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Overview of CA’s New Linuxon System z ManagementOfferings and z/VM ProductsUpdateMarch 13, 2012 - SHARE Session 10336Brian Jagos & Summer SpauldingCA Technologies

AbstractIn this session, we will review the CA Linux on System z managementsuite that was announced in August 2011 and will show how theseproducts can be used in conjunction with CA’s existing VM solutionsto provide holistic monitoring, management, and troubleshooting ofyour Linux on System z and z/VM environments. We will also coverrecent enhancements to the CA VM product suite and will share CA’sroadmap for longer-term features and enhancements.1Copyright 2012 CA. All rights reserved.

Agenda— Review of CA offerings for Linux on System z Management— Practical Example using zVPS Performance Suite, UPSTREAM forLinux on System z, and CA VM:Manager— CA z/VM Product Suite Update and Roadmap— Questions2Copyright 2012 CA. All rights reserved.

CA Solutions for Linux on System zstrategySecureAgile Simplify the management andsecurity of Linux on System zwith a comprehensive andintegrated management suite Make Linux on System z a costeffective choice for customersOptimized4Copyright 2012 CA. All rights reserved. Agility delivered - allow clientsto quickly deliver capacity ondemand with Linux on System z

CA Solutions for Linux on System zoverview— Product enhancements and strategic partnerships will help youreduce costs, improve performance and more efficiently manageLinux on System z Current releases of CA VM:Manager Suite for Linux on System z provide variousfeature enhancements including support for managing tapes for Linux on Systemz, and others that help customers install, deploy, and service their CA z/VMproducts more effectively and quickly Velocity Software zVPS Performance Suite complements CA solutions with realtime access to detail data from z/VM and Linux on System z platforms foroptimized performance, capacity planning and cost chargeback INNOVATION Data Processing UPSTREAM for Linux on System z andUPSTREAM for z/OS UNIX extend CA data protection capabilities with file levelbackup for Linux on System z and z/OS UNIX files CA Mainframe Connector for Linux on System z allows CA z/OS-basedautomation products to receive event information from Linux on System zenvironments— Combined, these solutions will help remove barriers and reduce time,cost and risk of consolidating workloads to Linux on System z5Copyright 2012 CA. All rights reserved.

Velocity zVPS Performance Suiteoptimize z/VM and Linux on System performancePerformance AnalysisBest in classperformance managementfor Linux on System z Provides real-time metrics on all facets of performance for allservers including z/VM, Linux on System z and distributedservers Enables immediate analysis of real-time problemsOperational Alerting Optimize operations to meet our SLA’s. Immediately detect and report performance and capacity issues.Combinemulti-platform systemmanagement expertisefrom CA TechnologiesCapacity Planning with the performancemeasurement expertisefrom Velocity SoftwareChargeback and Accounting6 Prevent costly hardware upgrades and data center outages. Project capacity requirements of future workloads withcomprehensive trend data.Copyright 2012 CA. All rights reserved. Transition IT from a cost center to a profit center. Chargeback Linux on System z resource usage to applicablebusiness or agency with detailed and accurate usage data.

Velocity Software zVPS Performance ManagementSuiteThe Differentiators— Comprehensive Data Collection z/VM Subsystems (processor, storage, I/O, paging) z/VM Guest resources Linux on System z – disk, storage, processorLinux on System zLinuxLinux Networked servers (Linux, Unix, Windows) Linux applicationsLinuxLinuxLinuxz/VMSystem z— High data Capture Rate Critical for accurate analysis, reporting, and accounting— Uses existing Linux on System z SNMPD process for data capture Eliminates overhead and maintenance of new performance agent7Copyright 2012 CA. All rights reserved.

Velocity zVPS Performance Suitesolution componentszMONTMHistorical performance reporting provides in-depth postanalysis and capacity planningTMzMAPzTCPNetwork performance monitor for distributed servers,Linux networks and z/VMTMTMzPRO PortalTMzWRITEzVWS8TMReal-time graphical display of up-to-the-minuteperformance informationWeb-based interface for z/VM and Linux on System zTMperformance management. Also provides zVPS productadministrationData collection facility that reduces monitor data withoutlosing information relevant to proper performance analysisHigh-speed web server for optimum z/VM performanceand reduced CPU overheadCopyright 2012 CA. All rights reserved.

zVPS Performance SuitearchitectureTCPIPSNMP/MIB IIPortalzTCPLINUXSNMP/Host MibsVM CP MonitorzWritePDBWeb DisplayszVWSReal-Time DisplayszMONReportszMAP9Copyright 2012 CA. All rights reserved.

