PREFACERectors, as Heads of School, are expected to exemplify good leadership andmanagement techniques, very often, in conditions of uncertainty.The social system of the school comprising staff, students as well as theCommunity of parents at large, looks up to the Rector for leadership and aninclusive atmosphere.While the School Development Plan is available in all institutionsas an indication of the direction to follow, the Rector needs support and resources to make criticaldecisions on a day-to-day basis. These decisions may well relate to pedagogical matters as much as todisciplinary cases. Nevertheless, it is also vital to understand that a Head of School cannot do it alone. He/She will have to resort to some delegation of responsibility and especially know when and how to do itThis need for support to the on-site Rectors prompted me to see to it that my Ministry comes up with a referencedocument covering broad areas of responsibility of Heads of State Secondary Schools while keeping a balancebetween activities intended to maintain the stability of the school as a viable essential educational organisationand the area in which Rectors may encourage meaningful participation of school and community actors aiming atnurturing a successful institutional identity.My earnest wish is that Rectors make the best use of this tool and help translate our vision of Quality Educationfor All into reality.Dr V K BUNWAREEMinister of Education, Culture & Human Resources4ii

FOREWORDSince 2005, when the new government took office and spelt out its vision of a World Class Quality Education forAll, the need for a new School Management Manual to support the vision was urgently felt.Consequently, the School Management Directorate took the initiative of coming up with this Manual whichis expected to be a precious guide to Heads of State Secondary Schools in the effective discharge of theirmanagerial responsibilities.The Manual is based on existing policies and circulars. However, it does not claim to be an exhaustive documenton “do’s” and “don’ts” since each school has its own specificities and may require a different approach whendealing with a particular problem. It has also to be pointed out that the gender aspect has at no time beenoverlooked and the reader will understand that the choice of the generic “he” has been made only for the sakeof convenience.The School Management Directorate would like to place on record the invaluable support and contribution ofthe Ag. Assistant Director of the Division as well as the precious inputs of Pedagogical Inspectors and of somepractising Rectors.During times of great change, leadership is critically important and it is the earnest hope of the Ministry ofEducation, Culture and Human Resources that this Manual proves to be a useful tool in the hands of our schoolleaders. It is hoped that the Manual helps our Rectors acquire procedural knowledge, hone their skills and, aboveall, create an atmosphere which is conducive to the teaching learning process, especially at a time when ourschools are confronted with several difficult administrative issues.R. FoondunDirectorSchool Management Divisioniii5

CHAPTER 1 : THE ORGANISATION STRUCTUREThe school operates as part of the parent organisation which is the Ministry of Education, Culture & HumanResources. It is important for the Rector to have an understanding of the functioning of the structure so thatactions at the level of the school fit harmoniously into the objectives of the whole organisation. In line with theProgramme-Based Budget (PBB), the Rector has a key role in ensuring that objectives, outputs and set PerformanceIndicators are achieved.1.1. MANAGEMENT STRUCTURE OF THE MINISTRYThe Ministry functions with a central structure at its Headquarters having the responsibility of Education andHuman Resources at the national level, along with decentralised structures or Zone Directorates set up to manageeducation in the four geographical zones of education.1.1.1. Ministry’s HeadquartersnThe Minister of Education & Human Resources is committed to realising Government’s vision of educationand carrying out, with the support of the Ministry, the fundamental reforms that will implement thatvision.nThe Ministry is headed by the Senior Chief Executive. Next to him are the Permanent Secretaries (PS)below whom, on the one side are the Administrative Cadre and on the other side, the Technical cadre.nThe Administrative Cadre comprises the Principal Assistant Secretaries (PAS) and the Assistant Secretaries(AS) whereas the Technical Cadre consists of the Chief Technical Officer (CTO), Directors, AssistantDirectors (AD) and Administrators (Adm.). The Chief Technical Officer is the Head of the Technical Cadreand reports directly to the Permanent Secretary.nWith the present structure, responsibilities at the central headquarters level are shared among sevenDivisions1 as follows:lCo-curricular and Extra-curricular Projects and ActivitieslCurriculum Development and EvaluationlHuman Resource Management and DevelopmentlInternational Relations and Educational ReformslPlanning, Procurement and InfrastructurelPost-Secondary, Tertiary and Vocational TraininglSchool ManagementnEach of the above Divisions is headed by a Director who is helped in his tasks by an Assistant Directorand Administrators. Administrative support is provided to the divisions by Principal Assistant Secretariesand Assistant Secretaries.nVarious other units provide support for the general administration of the Ministry and for services.1 Modifications may be brought as and when required to the structure and Rectors would be informed accordingly.1

