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Wireless Personal Communications (2021) 08753-0GUEST EDITORIAL5G System Design Solutions for Wireless PersonalApplicationsPavlos I. Lazaridis1 · J. N. Swaminathan2 · Seshadri Mohan3Published online: 30 August 2021 The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 20215G wireless standards will play a vital role in ensuring security, enabling automation onmany fronts such as connected vehicles, and facilitating data rates that are orders of magnitude greater than 4G LTE and thereby enabling rapid access to information. With theevolution in wireless technology, starting from 1G to the present 5G wireless networks, thedata rates have grown exponentially to tens and hundreds of Gbps, paving the foundationfor future networks with Tbps data rates. It is a major challenge to share huge volumes ofdata (videos, pictures) at the 5G rates in a multi-user environment. Even though NOMAand OFDMA address the problem of interference in a multi-user environment, the networkinfrastructure and backhaul communication still lack the capabilities required to meet thechallenges posed by 5G data rates. There exists an urgent need to develop a suitable modeland protocols at all levels of the protocol stack for personal data access and networking.Consequently, this special issue seeks to address the need to develop a portable standardmodel in the areas of wireless personal access, 5G Mobile IOT, wireless personal homeautomation solutions, and network security.Various authors around the globe submitted thirty four papers for consideration in thisspecial issue, among which the guest editors have selected the best articles based on peerreview. We have grouped the papers under several 5G solution themes and provide a summary of the papers below.* Pavlos I. [email protected] N. [email protected] [email protected] and Engineering, University of Huddersfield, Queensgate, Huddersfield HD1 3DH, UK2Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, QIS College of Engineeringand Technology, Ongole, Andhra Pradesh 523272, India3Systems Engineering Department, EIT 546, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, 2801 SUniversity Avenue, Little Rock, AR 72204, USA13Vol.:(0123456789)

1924P. I. Lazaridis et al.1  5G Personal Access SolutionsThe field of Intelligent Reflecting Surfaces (IRS) forms an exciting new research area. Thepaper by Nagarajan and Balakrishnan discusses the use of IRS to modify the phase of thecarrier signal generated at the source and reflect the signal to the destination. The authorsanalyze the performance of the system over k-mu fading channels using the moment generating function approach and validate the theoretical results using simulation. The resultsreveal that significant performance gains can be achieved.In order to capture the potential gains of Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access(NOMA)aided Mobile Edge Computing systems, the paper by Nguyen et al. proposes a design ofmultiple antennas and full-duplex for an edge computing aware NOMA architecture.In the study by Le et al., the authors propose a scheme that combines NOMA with cognitive radio (CR) for vehicle-to-everything (V2X) as a promising application with highspectrum efficiency. Simulation results are provided to validate the derived expressions andexhibit the advantages of the proposed CR-NOMA assisted V2X system with respect tooutage probability and bit error rate.Millimeter wave (mmWave) communication requires large antenna arrays to increasethe capability of cellular networks of the fifth generation with good beam-forming gainsand a substantial reduction in path losses for both transmitting and receiving terminals.As large antenna arrays require one radio frequency chain per antenna element, the fullydigital beamforming technique results in high cost and high-power consumption, and it istherefore not feasible. Hybrid schemes are possible with exciting solutions that overcomethe deficiencies of pure digital or analog beam forming, which are explored in the paper byJeyakumar et al.2  5G Massive MIMO Design SolutionsThe paper by Sohal et al. investigates the effect of massive MIMO antenna in both lineararray and planar array configurations on the propagation environment of cellular systemswith line of sight (LoS) channels using minimum mean squared error detection techniquefor uplink and derive some interesting conclusions regarding the suitability for differentscenarios.The paper by Kumar and Babu presents a six-port multi-band MIMO antenna prototypefor 5G mobile phone applications that operates in the frequency band 3.33–3.63 GHz. Thepaper studies MIMO parameters like envelope correlation coefficient (ECC), peak channelcapacity, and specific absorption rate (SAR) through measurements.The paper by Priya et al. proposes a rectangular array antenna-based hybrid beamforming in a massive MIMO model to improve the spectral efficiency of the system. Thus, channel capacity with small RF chains is used. To achieve the high signal strength in the mainlobe, the work applies Chebyshev tapering to suppress the side lobe signals. The hybridbeamforming system offers bothreduced complexity and increasedspectral efficiency.In the paper by Dwivedi et al., a compact size wideband circularly polarized 2-portMIMO antenna is designed for 5G with ( 10 dB) impedance bandwidth of 900 MHz inthe frequency band 3.3–4.2 GHz and 100% 3-dB axial ratio bandwidth. The antenna coversthe potential 5G band ranging from 3.3 to 3.8 GHz having left-handed circular polarizationcharacteristics.13

