Architectural CurriculumCourse OutlineDESIGN ELEMENTSKurt III.Component Initiatives5IV.Component Course Materials6V.Instructional Strategy7VI.Student Activities7VII.Assessment Method8VIII.Common Essential Learnings9IX.Environment10X.Materials and Resources10XI.Course Text Outline Introduction11 The Process of Design12 Section 1.0: Architectural Design Elements14 Section 2.0: Architectural Design Principles39 Section 3.0: Additional Design Considerations 81XII.New Text Definitions95XIII.Appendix 'A': List of Illustrations96XIV.Appendix 'B': Bibliography1002

Architectural CurriculumCourse OutlineDESIGN ELEMENTSKurt DietrichSK85ON23ABSTRACT:Architectural design takes that which does not yet exist and creates a newreality within our built environment.Figure 1: Neuschwanstein Castle, GermanyThe means for creation lies in the careful trained implementation of designelements. It is only through proper training, experience and ultimately personalinterpretation that successful solutions are provided to satisfy, enhance andvalidate our existence.3

Architectural CurriculumCourse OutlineDESIGN ELEMENTSKurt DietrichSK85ON23PREAMBLE:The challenge of architectural design lies in the task of resolving a widevariety of functional and aesthetic requirements (the problem) into a coherent,satisfying structure (the solution). The effort to resolve the varied requirementsmakes use of specific design elements by assembling the properties of theseelements into a coherent whole.Architectural design is the result of solutions carried out through a designprocess to solve the individual issues while at the same time resolving the globalissue of the building proper. It is an intense and complex mix that involves allsections of this curriculum using the design elements defined herein to fulfill thepurpose of the design.Every design has a purpose or reason for its existence; otherwise therewould be no point in the existence of the solution. The purpose of architecturaldesign is to create the potential built solution to satisfy the purpose or need of theclient. The tools used for the design methodology are these design elements andprinciples.Architectural design provides solutions for the human existence.Theapparent success of good design will be evident in the continued use of thestructure for its intended purpose. In our ever-changing worlds, flexibility is a keycomponent of design, allowing for multiple uses of the same structure over time.The ability to adapt is a key function of human survival; the same can be saidrelative to the survival of our built environment.4

Architectural CurriculumCourse OutlineDESIGN ELEMENTSKurt DietrichSK85ON23COMPONENT INITIATIVE:The intent of this curriculum section is to provide an understanding of designelements and principles relative to their use in the architectural design process. Withinour built environment, there are specific design solutions that can create a reaction(emotional likes or dislikes) relative to our response to the structure.These basicprinciples work together, providing the tools and means through which to create thesolution. No one principle may be solely responsible for the success or failure of aparticular project as they all work in concert.Figure 2: Cenotaph Design (Eduard Boullee)Architectural design principles are not neatly identifiable as "fixed parameters".The reality is, they are flexible. It remains the responsibility of the architect to interpretthe client needs through the use of the intended principles; allowing for variation andabstraction as required to suit the intended solution;Design is a plan for arranging elements in such a way as tobest accomplish a particular purpose.11Charles Eames, as quoted in The Nature of Design, P. 135

Architectural CurriculumCourse OutlineDESIGN ELEMENTSKurt DietrichSK85ON23COMPONENT COURSE MATERIALS:The structure of this curriculum section presents the various elements ofarchitectural design individually. Noted integration between the elements isdiscussed where applicable however, all of these elements and principles worktogether to provide a successful solution.The design elements and principles reviewed provide an outline of theaspects of architectural design. The unity of these items is found in the specifictheory and philosophy of the architect.There are two basic prevalentapproaches to design, these being:1. The whole is the sum of the parts2. The whole is greater than the sum of its parts.The latter approach follows the Gestalt theory wherein a structure willpresent specific properties inherent in its composition which can neither bederived from its parts nor considered simply the sum of its parts.This section explores the specific elements and principles of designrelated to architecture, though the concepts within each element and principlemay be applied to any act of design.6

Architectural CurriculumCourse OutlineDESIGN ELEMENTSKurt DietrichSK85ON23Instructional Strategy Direct Instructiono Lecture series with written material hand-outs.o Slide presentation showing design examples. Indirect Instructiono Lectures from visiting professionals.o Audio-visual presentations on design examples. Independent Studyo Student research on design elements and principles.o Student completion of design folder and illustrations. Interactive Instructiono Design techniques, block studies.o Materials composition and external affects review.Student Activities Oralo Presentation on design studies.o Class discussion related to design effects and environment. Visualo Graphic and physical productiono Photographic and contextual studies. Kinesthetico Production of graphic and block studies. Writteno Report preparation/summary of design studies.7

Architectural CurriculumCourse OutlineKurt DietrichSK85ON23DESIGN ELEMENTSAssessment Method Pencil and Paper Methodo Written testing on elements, principles and definitions.o Graphic submission in design analysis. Performance Assessmentso Participation in class activities.o Presentation assessment relative to report and analysis studies.o Participation on group and assigned activities. Personal Assessmentso o Greater understanding of the built environment.Figure 3: Goetheanum Boiler House, Dornach, Switzerland8relativeto

