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Teaching SociologyEditorDeputy EditorKathleen S. LowneyValdosta State Universityemail: [email protected] MuschertMiami Universityemail: [email protected] BoardErin K. AndersonWashington CollegeRebecca BordtDePauw UniversityPeter L. CalleroWestern Oregon UniversityMarisol Karina Clark-IbanezCalifornia State UniversitySanMarcosMichael DeCesareMerrimack CollegeOtis B. GrantIndiana University SouthBendChad HansonCasper CollegeAngela J. HatteryWake Forest UniversityMark IsraelFlinders University(Australia)Diane PikeAugsburg CollegeChristopher PrendergastIllinois WesleyanUniversityShireen S. RajaramUniversity of NebraskaStephen J. ScanlanOhio UniversityMonica A. SnowdenWayne State CollegeDavid D. JaffeeUniversity of North FloridaHeather Sullivan-CatlinSUNY-PotsdamDiane Elizabeth JohnsonKutztown UniversityStephen A. SweetIthaca CollegeJeffrey C. DixonCollege of the Holy CrossDonna KingUniversity of North CarolinaWilmingtonSusan R. TakataUniversity ofWisconsin-ParksideLauren DundesMcDaniel CollegeMatthew T. LeeUniversity of AkronJan E. ThomasKenyon CollegeAnne Frances EisenbergSUNY-GeneseoKathy LivingstonQuinnipiac UniversityJean L. Van DelinderOklahoma State UniversityMichelle Newton-FrancisAmerican UniversitySuzanne B. MaurerDelaware County CommunityCollegeLeslie T.C. WangSaint Mary’s CollegeKevin J. DelaneyTemple UniversityTracy L. DietzUniversity of North TexasTheodore FullerVirginia TechPatti A. GiuffreTexas State University-SanMarcosManaging EditorSusan NebelMiriam M. Newton-FrancisBluefield CollegeMorrison G. WongTexas Christian UniversityWendy NgSan Jose State UniversityProduction EditorAllison LeungSAGE PublicationsThe American Sociological Association acknowledges, with appreciation, the facilities and assistance provided by Valdosta State University.TS cover template.indd 207/04/2010 6:26:10 PM

Volume 38 Number 4 October 2010TeachingSociologyContentsGuidelines for Papers Submitted to Teaching SociologyComment from the Editor285Kathleen S. LowneyArticlesTeaching a Global Sociology: Suggestions for Globalizing the U.S. Curriculum287Deenesh Sohoni and Misha PetrovicTeaching Urban Sociology and Urban Sustainability on Two Feet, Two Wheels,and in Three Cities: Our Experience Teaching Sustainable Cities in North America301Lars Christiansen and Nancy FischerASA’s Bachelor’s and Beyond Survey: Findings and Their Implications forStudents and Departments314Roberta Spalter-Roth, Mary Scheuer Senter, Pamela Stone, and Michael WoodHow Sociological Leaders Rank Learning Goals for Introductory Sociology330Caroline Hodges PersellTeaching NotesPerforming Theory: Dramatic Learning in the Theory Classroom340Daina S. EglitisLiterary Fiction as a Tool for Teaching Social Theory and Critical Consciousness350Christina D. WeberUsing Nail Polish to Teach about Gender and Homophobia362Nelta M. EdwardsInvited ReviewGrowing Pains in the Sociology of Aging and the Life Course: A ReviewEssay on Recent Textbooks373Christopher WellinBook ReviewsChanging Theories: New Directions in Sociology. Black Hawk Hancock and Roberta GarnerThomas DeGloma383

Contemporary Readings in Social Problems. Anna Leon-Guerrero andKristine Zentgraf, eds385Melinda MessineoGoths, Gamers, and Grrrls: Deviance and Youth Subcultures. Ross Haenfler386Lutz KaelberThe Great American Crime Decline. Franklin E. Zimring387Ryan D. SchroederThe Odyssey Experience: Physical, Social, Psychological, and Spiritual Journeys. Neil J. Smelser389Kevin J. ChristianoSocial Theory: The Multicultural and Classic Readings, 4th ed. Charles Lemert, ed390Stephen LippmannThe Sociology of Deviance: Differences, Tradition, and Stigma. Robert J. Franzese392Mathieu DeflemTeaching Research Methods in the Social Sciences. Mark Garner, Claire Wagnerand Barbara Kawulich393Jacqueline BergdahlUsable Theory: Analytical Tools for Social and Political Research. Dietrich Rueschmeyer394Richard ArnoldFilm and Website ReviewsThe Garden: Eviction from Eden in South Central L.A. Black Valley Films in Associationwith Katahdin Productions and Impact Partners397Mary Thierry TexeiraGeneration M: Misogyny in Media and Culture. Media Education Foundation398Tricia DavisHerskovits at the Heart of Darkness. California Newsreel400Royce A. Singleton, Jr.Sociological Images: Inspiring Sociological Imaginations Everywhere. Contexts.org401David T. MayedaA Village Called Versailles. New Day Films403Mikaila Mariel Lemonik ArthurList of Reviewers July 1, 2009 - June 30, 2010Notice to Contributors406