UPSTREAM for Linux on System zbest-in-class data protection Fast, scalable and highly reliable backupand recovery for Linux on System zBusinessContinuity Only solution that will backup up to z/OS Leverage existing z/OS skills andinfrastructure for operational efficiency Rely on proven z/OS disaster recoverystrengths10Copyright 2012 CA. All rights reserved.Peace ofMind

comprehensive backup and recovery for Linux on System zUPSTREAM for Linux on System z— Provides continuous business operation forLinux on System z applications— Extends your investments in existingmainframe resources: CPU, tapes, virtual tape,tape drives, staff— Protects software investment by utilizingexisting z/OS management software— Extends mainframe security and automatedoperations to Linux on System z dataprotection— Provides backup and recovery for very largeamounts of data without negatively impactingcorporate network performance— File level backups directly to z/OS mainframetape or DASD11Copyright 2012 CA. All rights reserved.

UPSTREAM for Linux on System zarchitectureSystem zUPSTREAM Linux onSystem z ClientsUPSTREAM agents run onLinux servers to protect LinuxdataCopyright 2012 CA. All rights reserved.LinuxLinuxLinuxUPSTREAMLinuxLinuxonLinux LinuxLinuxLinuxSystemLinux zClientsz/OS12Linuxz/VMLinux Data

UPSTREAM for Linux on System zarchitectureSystem zUPSTREAM z/OS StorageServerUPSTREAM is only dataprotection solution thatprovides backup to z/OSstorage serverEnabling backup toz/OS tape or diskFor increased reliabilityand compliance13Copyright 2012 CA. All rights nuxLinuxUPSTREAMLinuxLinuxonLinux LinuxLinuxLinuxSystemLinux zClientsLinux Dataz/VMz/OSDiskz/OSTapeUPSTREAM Backups

UPSTREAM for Linux on System zinnovative high performance data protectionSystem zUPSTREAM exploitsHiperSocket TechnologyTakes backup and recoveryoff corporate networkProtect very large amountsof data without negativelyimpacting corporatecommunications or rz/OSLinuxLinuxLinuxLinuxUPSTREAMLinuxLinuxonLinux LinuxLinuxLinuxSystemLinux zClientsLinux Dataz/VMz/OSDiskz/OSTapeUPSTREAM Backups14Copyright 2012 CA. All rights reserved.

UPSTREAM for z/OS UNIXstorage backup for z/OS UNIX System Services (USS) Enables centralized storagemanagement of hybridmainframe environments Provides ad hoc and automated,unattended backup/restore, filetransfer and storagemanagement operations Further leverage strengths ofz/OS Unix to manage Webserving, WebSphere, LotusDomino15Copyright 2012 CA. All rights reserved.Complementarystorage backupsolution that issold separatelyUPSTREAMforz/OS UNIXFile level backup and recovery forZFS/HFS files underUnix System Services for z/OS

CA Mainframe Connector for Linux on System zCross-platform automation and integrated message handling for Linux on System z— Connector for Linux on System z connects CA SOLVE:OperationsAutomation with z/VM systems and their z/Linux guests via IPConnections Linux on System z and z/VM unsolicited event traffic is normalizedand merged with z/OS console messages in CA SOLVE:OperationsAutomation Linux on System z and z/VM command-and-response functions areavailable and behave like a specialized z/OS system command— Available with CA SOLVE:Operations Automation R11.9 – NOCHARGE!— Planned availability with CA OPS/MVS Event Managementand Automation release targeted for mid-201216Copyright 2012 CA. All rights reserved.

CA Mainframe Connector for Linux on System z

Practical ExampleWeb DB process fails on LINUX123 after overnight MYSQLupgrade and resolution is to back out upgrade— UPSTREAM for Linux on Z is used for server back ups Full Weekly; daily incremental backups MYSQL DB backup script (PREPROCESS) defined in UPSTREAM Backuppolicies for Preprocessing mysqldump –uroot –plinux123 winestore –x /DBbackup/winestore backup.sql Restore performed from local server dump file – retain one copy onserver MYSQLD startup script modified to generate message to operator onsuccessful start18Copyright 2012 CA. All rights reserved.