Architectural CurriculumCourse OutlineDESIGN ELEMENTSKurt DietrichSK85ON23Common Essential Learnings Communicationo New terminology and definitionso Enhancement of non-verbal communication skills. Creative and Critical Thinkingo Understanding of essential design componentso Understanding of analysis and assessment of design solutions. Independent Learningo Research, graphic assignment, community studies.o Independent study of established design concepts and applications. Numeracyo Mathematical applications of design elements and relationships(scale and proportion).o Application of geometric principles. Technological Literacyo Understanding of composition elements, materials and designterminology (i.e.: proximity, connection, context) Personal Social Values and Skillso Enhanced knowledge base relative to the built environment.o Awareness of environment and context relative to design solutions.o Understanding of cultural influences relative to architectural design.9

Architectural CurriculumCourse OutlineDESIGN ELEMENTSKurt DietrichSK85ON23Environment Classroom Climateo Visual access for lecture and presentation.o Natural lighting, display lightingo Focal point classroom setting, flexible lab setting. Physical Settingo Student desks / writing stations for lecture areas.o Open areas for movement in lab to allow for group activity.o Drawing or assembly stations in lab for graphic production. Flexible Student Groupingso Large area for group assignments.o Research areas for student work projects. Extensions Beyond Classroom Settingso External site trips for community study.o Exterior tours around building area for local environment study. Community Experienceso Site trips for community study.o Community analysis for graphic production studies.Materials / Resources Required In-Room Supplieso Audio-visual resources.o Graphic production materials.o Writing / display surfaces.o Production stations.o Photography tools. External supplieso Access to community environments.o Photography equipment.10

Architectural CurriculumCourse OutlineDESIGN ELEMENTSKurt DietrichSK85ON23IntroductionDesign is a systematic process of organization and interpretation. Thedesire for order within our environment is a basic human characteristic. Thisprocess towards order can be traced in almost every cultural history whereinlegend and myth detail the creation of our world, gods and civilization from theorigins of chaos.The assembly of order continues to dominate environmental designthrough the design of civilizations, civic planning, environmental controls and landmanagement. Order can be found within smaller designations such as thegrouping of like-minded persons into guilds, civic organization and clubs.Architectural design is a component of the desire for order in the mannerby which we choose to control our living environment; providing space for desiredactivities and establishing a place within the world itself.Architectural design is the method of organizing materials and forms in aspecific way to satisfy a defined purpose. Two key aspects of humaninvolvement are contained in the design process. The first aspect relates to thearchitect, the second aspect relates to the user or participant of the solution.The architect contributes to the process of creation through interpretationof the problem, inspiration in the design solution and originality stemming frompersonal style which defines the work as individual and unique. The user orparticipant contributes to the process by provision of a clearly defined set ofneeds as well as through the use of the completed structure, recognizing theaspects of architectural design that contribute to the success of the solution.This curriculum section will provide intended users/participants with theopportunity to better understand, read and experience architectural design aswell as participate in the design process.11

Architectural CurriculumCourse OutlineDESIGN ELEMENTSKurt DietrichSK85ON23The Process of DesignArchitectural design as a conscious act begins with a level of organization.The specific steps in the order of this organization vary on a personal level witheach individual, however a general outline for the process involves: Definition of the project Analysis of the possibilities Definition of the specific problem Examination of the alternatives Selection of characteristics Production of the solution Clarifications/revisions to provide a final result.The tools and devices used in the process of architectural design can bedefined as either design elements or design principles. Design elements arethose which can be defined as specific "parts" of a design solution. Designprinciples are those items which influence, direct or resolve the overallcomposition of the design elements.Architectural design elements include: Materials Colour Line Shape Mass Space Texture12

Architectural CurriculumCourse OutlineKurt DietrichSK85ON23DESIGN ELEMENTSArchitectural design principles include: Balance Imagery Rhythm Connection Meaning Scale Contrast Symbolism Unity Emphasis Pattern Variety Form Placement/Proximity Grouping ProportionAs was noted earlier, these elements and principles work together toprovide a final solution according to their respective influences. The impact of thefinal solution will depend as much on the individual elements and materials as itwill on the manner by which the architect applies specific principles to thesolution.Architectural design as a creative artistic act sometimes requires defianceof established or accepted principles in order to achieve the desired result. Theseelements and principles noted are guidelines which, when used properly, mayprovide a satisfying result but they are neither flawless nor complete. The skill ofthe architect is found in the manner by which they apply aspects of designcombined with artistic sensibility and vision. Application without interpretation orthe personal sense of design is building, not architecture.In the same way as the artist, trained in the basics of production anddesign, interprets to produce art, so the architect interprets to produce design. Itis an interesting note that only a few persons untrained will attempt to be artists(painters, sculptor, mixed-media), yet a multitude of persons, having read a bookor seen the latest design show, will provide architectural experience freely.13

Architectural CurriculumCourse OutlineKurt DietrichSK85ON23DESIGN ELEMENTSSection 1.0: Architectural Design ElementsArchitectural design elements include: Materials Mass Colour Space Line Texture ShapeThough these elements are reviewed independently, it should beremembered that they are inherently linked, acting on and contributing to eachother's influence in the design solution.1.1MaterialsThe use of materials in architectural design has evolved along with thetechnology used to produce them. Architectural forms have also evolved, makingthe most out of the new materials and compositions; in some cases, even testingtheir limits.Early materials consisted of available rock, hides and minor woodelements. Design at the time made use of these elements in a fashion suitable tothe nomadic lifestyle.14

Architectural CurriculumCourse OutlineDESIGN ELEMENTSKurt DietrichSK85ON23Civilizations evolved, allowing for the increased mining of stone, productionof brick and the use of cement paste and plaster. Architectural design evolved tomake the best use of these available materials, creating new methods (archesa