EditorialComment from the EditorAs I write this, the sun is just beginning to breakthrough the darkness—it is going to be a hot July4th weekend in South Georgia. It has been a yearsince I began to receive manuscripts as the editorelect of Teaching Sociology—where have the daysgone? This year has flown by—full of so many‘‘firsts’’: sending my first edition off to Sage; writing my very first ‘‘congratulations, your article hasbeen accepted for publication’’ letter; the journalgoing ‘‘live and online’’ in Sage’s ScholarOnesoftware system on January 1; seeing the excitement of my managing editor, graduate studentSusan Nebel, when she saw her name in printfor the first time.I have learned that being an editor is much liketeaching: One has goals for the day, but one neverknows what will happen once class starts. Some ofmy goals for the editorship have been accomplished,and others are proving more elusive. I am excited toreport that the transition to a completely online submission and review process seems to be going well.Authors have made the transition to the ScholarOnesoftware with few problems. Reviewers too haveadapted to going online to find the blinded manuscripts and to submit their reviews. As always, ifyou ever experience trouble with the submission–review process, please let me know.So what has not gone as well as I had hoped?Last January I wrote in my editorial comment that‘‘beginning in the next edition of TS, each editionwill feature a review essay about books and monographs available for some of the central classescommon to most Sociology programs.’’ This hasnot happened. While my deputy editor, GlennMuschert, has worked diligently on finding peoplewilling to do these labor-intensive peer-reviewedmanuscripts, the time needed to ship books tothese individuals, to read them, to write thereview, and then to have it peer reviewed (sometimes multiple times) has not always meshedwell with the timetable for production of everyissue. The good news is that our first reviewis in this edition—‘‘Growing Pains in theSociology of Aging and the Life Course: ATeaching Sociology38(4) 285–286Ó American Sociological Association 2010DOI: w Essay on Recent Textbooks’’ byChristopher Wellin. We hope to have more foryou in the coming months, but not in every issue.There are many people I want to thank fortheir help this past year. The Sage productionteam—Allison Leung, Kristen Marchetti, ScottSpringer, and Eric Moran—has been so availableto answer software questions, to work throughcopyediting issues, and so on. I know that theyare just an e-mail and a few time zones away! Iwant to thank Liz Grauerholz, the past editor ofTeaching Sociology. She has been gracious withher time and so helpful. Karen Edwards andJanine McKenna, at the ASA, have completedthe wonderful team that supports those of uswho are editors of ASA journals.In addition, I want to thank my deputy editor,Glenn Muschert, for his counsel and hard work.On top of these duties, he also was program chairfor the Society for the Study of Social Problems’2010 Annual Meeting, so I know he has hada busy year too! Thanks also to Tirth RajBhatta, who worked exceptionally hard asGlenn’s assistant this past year. Good luck,Tirth, as you begin your doctoral studies at CaseWestern Reserve!I want to thank the members of the EditorialBoard who are ending their terms: RebeccaBordt, Tracy Dietz, Lauren Dundes, AngelaHattery, David Jaffee, Diane Johnson, DonnaKing, Monica Snowden, Heather Sullivan-Catlin,Jan Thomas, Jean Van Delinder, Leslie Wang,and Morrison Wong. They truly have been partof a working board, and I appreciate their helpand support.I also want to express my appreciation to thoseof you who answered my call to review manuscripts. Reviewers are the lifeblood of academicjournals, yet they are anonymous for most of theprocess. I am so impressed by the thoughtful,detailed reviews that I have received this year.And most of all, I want to thank Susan Nebel,my outgoing managing editor. She worked in thejournal office while enrolled full-time as