Figure 1: Organisational Chart at Ministry’s Head Quarters2

Figure 2: Organisational Chart: Zone Directorates and Schools1.1.2. The Zone DirectoratesnAt the regional decentralised level, are the four Zone Directorates, each headed by a Director who, ashis colleagues Directors at Headquarters, reports to the Chief Technical Officer (CTO). Directors posted atHeadquarters are required to liaise with the Zone Directorates for the smooth running of all activities.nThe Zone Director is assisted by an Assistant Director and by Administrators.nThe Directorates are responsible for the management of all matters pertaining to education in theirrespective Zone and, especially, for the smooth running of the state schools falling within their purview.nWith the decentralisation of services, the following sections have been set up in each Directorate:nlHuman Resource SectionlFinance SectionlStores and Procurement SectionlMaintenance UnitlEducational Psychologists and Social Workers UnitIt is important that the following points be noted:lEach Rector is responsible for his own school but he has to report to the Zone Director3

who has the responsibility for the good running of all schools in the Zone from the preprimary to the secondary level.lThe Ministry has to be constantly kept informed, through the Director of Zone, of therunning of the school and of its performance.lThe Rector will relate to the Zone Director for all issues pertaining to decentralisedservices and procedures.lWith decentralisation, Heads of School are empowered and, at the same time, requiredto take necessary action at their end towards solving problems at their level. Problemsshould be referred to the Director of Zone only when the means required are beyond theschool’s capacity or resources.1.2. THE SCHOOLThe school community consists of the staff, teaching and non-teaching, and of students and parents. With eachof the stakeholders having its own personality, needs and expectations, the Rector is required to create the mostconducive environment possible to foster mutual understanding and harmony between them so that the teamworks together collectively and collaboratively, towards promoting the interests of all students and theschool community at large.1.2.1. The StudentsnThe students are central to the mission of the school and all the activities of the institution are gearedtowards promoting their interest. In this respect, it is important to highlight that the student communitylegitimately needs to understand the decisions taken and even to take part in their making. Thus, ina spirit of good governance, the Rector should, as often as required, consult them and enlist theirparticipation for the effective running of the school.nThe Rector and his collaborators should work towards making the institution an inclusive school whichprovides a good education to all pupils, irrespective of their varying abilities. All students are to betreated with respect and provided equal opportunities to learn together.nHuman differences are natural and contribute to the richness of every society and they are also reflected inthe school. Each individual pupil has to be ensured optimal education in accordance with his capabilitiesand needs. Inclusive education being an on-going process, the Rector and the Educators must workactively and purposefully to reach its goals.nThis holistic view of the pupil must be adopted in the planning of classroom activities in order to provideto each and every student opportunities for participation and sharing in the work of the class through awide range of working methods and individual treatment.nThe philosophy of inclusive education also rests on another cornerstone which is the principle of nonsegregating measures.1.2.2. The RectornThe Rector has the overall responsibility for the smooth and effective running of the schooland, as such, he is the empowered authority within the institution. However, this also makesthe Rector accountable to the higher authorities as well as to the community.4

