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The Puritan Perspective:Salem, Massachusetts in the 1600s Salem can be found on the East coast of colonial North America. The landscape is dominated by heavy bushland. There is a strong history of frequent and violent encounters with NativeAmerican Indians here. The Indians were angry about the whitesettlers confiscating their land. Therefore, the Puritans had to “stick together” and protect each otherfrom the Indians. They were dedicated to upholding strong Christianvalues. Their religion centred on the Bible and the strict interpretation ofGod‟s word. They believed in sexual repression and all women wereThink & Write!subordinate to men. Women had a low status, especially young, unmarried women. Only a small area was suitable for farming. Thus, it made it difficult forlarge families to survive with each passing generation and squabbles overterritory increased. The Puritans believed that any entertainment or recreation was a “vain,earthly pursuit”. They believed people should live and work for God andthe church. Several ministers had already left Salem as a result of factionalism inthe village.1.2.3.4.5.Do you think this would be a nice place to live?Explain why/why not.What are 5 adjectives you would use todescribe Salem?What are 5 adjectives you would use todescribe the Puritans?Why might have some ministers left Salem?Write a 5-6 sentences describing Salem andthe Puritans during this time. Words youmight like to include: theocracy, factionalism,subordinate, crisis, insular, isolated, narrowminded, authoritarian, dominance, prejudiced.

Salem and belonging ideas“The need to belong is a powerful, fundamental and extremelypervasive motivation.”Salem, Masachusetts during the late 1600s.Read theinformation andquotes about Salemduring the 17thCentury. Why mightthe need to belonghave been soextreme during thistime?Increasing family sizes fuelled disputes over land between neighbours andwithin families, especially on the frontier where the economy was based onfarming.Changes in the weather or blights could easily wipe out a year‟s crop. A farmthat could support an average-sized family could not necessarily support themany families of the next generation. This prompted farmers to pushfarther into the wilderness to find land.The further the farmers pushed, the more they encroached on the land ofthe indigenous people. The Native American Indians were feared anddespised.The Puritans had vowed to create a theocracy in this new land. Religiousfervor added to the tension. There were many pressures on the Puritansduring this time. Loss of crops, livestock, and children, as well as earthquakes and inclement weather, were typically attributed to the wrath of God.

quotes about the puritans’ salem“To the European world the whole province of Salem was a barbaric frontier inhabited by a sect offanatics.who lived a strict and sombre existence.”“Their creed forbade anything that resembled enjoyment. They did not celebrateChristmas, and a holiday fromwork meant only that theymust concentrate on evenmore prayer.”“They believed.they held the candle thatwould light the world. They were a dedicatedfolk, and they had to be to survive in thiscountry.”“The people of Salem developed a theocracy, acombine of state and religious power whosefunction was to keep the community together.”“However, the leaders who vowed to protectbegan to persecute, in their own quest forindividual power and freedom.”“The edge of thewilderness was close by.The American continentstretched endlessly west,and it was full of mystery forthem. It stood, dark andthreatening, over theirshoulders.out of it Indiantribes marauded from time to time,and some people in the town hadlost relatives to these heathen.The Salem folk believed the forestwas the Devil’s home base.the forestwas the last place on earth that was notpaying homage and respect to God.”“Hard work kept the morals of theplace from spoiling, for the peoplewere forced to fight the land likeheroes for every grain of corn, andno man had very much time forfooling around.”“Long held hatreds of neighbourscould now be openly expressed.Vengeance could be taken. Thelust for land could now berealised. One could cry witchagainst his neighbour andend the bickering.Old scores couldbe settled.”

The crucible:act 1 - pages 13-27SETTINGDescribe the setting:character: reverend parrisDescribe Rev. Parris:character: titubaDescribe Tituba:

The crucible:act 1 - pages 13-27SETTINGDescribe the setting:character: reverend parrisDescribe Rev. Parris: small, upper bedroomnarrow windowlightly furnished roomcandle by the bedexposed wooden beams in his mid-40sa widower with no interest in childrenhas a Negro slave: Titubahis house was in the townuncle to Abigail Williamshe appears exasperated, confused, anxious“he cut a villainous path” - very little good was said about himhe believed he was being persecuted wherever he wentworried about the factions in the town: “Abigail, do you understand that Ihave many enemies? There is a faction that is sworn to drive me from mypulpit.”character: titubaDescribe Titbua: black slave from Barbadosuneducated; uses the wrong grammar when she speaks, “Me Betty.”subservient; has no rights

The crucible:act 1 - pages 13-27character: Abigail williamsDescribe Abigail: “strikingly beautiful girl”orphan“endless capacity for dissembling”she is worried and apprehensiveshe quavers as she sitsshe lowers her eyes when Parris is yelling at hertempermentalshe stands on tiptoe, wide-eyed when Proctor arrivesquotes by Abigail williamsList 5 quotes Abigail says: “Uncle, we did dance; let you tell them I confessed it - andI‟ll be whipped if I must be. But they‟re speakin‟ of witchcraft. Betty‟s not witched.”“It were sport, Uncle!”“My name is good in the village! I will not have it said myname is soiled! Goody Proctor is a gossiping liar!”character: Abigail williamsWhat others say about/to Abigail: Parris says; “Child. Sit you down.”Parris: “Your name in the town - it is entirely white, isit not?”Betty: “You drank blod, Abby! You drank a charm tokill John Proctor‟s wife!” “Now look you. All of you. We danced.Let either ofyou breathe a word, or the edge of a word, about theother things, and I will come to you in the black ofsome terrible night and I will bring a pointy reckoningthat will shudder you. And you know I can do it; I sawIndians smash my dear parents‟ heads on the pillownext to mine, and I have seen some reddish work doneat night.”“She hates me, uncle, for I would not be her slave.”