286a graduate sociology student. She quickly learnedtwo software programs for manuscript processing,as well as several e-mail systems, and through itall she was always courteous to authors and reviewers and industrious. Good luck with your doctoral plans, Susan.I look forward to continuing to add content tothe Teaching Sociology Web page and to clarifyTeaching Sociology 38(4)online submission guidelines in the next year.Please let me know what your thoughts are aboutthe journal; I am striving to make it useful to you,its readers.Kathleen S. LowneyEditorE-mail: [email protected]

ArticlesASA’s Bachelor’s and BeyondSurvey: Findings and TheirImplications for Students andDepartmentsTeaching Sociology38(4) 314–329Ó American Sociological Association 2010DOI: ta Spalter-Roth1, Mary Scheuer Senter2,Pamela Stone3, and Michael Wood3AbstractWith the support of the National Science Foundation, the American Sociological Association conducteda longitudinal survey of sociology majors from the class of 2005, following them from senior year into careers or graduate school. The first part of this article provides a context for the results from the What Can IDo with a Bachelor’s Degree in Sociology? study and a summary of its key findings. Wave I data demonstratestrong student interest in sociological concepts, perceived mastery of some research skills but not others,and general satisfaction with the major. Sociology majors are both idealists and careerists. The majority expects to enter the job market after graduation but is not satisfied with the career advising they receive. Keyfindings from Wave II demonstrate that more respondents go directly into the job market than expected,job search strategies are important in finding a job that matches what students learned in their sociologyprograms, and those who find such jobs are more satisfied with the major. The second part discusseshow the survey findings can be used to enhance curriculum, advising, and assessment without vocationalizingthe curriculum and without adding extra burdens to faculty members’ already heavy schedules. Finally, thearticle discusses how the data can be used as a baseline for department assessment.Keywordssocial capital, occupations, liberal arts, job satisfaction, undergraduate major, fields of study,advisingSupported by the National Science Foundation,the American Sociological Association (ASA)conducted a longitudinal survey of sociologymajors from the class of 2005, titled What Can IDo with a Bachelor’s Degree in Sociology? Thepurpose of this study, commonly known asBachelor’s and Beyond, is to fill in the information gap for faculty members about why studentsmajor in sociology and what they do with their educations. Students and their parents want answersto these questions, especially when students aremore likely to have a parent who is unemployedthan in past years as a result of the currentrecession.This article places the study findings and theactivities that can flow from them, such aschanges in curriculum and assessment methods,1American Sociological Association, Washington, DC,USA2Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, USA3Hunter College, City University of New York, USACorresponding Author:Roberta Spalter-Roth, Research and DevelopmentDepartment, American Sociological Association, 1430 KStreet, NW, Suite 600, Washington, DC 20005, USAEmail: [email protected]