nAs the leader, the Rector builds and accompanies his teams, providing them with the required support andmotivation, listening to their views and their problems and valuing their effort, support and contribution.nSharing and ownership of the Vision of the Ministry is required from all sections, from headquartersto schools: The Head of school has to ensure that actions taken at the level of the school are in linewith the Ministry’s vision and policies and are geared towards implementation of same. He is alsoresponsible for facilitating the implementation of all reforms and educational projects witha view to attaining the national goals for education. These would also include the targetsset in the PBB.nThe Rector has to perform his various duties which are of three kinds: administrative, pedagogical andsocio- cultural.nnlAdministrative: Setting up committees, attending and chairing meetings, attendingto files and mail, organising work, writing reports, supervising staff and administrationof personnel matters, administration of student matters, including organisation ofexaminations and enforcement of Rules and Regulations, management of human,financial, material and infrastructural resources, etc.lPedagogical: Controlling the implementation of the curriculum, planning, organisingand monitoring of teaching and learning and other educational activities, managinglearning resources and ensuring the quality of the education imparted at school.lSocio-cultural: Promoting health standards, enhancing school environment, promotingculture and social values at school, developing partnership with the community, etc.Among his numerous responsibilities, the following need to be underlined:lTo ensure that the main activity of teaching and learning takes place effectively in theinstitutionlTo ensure the rule of discipline within the institutionlTo plan and implement strategies for school improvementlTo ensure the security and safety of all staff and students at schoollTo ensure the maintenance and upkeep of the school building and premiseslTo ensure the security and safety of all assets and equipment at schoollTo manage and supervise the staff working under him, ensuring that they are aware ofand abide by official instructionslTo make optimal use of all resources allocated to the schoollTo act as the focal point for the school at large, including the close communityFor the Rector to manage the school in a way that is in accordance with legal provisions, the Rectorshould be conversant with:lThe Education Regulations 1957 and the Education ActlPolicy guidelines of the MinistrylCivil Service Rules and Regulations e.g. the Personnel and Financial ManagementManuals, PRB Report recommendationslScheme of Service of the different grades of officers at school5

lThe Convention on the Rights of the ChildlThe Programme-Based BudgetlThe Performance Management System1.2.3. The Deputy RectornThe Deputy Rector provides assistance and support to the Rector for the smooth running of the school.He will deputise the Rector in his her/absence.nHis duties include the following:lTo be the link between staff and RectorlTo make arrangements for replacement of absent EducatorslTo give individual attention to problem studentslTo prepare the school timetablelTo help in the organisation and conducting of internal examinationslTo help in organising academic and non-academic activitieslTo assist in writing out Term ReportslTo teach such classes as directed by the Head of SchoollTo assist in enforcing disciplinenThe Rector will run the school in close collaboration with the Deputy Rector. He will at the same timeprovide him with all opportunities to understudy him for his professional advancement.nWhile the principle of the Rector having the final say in the running of the school is accepted, he shouldbe open to new ideas put forward by the Deputy Rector.nA clear assignment of roles and responsibilities mutually discussed and agreed upon, will definitelyfavour good work relationship.1.2.4. The teaching StaffnEducators are responsible for the harmonious development of the students, imparting to them thenecessary knowledge and skills as well as building their character and personality so that they becomelearned, responsible and disciplined citizens. They have to prepare students and ensure their readinessfor further studies and for the world of work as well as for life in society, the approach being based onthe four pillars: learning to know, learning to do, learning to live together and learning to be.nPRB 2008 Report makes the following recommendations at Paragraph 22.69 in respect of the duties ofEducators:“Incumbents in the grade of Educator (Secondary) would also be required, toprepare scheme and weekly plan of work in respect of subjects taught; conductexamination and mark scripts; attend training courses during school vacation;carry out continuous assessment, conduct extension classes, take charge oflaboratories, workshops or specialised rooms; organise and participate in extracurricular activities; assist the school administration in attending to problems ofdiscipline (including students’ absenteeism), parents’ queries and qualms; ensure6

