. Congressman from Owosso, Michigan, delegate to the MichiganConstitutional Convention, 1961-1962, and regent of the University of Michigan. Contains the photos of his election campaigns including Polish Group and PolishCommittee photos. Finding Aid4Return to Table of Contents

Binkowski, Don, 1929 Papers, 1958-2006 14 linear ft. District judge from Warren, Michigan. Correspondence, campaign materials, and other papers concerning his work as delegateto Michigan Constitutional Convention, 1961-1962, as Warren city councilman, and asattorney and judge. Also papers concerning local and state Democratic politics, and hisactivities with Polish-American organizations; and photographs. Finding AidDon Binkowski collection, 1825-2011 mixed material, 1825-2011 10.5 linear feet and 1 oversize folder. District judge from Warren, Michigan and collector of materials relating to the Polishcommunity of Michigan. The collection includes subject files with photographs relating to Michigan Polish publicfigures, to the Polish community in Hamtramck, to the history of Warren, Michigan, andto Michigan History in general. Finding AidCenter for Russian and East European Studies (University of Michigan). Records, 1957-1973 8 linear ft. Records relating to the administration of and the programs supported by the Center,including information on funding, courses, exchange programs, publicity, and affiliatedactivity. Also includes audio and video tapes of presentation and lectures. Finding AidChase, Charles A. Charles A. Chase papers, undated. 1 folder. Historian of the Polish-American community in Parisville, Michigan and of theCiechanowski family, early settlers to the area. Brief essays written about the Ciechanowski family (variously spelled Chinoski orChase), Polish immigrants to Parisville in Huron County, Michigan. Mirlyn Catalog RecordDept. of History (University of Michigan) senior honors theses. 1969-[ongoing]. 5.0 linear ft. Research papers on topics relating to Michigan history and the history of the Universityof Michigan. Include the theses by Jonathan Alexander Zajac; The Importance of Being5Return to Table of Contents

Polish: The Complex Interactions of Community Identity and Race in Hamtramack'sPostwar Development.Finding AidDingell, John D.(John David), 1894-1955. Papers, 1932-1956 4 linear ft. Democratic U.S. Congressman from Michigan's 15th District.Resident of Detroit,Michigan. Biographical material; speeches, press releases, and interviews; and legislation filesconcerning the bills introduced in Congress by Dingell (includes the Special Quota forPolish Veterans and Axis Civilian Escapees: H.R. 5825, 83rd Congress, 1953). Finding AidDom Polski [videorecording]:dance hall days of Detroit's Polonia. 1 DVD-video (133 min). written and produced by Laurie A. Gomulka Palazzolo ; edited by David Reinhardt. The Dom Polski "was originally build in 1912 as a concert hall and club hall for thePolish Falcons. The Dom Polski served as a social and cultural hub for Detroit's Polishneighborhood." Mirlyn Catalog RecordDulemba, Arthur W. Scrapbook, 1953-1965 1 item. Resident of Detroit, Michigan. Clippings and photos relating to his activities as president of the West Side Council ofClubs, a Polish-American civic association. Mirlyn Catalog RecordFajans, Kasimir, 1887-1975. Papers, 1912-1987 14.5 linear ft. Polish born physical chemist, director of the Institute of Physical Chemistry at theUniversity of Munich, professor of chemistry at the University of Michigan. Correspondence, lecture notes, and other papers largely concerning his professionalinterests, especially relating to his teaching and publications; material pertaining to hisconcern for Jewish scholars in Germany before and during World War II; alsophotographs. Finding AidGajec, Edward, 1918 Papers, 1935-1995 2.5 linear ft.6Return to Table of Contents

Detroit musician and music educator, also a promoter of ethnic festivals.The collection consists of correspondence, brochures, programs and newspapers focusingon established ethnic organizations and festivals.Finding AidGorski, J. William (James William), 1929 J. William Gorski research collection, ca. 2012. 1 linear foot. Macomb, Mich., researcher and collector of Polish American historical and genealogicalmaterials. Historical and genealogical files: "Polish and Polish American military," includingmaterial on Polish Americans in the U.S. military and Polish Army veterans in the UnitedStates. "Detroit's Eastside Dom Polski," including photocopy of Polish business directoryfor Detroit, Mich., with translations and added biographical information, alsobiographical information on Dom Polski members. The collection includes numerousdigitized files on CDs. Mirlyn Catalog RecordGrand Valley State Colleges oral history project, 1976-1977. 61 sound tape reels. Oral history project administered by Professor John Tevebaugh and relating to the historyof Grand Rapids, Michigan. The interviews were later used in the WUOM radio series,"Fitzgerald's Prophecy." Sound tape reels of interviews (46 reels; 7 in.), 1976, and recordings of "Fitzgerald'sProphecy" based on the interviews and broadcast on WUOM in 1977. Includes the oralinterview with Ed Symons (historian of the local Polish community) and "The Polish"sound tapes reels. Finding AidHind, Japeth. Correspondence, 1926-1935 10 items. Cashier at the State Savings Bank, Bad Axe, Michigan. Comments on the management of a family farm, farm production and economics, andattitudes toward ethnic groups, especially Polish Americans. Mirlyn Catalog RecordHoly Cross Church (Cross Village, Mich.). Records, 1847-1930 2 rolls microfilm (positive and negative). Baptismal records, marriage, birth and death records, photographs, newspaper clippingsand printed histories detailing activities of this Indian church. Includes 1921-1930 recordsin English and Polish. Finding Aid7Return to Table of Contents