Spalter-Roth et al.in the context of changes in higher education.Although these changes may exacerbate disagreements among faculty members between those whofavor traditional academic pedagogy and thosewho favor increasing the emphasis on appliedsociology, as we will see these debates do notappear to be reflected in student views or goals.And, we argue that faculty can teach sociologicalconcepts, theory, and methods while assisting students in their efforts to prepare for careers thatemploy the knowledge and skills they learned asundergraduates.Sociology in the Context of theCorporate UniversitySociology departments find themselves in themidst of powerful trends affecting higher education. They exist in universities facing budgetshortfalls and work with administrators whohave embraced a business or vocational modelfor governing higher education (Newfield 2003;Slaughter and Leslie 1997). Sociologists and otherliberal arts faculty have voiced concerns that thegrowth of this profit, corporate-oriented modelhas had negative and indeed pernicious consequences for teaching and learning (Tuchman2009). They believe that education has becomemore skill oriented and does not put learning ina social context. On many campuses, the ‘‘practical arts,’’ such as business, public policy, healthcare, and criminology, are growing while the liberal arts are in decline (Brint 2002). In addition,the development of standardized assessments ofstudent learning in which faculty do not participate is another contentious issue (Spalter-Rothand Scelza 2009b).315vocationalization of sociology, with the tradingof emphasis on theory and methods for narrowcareer preparation. In contrast to these calls,department chairs at regional and national meetings report that they worry that their departmentswill be merged with other programs, will lose resources, or will fail to get additional faculty linesbecause of declining enrollments compared to departments viewed as more practical majors. Thisarticle does not suggest that faculty stop teachingthe perspectives and the concepts that students saydrew them to sociology, nor should facultyassume students’ responsibility for finding jobsand planning their futures. Nonetheless, the current context of higher education along with thestudy findings suggests that faculty may need tobecome more cognizant of future careers for sociology majors. Such an orientation need not changethe primary role of sociology faculty.The What Can I Do with a Bachelor’s Degreein Sociology? study shows that a majority of students major in sociology because they are excitedby the concepts taught in their first course and areidealistic because they want to understand therelation between social forces and individualsand to change society. Yet, the majority of thesestudents go into the labor market directly aftergraduation and hope that majoring in sociologywill improve their career chances. Regardless oftheir reasons for majoring, the majority are dissatisfied with the career advice they receive. Theneed to know about the link between their majorand possible careers may be especially useful forstudents of color, students of non–college graduate parents, and children of immigrants, groupsthat comprise a greater share of the studentbody, especially in sociology (Spalter-Roth andErskine 2006).Sociology as a Liberal ArtOverview of the ArticleSociology is a liberal art with an emphasis on scientific method. Yet the discipline has a traditionof both practice, often in the service of socialreform, and abstract theory and methodology,often in the service of scientific understanding(Calhoun, Duster, and VanAntwerpen 2010). Inspite of the long tradition of practice, now referredto as public sociology (Burawoy 2005), the undergraduate curriculum is not primarily designed toplace majors in specific applied careers or toengage in specific types of social action. Indeed,there are calls to resist what is referred to as theThe first part of this article summarizes key survey findings from the first two waves of theBachelor’s and Beyond survey. The second partof the article discusses the ways that the studyfindings can be used to enhance students’ understanding of how to take sociological concepts,which are often quite abstract, and use them injob settings, without adding extra burdens to faculty members’ already heavy schedules. The finalpart of the article suggests how departments canassess student learning by using the Bachelor’sand Beyond study as baseline data.

316BACHELOR’S AND BEYONDSTUDY DESIGNAs part of the study design, sociology majors wereto be interviewed three times starting in 2005: (1)Wave I in their senior year of college, (2) Wave IIin 2007, and (3) Wave III in 2009. Wave III findings are not available as yet. A committee of current and former chairs of sociology departmentsserved as advisors to the project and helped indesigning the sampling procedure, selecting thetopics to be covered, and developing thequestionnaire.Study DesignSample. Ninety-six sociology departments(both stand-alone and joint departments) participated in the first wave of the study. The departments were selected using one of two methods.First, 20 PhD-granting departments, 20 master’sdegree–granting departments, and 40 bachelor’sdegree–granting departments were randomlyselected to represent the share of graduating seniors from each type of institution of higher education. If a randomly selected departmentdeclined to participate, another school of thesame type was substituted from a list of volunteerdepartments. Participating department chairs provided the e-mail addresses of their senior majorswho were graduating in December 2004, May2005, or August 2005, once they received humansubject approval and permission to divulge e-mailaddresses to a third party for research purposes.Online survey. The online survey was conducted by the Indiana University Center forSurvey Research (CSR). CSR sent an online invitation letter to participate in the survey and twofollow-up letters signed by the chair of each major’s department. Of the more than 5,000 studentssurveyed, 35 percent, or 1,777 seniors, respondedto the online survey. These responses wereweighted to correct for the overrepresentation ofstudents graduating from doctoral institutionsand the underrepresentation of students graduatingfrom baccalaureate-only institutions.Follow-up. Once they graduated, former majorswere followed up through letters and e-mails forthe second wave of the survey, conducted in thewinter and spring of 2007. Of the 1,777 initial respondents, 778 responded to the second wave ofthe survey, for a 44 percent response rate.Teaching Sociology 38(4)FINDINGSKey Findings from Wave Iof the SurveyWave I data are divided by the type of school thatstudents attended—doctoral universities with thePhD as the highest degree offered, master’s comprehensive schools, and bachelor’s-only schools.Why do students major in sociology? Studentswere asked to indicate all of the reasons thatthey majored in sociology. Almost all respondents(about 90 percent) chose sociology because oftheir interest in sociological concepts. Three quarters of respondents majored in sociology becausethey enjoyed their first course. Almost 66 percentwanted to understand the relationship between individuals and society, and almost 40 percent majored because they want to change society. Weused the SPSS CATPCA scaling procedure todetermine whether the reasons for majoring insociology would cluster into distinctive indexes.We found that, although 90 percent of majorsliked sociological concepts, the other reasons formajoring formed two distinct clusters—idealistsand careerists. Idealists majored to help changesociety, to understand their own lives, and tounderstand the relationship between social forcesand individuals, while careerists majored to prepare for a job or to prepare for graduate school.Graduating seniors majored in sociology for bothidealist and careerist reasons.For students these categories were not polaropposites. Many students majored for both reasons. More than 30 percent of all idealists alsomajored for careerist reasons, and 53 percent ofcareerists majored for idealist reasons. AfricanAmerican students were the most likely to beboth careerists and idealists. Finally, graduatingseniors did not major in sociology because theythought it is easy or convenient. Only 7 percentselected sociology because it requires fewer credithours than other majors, and fewer than 5 percentselected sociology because the major they wantedwas not available. Figure 1 shows the top-five reasons for majoring by type of school.What did they say they have learned? Almost90 percent of respondents strongly agreed thatthey understand basic sociological concepts.About 70 percent strongly agreed that they learnedabout the differences between theoretical paradigms, the effects of status differences on dailylife, critical views of society, social issues, and