Practical ExampleScenario – Monitoring and Automation— VM:Operator HOLDMSG table used for zVPS Alerts SENDMAIL exec triggered by VPSE PRER custom alert SECUSER Windows for each Linux on System z serverTM— zVPSPerformance Suite Customized alerts implemented via zMON MONALERT file ZALERT service machine running to process zMON alertsTM zVPS MONALERT file includes alert for process monitoring(snmpd.conf proc statement)19Copyright 2012 CA. All rights reserved.

SNMPD Configuration: MYSQLD is defined onserver as a monitored process

zMON customized alert file PRER alert is set to monitor processes running onLinux servers Alert action defined to send operator message,using unique identifiers for LEVEL and TYPE

zVPS VPSE PRER alert indicatingmysqld process down – TriggersVM:OPERATOR Sendmail script

WEB DB Server – DB Restore with UPSTREAMVM:Operator Automation: Alert generates email to SupportFrom: [email protected] [mailto:[email protected]]Sent: Thursday, July 28, 2011 09:40 AMTo: MYSQLD ONCALLSubject: VPSE PRER LINUX123 mysqld MISSINGzVPS alert has been received (noted in SUBJECT) and needs immediate attention.Contact Operations support and Service Desk for assistance or when condition hasbeen corrected.CA VM:Operator23Copyright 2012 CA. All rights reserved.

VM:Operator HOLDMSG Alert held untilsubsequent message receivedindicating mysqld is up

UPSTREAM Director Java InterfaceSet profile to WEB DB ServerLINUX123

UPSTREAM Director Java Interface

UPSTREAM Director Java Interface

UPSTREAM Director Java Interface

UPSTREAM Director Java Interface

UPSTREAM Director Java InterfaceNote Modified date on file

UPSTREAM Director Java Interface

UPSTREAM Director Java Interface

UPSTREAM Director Java InterfaceNon-platform specific restoreoptions

Specify any pre or postprocessing that you desire (i.e.,shutdown application or DB)

UPSTREAM Director Java InterfaceUNIX/LINUX specific restoreoptions

UPSTREAM Director Java Interface

From VM:Operator LINUX123 SECUSER View,confirm restored file date matches modified datereported by UPSTREAM Director

MYSQLD process is restarted

Message received after mysqld restarted –Clears HELD VPS alert in VM:Operator

The CA Solution PortfolioCA VM:SecureCA VM:DirectorCA VM:ArchiverCA ESP Workload AutomationCA Autosys Workload AutomationCA Universal Job Management(Agents)CA Wily ApplicationPerformance ManagementApplicationPerformanceManagementCA SiteMinder Web AccessCA Access ControlCA Top Secret for z/VMCA ACF2 for z/VMCA VM:SecureSecurityCA VM:BackupCA VM:TapeINNOVATIONDataData ProcessingProtectionUPSTREAM WorkloadAutomationCA VM:Manager Suitefor Linux on System zLinux on System zz/VMz/VMManagement40Linux right 2012 CA. All rights reserved.z/OSPAM Serverfor TSS andACF2CA tionLinuxCA VM:Operator

CA z/VM Product Suite Update andRoadmap

CA VM:Manager Suite for Linux on System zCurrent releases of CA z/VM products simplify environmentSecurityOperations ManagementCA Top Secret for z/VMCA ACF2 for z/VMCA VM:SecureDisk Storage AssetsCA VM:Account CA VM:Director Linux on System zLinuxLinuxLinuxLinuxz/VMSystem zStorage Backup/RecoveryCA VM:Backup CA VM:ArchiverResource ChargebackCA VM:Account Copyright 2012 CA. All rights reserved.ProvisioningCA VM:Director CA VM:SecureCA VM:Archiver Tape ManagementPerformance TuningCA Explore PerformanceManagement for z/VMCA VM:Operator 42LinuxCA VM:Operator CA VM:Schedule CA VM:Spool CA VM:Sort CA VM:Batch CA VM:Tape CA Dynam/T for z/VM