Jarocki, Walter "Flash"-collector. Photograph collection, 1937? 1948?, and 1952-1958 1 envelope and ca. 500 photonegatives. Hamtramck, Michigan, commercial photographer who took photographs for the cityduring the administration of Mayor Albert J. Zak in the 1950s. Photonegatives of public work projects (such as laying of sidewalks), ceremonialfunctions (such as Christmas displays on city streets), and some political activities. Thecollection also includes views of the city, its downtown area, residential streets andalleyways behind residences. There are two photographs of Frank Murphy (ca. 1937) andHarry Truman (ca. 1948) visiting Hamtramck. Finding AidKarpinski, Henry H., 1852-1935. Papers, 1921 and 1927 3 items. Polish immigrant to the United States. Reminiscences of life in Poland, 1852-1874; and letter to Dearborn Independentrecounting trip back to Poland in 1926. Mirlyn Catalog RecordKausch, Jack-collector. Collection, ca 1910s-2002 4 linear feet, 1 oversize folder, and 1 oversize motion picture reel. Jack Kausch was a photographer specializing in family portraits and historical subjects.He was the producer of commercial videos on Detroit and Michigan historical topics. The collection includes photographs, photographic slides, videotapes, and motion picturefilms. Topics covered include Poletown throughout its history. Finding AidKoch, Theodore Wesley, 1871-1941. Papers, 1894-1941 12 linear ft. Librarian at the Library of Congress, University of Michigan and NorthwesternUniversity, and bibliophile. The papers contain four folders of materials related to library Americanization programs,1919-1921. They include information about Poles in America, the Polish Central ReliefCommittee of America, as well as the transcripts of immigrants' letters sent to relatives inPoland.Photographs regarding U.S. Immigration, ca 1918-20, include immigrants on EllisIsland, Polish refugees and Americanization and citizenship classes. Finding AidLecznar, Stella, 1895-1982. Scrapbooks, 1939-1948 2 rolls microfilm (positive and negative).8Return to Table of Contents

Democratic Party worker and ethnic club leader.Clippings, correspondence, and other memorabilia concerning her involvement inDemocratic politics and Polish-American organizations, especially the Ladies VotersLeague.Mirlyn Catalog RecordLesinski, John, Jr., 1914-2005. Papers, 1930s-1964, bulk 1950-1964 27 linear feet, 3 oversize volumes, and 2 oversize folders. Democratic member of Congress from Michigan's 16th District, 1950-1964. Congressional files include his association with the Polish American community ofDetroit. Finding AidMackun, Stanley, 1922 "The changing patterns of Polish settlements in the Greater Detroit area: geographicstudy of the assimilation of an ethnic group". Thesis (Ph.D.), University of Michigan, 1964 (typescript) Includes 12 photographs of houses in Polish American neighborhoods in and aroundDetroit, Michigan: Mirlyn Catalog RecordMartin, Edward-collector. Collection, 1852-2004 11 linear feet (in 16 boxes) and 3 oversize volumes. Collector of materials documenting the activities of Polish American individuals andorganizations in the Detroit area. The collection consists of records of the Polish Army Veterans Association, and thePolish Sea League. The collection also includes photographs from various Polishphotography studios in Detroit and Michigan, topical photographs, Polish printedmaterials, scrapbooks; papers of Waclaw S. Jakubowski including collected clippingsabout Poletown in Detroit, Michigan. Finding AidMichigan Historical Collections. Immigration Sources Project records, 1977-1979 1 linear ft. Project established by the Michigan Historical Collections of the University of Michiganto survey archival records relating to the study of immigration in the Netherlands,Poland,Finland, Ireland, and Michigan. Administrative files, including population data, notes, lists, questionnaires, andcorrespondence. Finding Aid9Return to Table of Contents