Spalter-Roth et al.31794.689.789.8Interesting concepts77.773.774.0Enjoyed first course63.365.162.7Understanding social forces/individual relationship38.1Help to change society47.642.939.541.438.4Understand my life20.0Baccalaureate & OthersMastersDoctoral30.040.050.060 .070.080.090.0100.0Figure 1. Top-five reasons for majoring in sociology by type of school: 2005Note: Percentage responding ‘‘very important’’; weighted data.the relation between individuals and social institutions. There is some variation by type of school.Graduating seniors were also asked about theresearch skills they learned as part of their sociology major. The highest percentage of respondents(about 70 percent) strongly agreed that they canidentify ethical issues in research, developevidence-based arguments, evaluate methods,write reports, and form causal hypotheses. In contrast, fewer than one half of responding majorsstrongly agreed that they can use statistical packages in the social sciences. Figure 2 shows the percentage of respondents strongly agreeing that theyhad mastered specific research skills. There wereno differences in the ranking of skills masteredamong the three different types of institutions ofhigher education.Did they participate in out-of-classroom activities? Not all learning takes place in the sociologyclassroom. Internships, participation in sociologyclubs, attending regional meetings, or taking partin job fairs are all extracurricular activities thatcan lead to jobs or to success in graduate school.More than two thirds of respondents participatedin at least one extraclassroom activity, althoughthere were significant variations by type of school.These activities were divided into three clusters:applied activities, scholarly socialization, andmentoring. The specific activities in each clusterand the percentage of respondents thatparticipated in them are shown in Table 1.Participation in applied activities was most likelyto occur at master’s-level schools, while scholarlysocialization and mentoring activities were mostlikely to occur at bachelor’s-only institutions.Applied activities can lead to jobs that reflectwhat students learned as sociology majors. Othertypes of extraclassroom activities, includingscholarly socialization and mentoring, canincrease the likelihood of attending graduateschool (Spalter-Roth, Van Vooren, and Senter2009).What were key areas of satisfaction or dissatisfaction with departments? Majors reported significantly different levels of satisfaction with aspectsof their programs, depending on the type of schoolthey attended. Those graduating from bachelor’sonly departments were the most likely to reportthat they were strongly satisfied with their programs, with almost 8 out of 10 majors reportingthis, compared to about 7 out of 10 at master’scomprehensive and doctoral institutions. Majorswere not satisfied with the career and graduateschool counseling that they received, regardlessof type of school. Fewer than 20 percent of students were satisfied with career advising, andfewer than 13 percent were satisfied with graduateschool advising. Nor are there significant differences between those students whom we label asidealists and those we label careerists in terms