The crucible:act 1 - pages 13-27character: Abigail williamsDescribe Abigail:quotes by Abigail williamsList 5 quotes Abigail says:character: Abigail williamsWhat others say about/to Abigail:

The crucible:act 1 - pages 13-27the putnams Their daughter, Ruth is also sick like Betty.They have buried 7 babies in the past.Thomas hates Rev. Parris.Thomas Putnam is the eldest son of the richest manin the village.Thomas also contested his father‟s will, because hisfather had left a huge amount to Thomas‟ stepbrother.His wife‟s brother-in-law, James Bayley was rejected as Salem‟s minister. A man named GeorgeBurroughs became minister instead. When George‟swife died and he had to borrow money to pay forthe funeral, Thomas Putnam and his brother Johnhad George jailed because of debts the man owed.Thomas has had grievances and gripes against manypeople in Salem. The historical records show hisname many times; he made numerous accusationsagainst people. The court documents show he was awitness often, and he always supported the supernatural testimonies.quotes Mrs Putnam: “They were murdered, Mr Parris!”Thomas: “There is a murdering witch among us,bound to keep herself in the dark. Let your enemies make of it what they will, you cannot blink itmore.”

The crucible:act 1 - pages 13-27the putnamsquotes

The crucible:act 1 - pages 13-27character: mary warrenDescribe Mary: “subservient, naive lonely girl” quotes by mary warrenList 8 quotes Mary says: “I just come from the farm; the whole country‟s talkin‟witchcraft! They‟ll be callin‟ us witches, Abby!”“Witchery‟s a hangin‟ error.”character: mary warrenWhat others say about/to Mary:

The crucible:act 1 - pages 27 character: john proctorDescribe John: a farmer in his mid-30she was smart and had a sharp and biting commentary forpeople he didn‟t like, or people he thought were hypocriteshe wasn‟t easily led or convinced by peoplehe had a powerful body and presencehe was a sinner and he recognised thathe is respected and even feared in Salemhe appears as quietly confident, a hidden force within himquotes by john proctorList 8 quotes John says: “Abby, I never give you hope to wait for me. Put it out ofmind.”“Child. I may think of you softly from time to time. But Iwill cut off my hand before I‟ll ever reach for you again.We never touched, Abby.”character: john proctorWhat others say about/to John: Abigail: “You are no wintry man. I know you, John.” * John: (angered - at himself as well) “You‟ll speak nothingof Elizabeth!”* “Abby, you‟ll put it out of mind. I‟ll not be comin‟ for youmore.”

The crucible:act 1 - pages 27 character: john proctorDescribe John:quotes by john proctorList 8 quotes John says:character: john proctorWhat others say about/to John:

The crucible:act 1 - pages 29-3 - belonging ideasAbigail: “She is blackening my name in the village! She is telling lies about me! She is acold, snivelling woman, and you bend to her!.Ilook for John Proctor that took me from mysleep and put knowledge in my heart!.Youloved me, John Proctor, and whatever sin it is,you love me yet!”Technique & Explanation:John: (angered - at himself as well) “You‟llspeak nothing‟ of Elizabeth!”Technique & Explanation:Abigail: “I have a sense for heat, John, andyours has drawn me to my window, and I haveseen you looking up, burning in yourloneliness.You are no wintry man.”Technique & Explanation:

The crucible:act 1 - pages 29-3 - belonging ideasAbigail: “She is blackening my name in the village! She is telling lies about me! She is acold, snivelling woman, and you bend to her!.Ilook for John Proctor that took me from mysleep and put knowledge in my heart!.Youloved me, John Proctor, and whatever sin it is,you love me yet!”Technique & Explanation:Metaphor: “blackening my name”; “put knowledge in myheart”Emotive language: “you loved me”John: (angered - at himself as well) “You‟llspeak nothing‟ of Elizabeth!”Technique & Explanation:Stage directions: “angered - at himself as well”John is angry that he is a sinner; he has to live with thefrustration that his morality has been compromised; he is nolonger a „pure‟ Christian.Abigail: “I have a sense for heat, John, andyours has drawn me to my window, and I haveseen you looking up, burning in yourloneliness.You are no wintry man.”Technique & Explanation:Symbolism: “burning in your loneliness”Metaphor & parallelism: “no wintry man” - this is paralleledto Elizabeth who‟s “justice could freeze beer” and who is labelled “cold” by Abigail.

TEE Table for Act 1TechniqueMetaphorSymbolismSimile / eEffect

The crucible: act 1 - pages 13-27 the putnams Their daughter, Ruth is also sick like Betty. They have buried 7 babies in the past. Thomas hates Rev. Parris. Thomas Putnam is the eldest son of the richest man in the village. Thomas also contested his father‟s will, because his father had left a huge amount to Thomas‟ step- .