CA z/VM solutions and Mainframe 2.0reduce complexity – speed implementationstandardize on IBM VMSES/E to install and service allCA z/VM products industry standard procedures reduce “experience pool”requirements consistent look and feel enables products to be managedwithout a significant skills investment common procedures for all products reduce complexity,speed implementationCA Mainframe VM Product Manager install and maintain products in single library, deploywherever needed automatic provisioning of servers with CA VM:Secure or CAVM:Director43Copyright 2012 CA. All rights reserved.

infrastructure enhancementscommon code infrastructureimprovements: additional products ported toexploit CA VM CommonNucleus collection of servicesand routines single z/VM object directoryreader program called by allproducts requiring directorylook-up services44Copyright 2012 CA. All rights reserved.using common codeacross products enablesCA Technologies todeliver new features,enhancements, andproblem solutions morequickly and efficiently

CA VM:Tape Linux on System z Interfacefeatures— Exploit VM:Tape functionality in Linux applications— Mount tape from Linux on System z— Hardware support via IBM Linux kernel driver— TCP/IP used for Linux to VM:Tape communication— Shipped in standard RPM package— Centralized tape management on Linux guest that does not exposesensitive interfaces (such as VMCP) to regular users— Regular (non root) users are able to mount tapes— After successful mount there are corresponding devices in /dev ownedby the user who issued the mount— Provides authorization handling for both mounted and saved tapes45Copyright 2012 CA. All rights reserved.

Additional CA VM:Tape enhancementsMOUNT command enhancementCA VM:Tape— Use new user exit USREXIT9 to retrieve information about tape drive— Enables operators to make decisions about automation and actionroutinesMOUNT and CANCEL message enhancements— Real device address added to messages 0014I, 0051T, 0100I to enhance their usefor automation purposesVMTAPE QUERY enhancements— QUERY VOLUME command displays additional information about tapes— Display information about deleted tapes and tapes not in TMC if maintained in IBMor STK robotic tape subsystemQUERY command authorization change— OPERATOR authorization no longer required for QUERY, QUERY TAPES, and QUERYREQUESTS— Users can obtain information about pending MOUNT and ALLOCATION requests46Copyright 2012 CA. All rights reserved.

additional CA VM:Manager Suite enhancementsCA VM:AccountCA VM:AccountCA VM:Archiver— Toleration support for CPU type codes— Cost table support for switch class devicesCA VM:Archiver— SYSID resolution— Additional linemode command— Additional parameters passed to VMAEXIT1CA VM:Backup— Option EDRSUP default set to ON— CA VM:Backup HiDRO Feature encryption supportCA VM:BackupCA VM:ScheduleCA VM:Schedule— Passphrase and DMSPASS/DMSPWCHK support enablesz/VM logon password phrases of up to 200 charactersCA Explore Performance Management for z/VM— Data collection via IBM standard monitor records47Copyright 2012 CA. All rights reserved.CA ExplorePerformanceManagementfor z/VM

SSI Support48Copyright 2012 CA. All rights reserved.

CA VM:Secure Release 2.9 and 3.0 enhancementsVMCIPHER and file encrypting logic and configuration of RC2 encryption removed— ability to use obsolete encryption algorithms is removed— promotes use of stronger encryption algorithms to improvesecurity for sensitive dataCA VM:Secure— capability to encrypt data using DES, Triple DES, and AES isretainedVLAN rules support— support added for controlling access to Guest LANs and virtual switches— access requests made explicitly by issuing the COUPLE command or implicitly bydefining a value for the LAN operand on a NICDEF CP Directory statement— COUPLE rule definition replaces GRANT operand on a SET VSWITCH or SET LANcommand— For a VLAN-aware virtual switch, set of VLAN ID values may be defined to restrictaccess to specified IEEE VLANs— COUPLE RULE option grants PROMISCUOUS mode access for special purposenetwork debugging programs49Copyright 2012 CA. All rights reserved.