318Teaching Sociology 38(4)68.1Identify ethical issues in research72.167.572.8Develop evidence-based arguments67.465.368.365.263.9Evaluate different research methods66.965.463.6Write a report understandable by non-sociologists63.3Form causal hypothesis69.059.664.663.2Use computer resources to develop reference list57.960.858.055.6Baccalaureate & OthersInterpret the results of data gathering45.648.4Use statistical software (SPSS, SAS, 0.0Figure 2. Top-eight skills gained by graduating sociology majors by type of school: 2005Note: Percentage strongly agreeing; weighted data.of their satisfaction with career and graduateschool advising (see Figure 3).What were their plans after graduation? Majorswere asked whether they intended to go directlyinto the job market after graduation, go to graduate school, or do both. The largest percentage ofrespondents (42 percent) reported that they wouldpursue paid employment, 26 percent intended togo to graduate school while being employed,and the smallest group (22 percent) aimed toattend graduate school but not seek paid employment. A higher percentage of those intending togo on to graduate school attended master’s comprehensive universities compared to those at doctoral universities or baccalaureate schools.Key Findings from Wave IIof the SurveyWave II respondents reported whether or not theyrealized their undergraduate plans. Because themajority of majors went into the job market aftergraduation, this article highlights job search strategies, types of jobs found, and satisfaction withjobs and with the major.Did they realize their plans? Many former majors who responded to Wave II of the survey didnot carry out their undergraduate plans. About40 percent of respondents planned to seekemployment and not attend graduate school. By2007, nearly 60 percent reported being employedexclusively. While 20 percent of seniors plannedon attending graduate school (primarily in education, criminology, and sociology), just over 10percent were in a graduate program in 2007 (afew did report having completed a graduate program). The percentage of those who planned towork and attend graduate school simultaneouslydecreased slightly (see Figure 4).What job-getting strategies were successful?Many students were not aware of strategies thatcould enhance their ability to search for employment that draws on sociological skills and concepts. Relatively few students listed thesesociological skills on their resumes or discussedthem in job interviews. However, those who didcommunicate their sociological skills to potentialemployers were more likely to use them on thejob. For example, of the 69 percent who stronglyagreed that they had learned to evaluate differentresearch methods, almost three quarters failed tolist this skill on their resume. Of those who didnot do so, almost 80 percent did not discuss theirability to use this skill at a job interview. Perhapsthis skill was irrelevant to the jobs they were pursuing, or perhaps not, but the outcome of not communicating the skill was that only 26 percent of

Spalter-Roth et al.319Table 1. Student Activity Participation by Type ofSchool (in percentages)ActivityVocational trainingand networkingLeadershipprogramInternshipService learningprogramCommunityactivityJob fairScholarlysocializationSociology ctivitiesMentoringFaculty researchDoctoral Master’s .918.515.612.020.113.032.320.4those who strongly agreed that they had learnedthe skill ended up using it on the job. Contrastthis outcome with those who did list the skill ontheir resumes and did discuss it in an interview.For these respondents, more than 80 percent reported using the skill on the job (Spalter-Rothand Van Vooren 2008a).What types of jobs? Former majors were employed in a wide variety of jobs after they graduated. The largest group (about 25 percent) ofrespondents was employed in social service andcounseling occupations in nonprofit organizations.These graduates address social problems by working with battered women, poor families in need ofresources, and adolescents involved in the juvenilejustice system, for example. Respondents in thenext largest job category provided administrativesupport and management skills in a wide varietyof organizations. For instance, they manage orassist in the running of on-site information technology systems ‘‘troubleshooting a variety of issues that pop up with computers,’’ assisting inhuman relations departments, and runningemployee training programs. A smaller percentagewas employed in sales and marketing for information technology, hardware, and software firms.Others were employed by local governments asteachers, librarians, police officers, crime sceneinvestigators, and parole officers. The smallestfull-time occupational category was social scienceresearchers. Both careerists and idealists are foundin all of these types of jobs, with no significantdifference between them (Spalter-Roth and VanVooren 2008b).How close were their jobs to sociology? Aminority of majors (20 percent) reported that thejobs they hold 18 months after graduation werevery closely related to their sociological studies,almost half reported that their current jobs weresomewhat related to sociology, and fewer thanone third (31 percent) reported that their jobswere unrelated to sociology.Those who reported that their jobs were notclose to what they learned as majors noted thatthere are few jobs labeled ‘‘sociologist.’’ Morethan 80 percent of all respondents reported

Quinnipiac University Suzanne B. Maurer Delaware County Community College Miriam M. Newton-Francis Bluefield College Wendy Ng San Jose State University Diane Pike Augsburg College Christopher Prendergast Illinois Wesleyan University Shireen S. Rajaram University of Nebraska Stephen J. Scanlan Ohio University Monica A. Snowden Wayne State College Heather Sullivan-Catlin SUNY-Potsdam Stephen A .