Michigan Historical Collections. Topical photographs collection, ca 1860s-1950s 0.4 linear ft. and 1 outsize box. Photographs, from various sources of ethnic groups (including Polish Americans). Finding AidMuñoz, Cynthia L. A long road to the beginning : a causpanic metamorphosis : memoir, 2011 / 1 item (58 p.) Cynthia Muñoz was born in Detroit, Mich., "half Mexican/Spanish and halfPolish/Hungarian." Memoir describing her childhood and youth in Detroit, her father's family life in Texasand mother's family in Detroit, lives of other family members, her drug use andrehabilitation. Mirlyn Catalog RecordNowicki, Leo J.; 1904 "Profile of an American by Choice",1975 1 vol. Photocopy. Reminiscences, 1975, being an autobiographical account of his life as a Polish immigrantto Detroit and Hamtramck, and his career as Wayne County official and DemocraticLieutenant Governor, 1937-1939. Mirlyn Catalog RecordPacosz, Christina V. Diaries and publications, 1970-2008, bulk 1980-2004. 6 linear feet. Polish-American poet, born and educated in Detroit, Michigan. The collection consists primarily of personal diaries and copies of her published work,including serial publications and anthologies containing her poetry. The diaries aredetailed glimpses into her thoughts, her life as a poet, her teaching, travels, and dailyactivities. Finding AidPalazzolo, Laurie, collector. Laurie Palazzolo Horn Man research materials collection, 1913-2004, bulk 1940s-1980s. 10 linear feet [in 13 boxes] and 1 oversize folder. Palazzolo is a founding member of the West Side Detroit Polish American HistoricalSociety and a past officer on the board of directors of the Friends of Polish Arts. She isalso president, executive producer of Hornman Detroit, and member of various PolishAmerican cultural and historical organizations. Palazzolo currently serves as the WestSide Detroit Polish American Historical Society's Vice President and ExecutiveDirector/Secretary.10Return to Table of Contents

Collection contains research materials collected and used by Palazzolo for her 2003 book"Horn Man: the Polish-American musician in the twentieth-century Detroit," andincludes transcripts of interviews, copies of photographs, performance schedules,business contracts, sheet music, and biographical information, as well as directories, bylaws, and constitution of the Detroit Federation of Musicians; also promotional materials,posters, and signs.Finding AidPolish Activities League (Detroit, Mich.). Records, 1923-1974 6 linear ft., 4 v. [outsize], 1 reel of microfilm: positive. Detroit social service organization established to aid the Detroit Polish community. Scrapbooks, printed histories, scattered correspondence, photographs, and minute book,1949-1954. Finding AidPolish American Congress. Ann Arbor Chapter (Mich.) Ann Arbor Polish Americans Oral History Project, 2010-2011. 0.2 linear feet. In Polish. Ann Arbor Chapter of The Polish American Congress was established in 1970 as anindependent Chapter of Michigan Division of the Polish American Congress. The PolishAmerican Congress serves as the umbrella for majority of Polish organizations in theUnited States and in Michigan. Ann Arbor Chapter's mission is to interact in thecommunity through civic, social, cultural and educational initiatives to promote Polishancestry and increase other cultures' understanding of Polish people. There are about 60members and supporters in PAC-Ann Arbor, most of them live or work in Ann Arborarea and other parts of Washtenaw County. The PACAAC works in partnership withseveral local organizations including the University of Michigan Polish Club, PolishCultural Fund and Kiwanis Club of Ann Arbor. "Ann Arbor Polish Americans" is an oral history project conducted by the PolishAmerican Congress Ann Arbor Chapter (PACAAC), a non-profit organization. Theproject was administered by Malgosia Myc (PACAAC archivist) and is focusing on thePAC Ann Arbor Chapter members. The purpose of these interviews was to capture theirimmigration experience and to provide the information about the history of the PACAACsince its beginnings and the life of the Polish community in Ann Arbor in general. Someinterviews include the memories from the life in Poland (including World War II). Eachinterview folder consists of a CD (audio), as well as a typed transcript of the interview,signed releases and a photograph/s of an interviewee. Mirlyn Catalog RecordPolish Americans in the Motor City [sound recording]: the Detroit story / [ThaddeusRadzilowski]. 1 sound disc (63 min.).11Return to Table of Contents