CA VM:Secure Release 2.9 and 3.0 enhancementsNew Commands –The following commands are new and support managing thedirectory in an SSI environment. SUBCONFIG Use the SUBCONFIG command from an IDENTITY user to bring up a screenpresenting the names of all SUBCONFIG entries, which are part of the uservirtual machine definition. Users can modify their SUBCONFIG entries fromthis screen. CHGENTRY Use the CHGENTRY command to convert a USER directory entry into anIDENTITY entry or an IDENTITY entry into a USER entry. CMD Use the CMD command to route another command to an Agentproduct server in a Single System Image environment. The routedcommand will execute on the specified Agent server. TAKEOVER The TAKEOVER command converts one of the Agent product servers into aMaster product server.50Copyright 2012 CA. All rights reserved.CA VM:Secure

CA VM:Secure Release 2.9 and 3.0 enhancementsNew Configuration RecordThe following PRODUCT CONFIG record is new and supports CAVM:Secure in an SSI environment. SSINODE Use the SSINODE record to identify the names of members of a Single SystemImage complex, and to specify that the Object Directory is to be compiled inan SSI-Ready format.New UtilityThe SSIENAB EXEC is a new utility that converts all BUILD statementsin the source directory from BUILD ON * to BUILD ON“membername”. This utility is used when converting from a NONSSI environment to a SSI environment.51Copyright 2012 CA. All rights reserved.CA VM:Secure

CA VM:Secure Release 2.9 and 3.0 enhancementsChanges to Existing Features— The ADDENTRY command syntax has been changed tosupport the addition of a SUBCONFIG into the directory.— The QUERY command has been updated to add an SSIparameter52Copyright 2012 CA. All rights reserved.CA VM:Secure

CA VM:Director 3.0 enhancementsNew CommandsThe following commands are new and support managing thedirectory in an SSI environment. SUBCONFIG Use the SUBCONFIG command from an IDENTITY user to bring up a screenpresenting the names of all SUBCONFIG entries, which are part of the uservirtual machine definition. Users can modify their SUBCONFIG entries fromthis screen. CHGENTRY Use the CHGENTRY command to convert a USER directory entry into anIDENTITY entry or an IDENTITY entry into a USER entry. CMD Use the CMD command to route another command to an Agentproduct server in a Single System Image environment. The routedcommand will execute on the specified Agent server. TAKEOVER The TAKEOVER command converts one of the Agent product servers into aMaster product server.53Copyright 2012 CA. All rights reserved.CA VM:Director

CA VM:Director 3.0 enhancementsNew Configuration RecordThe following PRODUCT CONFIG record is new and supportsCA VM:Secure in an SSI environment. SSINODE Use the SSINODE record to identify the names of members of aSingle System Image complex, and to specify that the ObjectDirectory is to be compiled in an SSI-Ready format.New UtilityThe SSIENAB EXEC is a new utility that converts all BUILD statementsin the source directory from BUILD ON * to BUILD ON“membername”. This utility is used when converting from a NONSSI environment to a SSI environment.54Copyright 2012 CA. All rights reserved.CA VM:Director

CA VM:Director 3.0 enhancementsChanges to Existing Features— The ADDENTRY command syntax has been changed to supportthe addition of a SUBCONFIG into the directory.— The QUERY command has been updated to add an SSI parameter55Copyright 2012 CA. All rights reserved.CA VM:Director

CA VM:Spool Version 1.8 enhancementsSingle System Image Support CA VM:Spool can run in an SSI complex. We recommend all CAVM:Spool service virtual machines to be installed as an IDENTITYuser on each member of the complex where CA VM:Spoolfunctionality is required. Spool files from other systems can beaccessed from CA VM:Spool screens as long as the user that thespool files belong to is logged on the system. However, during the backup and accounting operations, the CAVM:Spool service virtual machine only works with spool files thatoriginated on the system where the service virtual machine runs.56Copyright 2012 CA. All rights reserved.CA VM:Spool

CA VM:Spool Version 1.8 enhancementsNew Close Date and Close Time Selection Criteria CA VM:Spool r1.6 SP3 introduces two new spool file selectioncriteria to VM:Spool, Close Date and Close Time, representing thedate and time a spool file was closed. Close Date and Close Time cannow be used as criterion for listing, purging, sorting, cataloging,manipulating, backing-up, and restoring spool files. As a result of adding Close Date and Close Time criteria the followingadditions have been made: Two new fields, Close Dt and Close Tm, have been added to theSPOOLIST, SPOOLALL, SPOOLSEL, and SELECTS screens. Two new REXX variables, vml.closedt and vml.closetm, have beenadded to the variable list used with the GETLINE macro primitiveand can now be specified in VM:Spool user macros. Two new tokens, closedate and closetime, have been added for usewith the Purge User Exit. In addition, for clarification, column labels for open date and opentime have been changed from Date and Time to Open Dt and OpenTm, respectively.57Copyright 2012 CA. All rights reserved.CA VM:Spool