the overall development of students – intellectual, emotional and moral; andmaintain discipline inside the classroom and within school premises.”nThe duties of Educators relating to pedagogy are considered in more details in Chapter The administrative staffnThe administrative staff comprises the Usher, Senior School Clerk, Word Processing Operator and LibraryOfficer. They provide support to the Rector in the accomplishment of his administrative duties. Details oftheir duties are laid down in their Schemes of Service, copies of which should be available at school ormay be obtained from the Manager, Human Resources, of the Zone Directorate.nPRB 2008 has made recommendations as to the setting up of an Administrative Support Unit to beheaded by a School Superintendent who would take over the function of the Usher. The grade of SeniorSchool Clerk will, on its part, be restyled Assistant School Superintendent.1.2.6. The ancillary staffnThese are the caretakers, library and laboratory attendants, workshop assistants and others in thecategory of manual staff. They work under the supervision of the Usher who is also responsible for theallocation of work to each of them. However, the work of laboratory attendants and workshop assistantsis generally supervised by the Head of the Department in which they are posted.nThe Rector should bear in mind that the work of the ancillary staff contributes in an effective way tothe smooth running of the institution. These officers have to be treated on an equal footing with othermembers of the staff, a respectful and fair attitude being shown towards them. It is equally importantto promote their sense of belonging to the institution and to listen to them, should they wish to expresstheir views. Their work should be assessed objectively and, whenever possible, due recognition andappreciation of their contribution should be expressed.1.2.7. School Bodies1.2.7.1. The Senior Management Team (SMT)nCompositionnnnnTerms of ReferencennnMeetingsnThe Rector (Chairperson)The Deputy RectorSenior members of the teaching staffTo create and implement a shared vision within the school communityTo help the Rector make important decisions regarding school policy andorientationTo help in the formulation of the School Development Plan that will usefullydirect actions at the level of the schoolAt least once per monthA Secretary is to be appointed for every meeting and proceedings of the meetingminuted.A specific agenda should be drawn up for each meeting, covering theadministrative and developmental issues at school level7

RemarksnThe SMT allows the participation of the teaching staff in the decision making process and,consequently, ensures greater commitment to school initiatives.nFor specific issues, an Educator, the Usher, the President of the Student Council and/or Headstudent may be co-opted and requested to attend the meeting. The PTA should on no accountbe involved in the running and deliberations of the SMT.nThe Rector is to ensure that the decisions reached during the SMT meeting are conveyed to therest of the school.nMajor decisions reached by the SMT should be communicated to the Zone Director for informationand/or approval. The Student CouncilnCompositionnPurposenTo ensure a smooth flow of information between Management and students.nTo promote positive relationships as the basis for a whole school cultureTo assist in school management and ensure the good running of the school byworking in close collaboration with Rector, Deputy Rector, Form Teachers, Usher,Head boy, and Class CaptainsTo inform the Rector of shortcomings at schoolTo collaborate with the management of the school to find solutions to problemsTo express the opinions and feelings of fellow students and share their problems,concerns, wishes and expectations with managementTo participate in the organisation of school activities such as Sports day, PrizeGiving day, etcnTerms of ReferencennnnMeetingsRepresentatives of different sections of the student community, democraticallyelected by the students themselves, in such a way that each class has aspokespersonOnce the Council is constituted, it elects its managing committee which willhave a President and a SecretarynnnnFollow upnAs per timetable agreed upon by the Rector but at least 2 per termSecretary to note proceedings of the meeting in the Student Council book.President and Secretary to report to the Rector on its deliberations and issuesthrashed out during a working sessionThe Rector will take stock of their complaints, grievances or aspirations and, inan advisory capacity, prioritise issues raised and work out an implementationplan, while informing the Council members of the short, medium and long termsolutions.The Rector must be open to suggestions made by such representatives for thewelfare of the students and at the same time ensure that the requests of thestudents are within the framework of policies of the Ministry.8