Title on disc surface: Polonia Detroit : the Polish experience in Detroit "Polish presencelecture, Dr. Thaddeus Radzilowski, President, St. Mary's College."Mirlyn Catalog RecordPolish Farmers Society, Lodge 2984 (Belleville, Mich.). Records, 1941-1973 1 reel microfilm (positive). Minutes of meetings. Mirlyn Catalog RecordSchulak, Francis X., 1866 Travel notebook, [18--?] 1 reel microfilm (positive). Polish priest traveling in the United States. Notes on travels to Polish communities in the United States, including settlements inMichigan in the nineteenth century. Mirlyn Catalog RecordSmiałek-Sinclair, Noreen, papers, 1955-2010, bulk 1958-1974 0.5 linear feet Noreen Smiałek-Sinclair was a Detroit, Mich., Polish American violinist and promoter ofPolish classical music. She served for many years as music chairwoman of the Friends ofPolish Art of Detroit, performed locally and internationally, and taught on the faculty ofthe Detroit Conservatory of Music. Scrapbook containing articles, newspaper clippings, concert programs andannouncements, and photographs depicting performances and portraits. Also loosearticles and newspaper clippings, and concert announcements. Mirlyn Catalog RecordStanczyk, Benjamin C. (Benjamin Conrad), 1915 Papers, 1944-1975 3 linear ft. and 12 v. [outsize]. Judge of Common Pleas in Detroit, Michigan. Democratic Party and various PolishAmerican organizations activist. Correspondence, notebooks, scrapbooks, and miscellanea largely relating to DemocraticParty Affairs, Polish-American activities and organizations,and legal and political interests. Finding AidStanis, Antoinette, 1911-2001- collector. Collection, 1936-1971 1 linear ft. Records collected by Antoinette Stanis of Dearborn, Michigan, related to her civic, socialand political activities in the Polish-American community in Detroit.12Return to Table of Contents

Minutes and treasurer's books of the Polish-American Women's Political Club;constitution and amendments of the West Side Council of Clubs (Democratic);miscellaneous personal material. Photographs of members of Polish-American Women'sPolitical Club (1940), victory celebrations for various Michigan candidates; andphotographs of Stanis and others on various political and social occasions.Mirlyn Catalog RecordSzymczyk, Julius. Julius Szymczyk collection, 1970s-2000s. 0.4 linear feet. Warren, Mich., collector of Polish American history. Collected periodicals, news clippings, and ephemera related to Poland, Polish Americans,and Pope John Paul II. Mirlyn Catalog RecordWachtel, Stanley Zenon, 1887-1959. Stanley Zenon Wachtel papers, ca. 1938-ca. 1944 1 folder. Polish language radio broadcaster in Detroit, Michigan. Also known as StanislawWachtel. Essay by Estelle P. Wachtel-Torres on Polish radio broadcasting in pre-World War IIDetroit (2011); biographical information; photographs; and miscellaneous clippings and aletter. Mirlyn Catalog RecordWagner, Hipolit C. Hipolit C. Wagner papers, 1912-2010. 0.3 linear feet. Polish immigrant to the United States in 1913. He returned to Poland in 1919 to serve inthe Polish Army. He returned to Detroit in 1921, and eventually came to own a grocerystore in Hamtramck, Michigan. Wagner was born in 1894 and died in 1960. Diary, 1912-1919, describing his immigration to the United States and return to Poland.Early portions of the diary were transcribed from another volume. The diary has beentranslated and transcribed by Wagner's son Arthur A. Wgner into a volume entitled "MyJourney in the World." The collection also includes a ledger-journal, 1940s-1957, withaccounts of his grocery store, but also containing records of relief parcels sent toEuropean relatives after World War II. Mirlyn Catalog RecordWells, Carlton F. (Carlton Frank), 1898 Papers, 1910-1993 18 linear ft. Professor of English at University of Michigan.13Return to Table of Contents