CA VM:Spool Version 1.8 enhancementsValues of Close Date and Close Time If a spool file is open, the Close Dt and Close Tm values will displayas blanks. When CA VM:Spool is reading the CP spool file blocks duringSPOOLIST, SPOOLALL, and backup processing of spool files that arecurrently on the system, it is assumed that spool files having a CloseDate and Close Time of binary zeros were open at the time of asystem crash. These spool files will acquire the last IPL date and timeas their Close Date and Time. CA VM:Spool does not overwrite thisinformation in CP's spool file blocks. For example, if DISKACNT hasspool files open at a time the system crashes, after the system is reIPLed a list of those files will show the last IPL date and time as theirclose date and time. In addition, the Close Date and Close Time forthose files will be written as the last IPL date and time in the catalogduring backup processing.58Copyright 2012 CA. All rights reserved.CA VM:Spool

CA VM:Spool Version 1.8 enhancementsLogical Record Length (LRECL) Changes Logical record length (LRECL) of several VM:Spool system files havebeen increased. FileOld LRECLNew LRECL CATALOG160176 REQACTIV160176 REQUESTS160176 SELECTS136152 SNAPSHOT16017659Copyright 2012 CA. All rights reserved.CA VM:Spool

CA VM:Spool w VSEG Version 1.7 enhancementsSingle System Image Support CA VM:Spool V/SEG-PLUS Feature can run in an SSI complex. We recommendall V/SEG-PLUS service virtual machines to be installed as an IDENTITY user oneach member of the complex where V/SEG functionality is required. Spoolfiles from other systems can be accessed from V/SEG screens as long as theuser that the spool files belong to is logged on the system.Linux and DCSS If a Linux guest uses discontiguous saved segments (DCSSs) and is to berelocated to another member of the SSI complex the same DCSS must exist onthat system otherwise live guest relocation is not possible. The SPDISK utilityof V/SEG-PLUS can be used to back up a DCSS used by Linux and restore it onanother SSI member.The UNPURGER Service Virtual Machine SSI copy files can now be unpurged. To support this feature an UNPURGERSVM must be running on all members of the SSI complex. When an SSI copyfile is purged it is transferred to the UNPURGER SVM on the SSI memberwhere the spool file originated from. Spool files that were unpurged can onlybe restored on their respective system of origin.60Copyright 2012 CA. All rights reserved.CA VM:Spool w VSEG

Roadmap Overview— Day One support for future z/VM and Linux on System zdistributions— Continued exploitation of z/VM Single System Image— Deliver additional products in IBM VMSES/E format insupport of CA’s Next-Generation MainframeManagement strategy CA Dynam/T Tape Management for z/VM CA VM:XMENU CA VTERM CA Top Secret and CA ACF2— Deliver enhancements to improve Linux guestmanagement and as a foundation for Cloud solutions— Deliver enhancements in response to customer demand61Copyright 2012 CA. All rights reserved.

Improve capability to manage Linux on System zguests— Integration of zVPS and UPSTREAM forLinux on System z with CA VM:ManagerSuite to enhance management of z/VMand Linux on System z environments modernize the user interfaces simplify reporting capabilities Automate and simplify Linux on System zprovisioning— CA VM:Operator enhancements toallow simpler and more secureautomated management of Linux onSystem z guests62Copyright 2012 CA. All rights reserved.

Questions ?63Copyright 2012 CA. All rights reserved.

Interested in Seeing More?Join us at the CA Technologies Booth in the ShareTechnology Exchange for a closer look!Also, visit the CA Linux Management for Mainframeweb portal right 2012 CA. All rights reserved.

Contact InformationBrian JagosPrincipal ConsultantCA TechnologiesE-mail: [email protected]: 631-342-6523Cell: 516-749-665465Copyright 2012 CA. All rights reserved.Summer SpauldingSr Principal Engineering Services ArchitectCA TechnologiesE-mail: [email protected]: 214-473-1641Cell: 214-213-9650

Network performance monitor for distributed servers, Linux networks and z/VM zPRO TMPortal Web-based interface for z/VM and Linux on System z performance management. Also provides zVPS product administration zWRITETM Data collection facility that reduces monitor data without losing information relevant to proper performance analysis zVWSTM