RemarksnnnThe Council will draft its rules and regulations and submit them to the Rector for approval.Members of the Student Council should uphold the reputation of the school by exemplary actionand behaviour.Rector should meet the whole Council regularly to communicate decisions, plans and otherinformation deemed necessaryd Refer to Circular letter ME/78/136 Vol. II of 24 March 20041.2.7.3. The Parent Teacher Association(PTA)nnCompositionnnnTerms of ReferencenMeetingsnnAll parents are de facto members of the AssociationThe Managing Committee comprises a given number of parents electedduring the Annual General Assembly and a given number of Educators asdefined in the Association’s ConstitutionThe Rector acts as Advisor to the AssociationTo promote the welfare of studentsTo provide support to the school and help towards enhancing its physicalenvironment, equipment and other facilitiesTo raise funds and provide financial support for school projects and theorganisation of events such as Prize Giving, Sports Day etc.An Annual General AssemblyAt least 2 meetings of the Managing Committee per termRemarksnnnnnThe PTA is an essential partner of the school.It is an independent association duly registered with the Registrar of Associations and it functionsaccording to the Rules and Regulations approved under its Constitution.As advisor to the Association, the Rector has the duty to ensure that decisions taken by the PTAare in line with policies of the Ministry.The Rector will enlist the collaboration of the PTA in the preparation of the School DevelopmentPlan.The PTA should not be allowed to interfere in the day to day management of the school.9

1.2.8. The Social PartnersThe school is as an open system connected to and interacting with its environment. A closed system wouldbe one which is isolated from its environment and independent of external factors. At the same time, otherinstitutions do nowadays have a role to play in the common educational endeavour and it is important thatthe school develops dynamic partnerships with the community, enlisting its support in the accomplishmentof its mission.The Rector acts as the interface between the school community and the management at Ministry’s level,facilitating the communication between the two.Figure 3: The school and its socio-cultural environment10

CHAPTER 2 : MANAGING THE SYSTEMThe school, as an organisation, is a complex social system which converts resources made available to it into suchoutcomes as students’ development and achievement. It therefore needs to be managed effectively. The Rectorshould not satisfy himself with attending only to day to day matters but instead, he should also drive and leadthe organisation. The role of the Rector is not to row the boat but rather to steer it.This chapter looks at the Rector taking over the school and getting into the driving seat to steer the organisationtowards its goals.2.1. HANDING OVERnThe outgoing Rector is required to ensure that, before leaving, a proper handing over exercise has beeneffected.nThe handing over exercise will concern the following items:nnnnlInfrastructure and buildinglOther assets and equipmentlLearning resourceslFiles, books, ledgers, registers and other important documentslPetty money and other fundsThe new Rector will ensure that the following have been handed over to him:lThe School’s Vision and Mission StatementlThe School Development PlanlAll other plans of work and calendar of activitieslThe compendium of circularslThe School Management ManuallThe Personnel Management ManualTo help him understand his new school, the outgoing Rector will have to properly brief his successor on thefollowing:lThe characteristics of the physical location of the schoollThe social background of students and parentslThe profile of the stafflThe existing links of the school with the communityThe new Rector should also be informed of:lProblems faced by the schoollStatus of ongoing projectslUrgent matters requiring his immediate attentionAt the end of the exercise, a proper Handing Over Statement should be signed by both the outgoing andthe incoming officer.11