The Subject Files (correspondence and topical files) include an extensive files relating tohis analysis of new editions of dictionaries, and his participation with the MichiganCommittee of Americans for Poland.Finding AidWilliams, Mennen G., 1911-1988. Gubernatorial papers, 1883-1988 818 linear ft. Michigan Democratic Governor, 1949-1960; Assistant Secretary of State for AfricanAffairs, 1961-1966; U.S. Ambassador to the Philippines, 1967-1969; Michigan SupremeCourt justice, 1970-1987. The records also contain Ethnic Political Files (including Polish), and file on the PolishLegion of American Veterans, including photographs. Finding AidWojsowski, Anthony Papers, 1921-1978, bulk 1920s-1930s, and 1950s. 0.6 linear feet, 1 oversize volume and 1 oversize folder. Socialist Party candidate for Congess from the 1st Michigan District in 1948, and GeneralSecretary of Polish-American Labor Council. He was actively involved with the PolishMechanics Company, Inc., Michigan and Midwest chapters of the American Committeefor the Protection of the Foreign Born, and other Michigan Polish and politicalorganizations. Correspondence, calendars of events, meeting announcements, addresses, financialdocumentation, as well as texts of essays and articles on historical and political subjects,newsletters and other printed material of the Polish-American Labor Council, the PolishPeople's University (Polski Uniwersytet Ludowy), Michigan, Midwest, and out of statechapters of the American Committee for the Protection of the Foreign Born. Also bylaws, correspondence, financials, and legal documentation, as well as lists of names ofstockholders of the Polish Mechanics Company, Inc., and Wojsowski's personal filesrelating to his U.S. legal status and travel abroad. Also included are George G. Sadowski78th U.S. Congress election campaign materials. Finding AidWojtowicz, Harriet, 1914 Papers, 1915-2000, bulk 1938-1988 1 linear foot. Born to Polish immigrants teacher of Spanish in the Detroit Public School System. The Miscellaneous series, which concludes the collection, consists of four foldersdocumenting many aspects of Harriet Wojtowicz's life in Detroit. The first of thesecontains documents and photos related to her early family life, including a number ofpapers, which shed a little light on the story of her parents as Polish Immigrants inDetroit in the early twentieth century. Finding Aid14Return to Table of Contents

Selected Published SourcesIn this section of the guide you will find the selected primary and secondary printed sources heldat the Bentley Library. The primary printed works, which contain evidence left bycontemporaries, include Polish newspapers, periodicals, and various publications oforganizations and societies. The secondary printed sources, primarily books, supplement thelibrary's manuscript and archive collections and provide an overview of the history of PolishAmericans in Michigan.To retrieve additional publications, please search the MIRLYN catalog. Select the "Word(s)anywhere" search field and type "Polish". In the advanced search mode, you may limit yoursearch to books or serials (all) or journals and newspapers only.Published Primary SourcesBusiness / Polish-American Chamber of Commerce Michigan Polish-American Chamber of Commerce Michigan (Detroit, Mich). Bentley owns: scattered issues from July 1960 to April/May 1965The Polish American Chamber of Commerce - Michigan is "a non-profit organizationincorporated in the state of Michigan. The Chamber promotes, assists and strengthenmember businesses, both in domestic and international arenas" (description fromwebsite).Mirlyn Catalog RecordCitizen, The (Hamtramck, Mich.: 1939) Bentley owns: 1972:4:13 , 1984:5:10 , 1980:9:18 1988:10:24 1993:7:1 Newspaper "Serving Hamtramck, north Detroit, Warren and Highland Park since 1934"Mirlyn Catalog RecordDziennik polski The Polish daily. Bentley owns: v.43:no.306 (1947:Dec.24), v.60:no.191 (1964:Sep.25/26), v.61:no.77(1965:Apr.20), v.62:no.138 (1966:July 15/16), v.63:no.104 (1967:May 29), v.66:no.166(1970:Aug.21/22), v.67:no.218 (1971:Nov.5/6), v.83:no.23 (1988:June 3/4), v.83:no.33(1988:Aug.12/13), v.83:no.35 (1988:Aug.26/27), v.83:no.47 (1988:listopada 16/22),v.85:no.8 (1989:lutego 22/28), v.85:no.33 (1989:sierpnia 16/22), v.86:no.16(1990:Apr.18)The "Oldest Polish daily newspaper in the State of Michigan and surrounding territory," 1941 . Newspaper published since 1904.Mirlyn Catalog RecordE-newsletter West Side Detroit Polish American Historical Society (Detroit, Mich.). Bentley owns: v.1 (2006:Nov.)-presentThe West Side Detroit Polish American Historical Society is "an educational, historic,cultural, literary, and scientific organization, acting as a medium for research, public15Return to Table of Contents

education, preservation, dissemination and publication of Polish and Polish Americanhistory and culture, specifically as it pertains to the immigrants who settled on Detroit'swest side and the neighborhoods they built." (description from website).Mirlyn Catalog RecordEaglet, The Polish Genealogical Society of Michigan (Detroit, Mich.). Bentley owns: v.1:no.1 (1981:May)-v.1:no.2 (1981:Sept.), v.2 (1982)-v.15 (1995)Continued as Polish eaglet.The Polish Genealogical Society of Michigan in Detroit is "dedicated to promot

Chapter, the University of Michigan's Polish Club, and the University of Michigan. Since its beginning in 1993, the Festival has promoted Polish culture by offering audiences an opportunity to see a broad range of narrative forms and visual styles present in contemporary Polish cinema, including documentaries, animated shorts, and feature films.