2.1.1. Meeting with stakeholdersnThe Rector will at the earliest meet with the different sections of his staff to establish his workingrelationships.nHe should also meet students by holding an assembly and by convening meetings with the StudentCouncil, Prefects’ Body and class captains.nHe will, through the Secretary of the PTA, make contact with the President of the PTA and convene aworking session with him at the earliest.nHe should also, maybe at a later time, establish contact with the local authorities, sponsors, NGO’s andother organizations with which the school has developed links and relationships.nThese meetings will allow him to:lPresent himself to all those who would henceforth be working in close collaborationwith him and to establish relationships with themlInform of his own vision, his management style and his expectationslTake stock of any problems and of expectations of the different stakeholders.2.1.2. DiagnosisnThe Rector will as early as possible carry out a full audit of the institution aiming atlIdentifying the strengths and weaknesses of the schoollUnderstanding the opportunities for and the threats to the school’s improvementlDetermining his priorities in terms of the areas requiring improvement and attention inthe short and medium term.nIn the light of the above, he may, after consultation with all stakeholders, decide to review the school’svision and mission as well as the standards, targets and objectives of the institution. Consequently, anaction plan, geared towards attaining the set objectives will have to be prepared in close collaborationwith all partners.nThe Rector should however not lose sight of the fact that continuity is a very important element thathas to be taken into account: sudden and drastic changes may disturb the stability of the system withthe risk of it going out of control. Changes are to be brought in a gradual and smooth way and only tothose components that are hampering the smooth functioning of the school.nThe Rector will, through good communication, ensure that all stakeholders share and own the vision,mission, objectives and values of the institution.2.2. STEERING THE SYSTEMIn order to drive the system towards its goals, the Rector, as the manager of the institution has to attend to twovery important tasks among others: planning and controlling the activities of the school.2.2.1. PlanningnPlanning involves choosing objectives and ways to achieve them, taking into consideration theavailability of resources.12

nAll tasks and exercises carried out have to be carefully planned.nEach plan should containlThe prioritised objectives to be attainedlThe time scales for the attainment of the objectiveslThe resources requiredlThe areas of responsibilitylAn implementation schedulelStandards and benchmarks for evaluationnA breakdown of tasks with time frames for their start and completionnPlans should be communicated to all parties concerned so that each one understands what is beingexpected of him and how his work will be assessed.nStaff, especially inexperienced members, should be properly briefed on what to do and also on the howand the when.nSubsequently, the Rector will ensure that every sub section or department submits, through the Headsof Department, the relevant and realistic work plans (yearly, by term, weekly, daily) for its activities,pedagogical or other, as the case may be. Calendar of ActivitiesqA School Calendar should be prepared at the beginning of the year, with activities listed termwise without necessarily specifying exact dates.qDepartments will base themselves on the school calendar to prepare their work plans.qHeads of department will prepare and submit to the Rector a detailed calendar for each andevery activity that they will carry out. This will contain a detailed breakdown of tasks, time frameand the areas of responsibility.qThe Head Boy/ Girl, Prefects and Student Council should be informed of these activities while atthe same time being requested to prepare and submit the calendar for the student body. The School Development PlanqThe Rector, in consultation with all parties, will prepare the School Development Plan (SDP) thatwill guide actions at the school during the academic year. Some activities may however spanover more than a year.qThe SDP is a plan that may aim at improving the school, targeting a wide spectrum of areas withfocus on issues needing urgent attention, for example,mUpgrading and enhancement of the physical environmentmImprovement of student performancemImprovement of communication, relationships and social environment within the schoolmDevelopment of links with the Community13

qWhile preparing the SDP, the Rector will take into account the expected outputs and thePerformance Indicators defined in the PBB so that the school’s performance contributes to theachievement of the national goals. The SDP will focus on the outputs and results expected andaccordingly review and enhance the processes at school level with a view to achieving greaterefficiency.qAll stakeholders, including students and the PTA, should be roped in to provide their inputsfor its elaboration so that all parties work together in a collaborative manner towards effectiveschool improvement.qLike all plans, the SDP should contain realistic and attaina

3 table of contents iipreface foreword iii chapter 1 the organisation structure 1 chapter 2 managing the system 11 chapter 3 communication 19 chapter 4 discipline 27 chapter 5 students: administrative issues 41 chapter 6 towards quality teaching and learning 47 chapter 7 managing human resources 55 chapter 8 managing assets, stores and finance 67 chapter 9 safety and security at school 75