5G System Design Solutions for Wireless Personal Applications 1925The paper by Khwandah et al. presents the MIMO technology evolution and challengesin a simple introductory way and investigates potential system enhancements.The paper by Jeyakumar et al. proposes a design of 28 GHz microwave wireless backhaul link for small-cell base stations (SBSs) as well as the number of antennas required forthe base station (BS) to achieve a target backhaul rate of 10 Gbit/s within a given transmitpower of 40 dBm. The design minimizes the total transmit power over all BSs subjectto theconstraints of the signal-to-interference-and-noise ratio (SINR) as beamformers are integrated in a distributed manner.Satyanarayana Nimma Murthy et al. integrate two meta-heuristic algorithms, beetleswarm optimization (BSO) and Grey Wolf optimization (GWO), into a hybrid algorithmcalled the alternative Grey Wolf with beetle swarm optimization (AGW-BSO) for developing a hybrid beam selection scheme in MIMO-NOMA to support the multiple SBSs.The paper by Neema and Gopi considers the problem of path power loss prediction inmmWave MIMO channels, line-of-sight as well as non-line-of-sight channels. The paperapplies two deep learning models to address the problem. One of the two models, whichthe authors propose, is used to generate new data from a limited set of available channeldata, and the other, a deep convolutional neural network, is applied to predict the channelpath loss characteristics. Using simulations, the authors demonstrate that the two models,respectively, generate more useful data from the available limited set and predict the channel characteristics with minimum error.The paper by Sujanth Narayanan KG, et al. presents a compact Co-Planar Waveguide (CPW) fed antenna for next-generation Vehicular Communications. The antennais designed by employing two rectangular stacked patch structures and slots, making theantenna resonate at dual frequency bands. The analytical study of antenna design is carriedout using the governing microstrip patch equations. On optimizing the patch’s dimensionsof CPW structures, the desired frequency range of operation is obtained from the singleelement antenna structure. The designed antenna resonates at 3.5 GHz (LTE-42 Band)and 5.9 GHz (DSRC Band), yielding this antenna to be a prime component for Vehicular to Everything (V2X) Communication. The overall efficiency of the antenna element isbetween 60% and 80% at both frequency bands.3  5G Mobile IOT SolutionsThe paper by Sachdeva and Tomar proposes a low power twelve transistor (12 T) SRAMcell that reduces multi-bit errors for IoT-based devices by facilitating bit interleaving, andimproves read, and write ability. The SRAM cell also exhibits reduced power dissipation.The field of Internet of Things (IoT) finds applicability in smart agriculture by facilitating efficient utilization of natural resources. In order to manage the data generated in theprocess of collecting information to administer smart agriculture, the paper by Al-Qurabatet al. proposes data traffic management based on compression and minimum descriptionlength techniques using differential encoding and Huffman encoding. Though the techniques are well known, the results for compressing temperature measurements seem to suggest that the scheme outperforms other available schemes.The paper by Mishra et al. proposes an architecture for eHealthcare using the 5G NR.Simulation results reveal, not surprisingly, that 5G reduces the latency by an order of magnitude in comparison to LTE. The paper concludes that better eHealthcare facilities can beprovided with 5GNR, thereby facilitating rapid data sharing and diagnosis.13

1926P. I. Lazaridis et al.In the paper by Héctor Poveda et al., a prototype is presented that measures a set ofwireless metrics on raw wireless signals acquired with software defined radio technology.This prototype aims to provide mechanisms to sense and monitor spectrum usage that canmitigate one of the issues that IoT faces, i.e., the interference being produced by having different technologies using the same frequency channels.Augmented, mixed and virtual reality are changing the way people interact and communicate. Five dimensional communications and services capable of integrating information from all human senses are expected to emerge, together with holographic communications (HC), providing a truly immersive experience. HC presents considerable challengesin terms of data gathering and transmission, demanding Artificial Intelligence empoweredcommunication technologies such as 5G. The paper by Manolova et al. presents a model ofa context-aware holographic architecture for real-time communication based on semanticknowledge extraction.Chochliouros et al. introduce the architectural approach that has been proposed by the5G ESSENCE project, addressing the paradigms of edge computing and small-cell as-aservice that has been realised via a cloud-enabled small-cell infrastructure leveragingmulti-access technologies in 5G.They propose a dedicated public safety use case, able tooffer a mission critical push-to-talk service as well as a chat and localization service.Mahantesh et al. introduce a technique in which the optimum path is determined thatsatisfies the QoS constraints: Rule Caching (RC) cost, packet loss probability, and delay.A RC policy is designed that matches the requirements of SD-based IoT architecture suchthat the cost of RC is minimized.The paper by Hasan et al. proposes an enhanced repetitions cooperative process of narrow band physical uplink shared channel (NPUSCH). The NPUSCH is transmitted usingone or more resource units (RUs) and each of these RUs is repeated up to 128 times toenhance coverage as well as to meet the requirement of ultra-low end IoT. The optimumnumber of repetitions of identical slots for NPUSCH per RUs is calculated and then simulated. In addition, the paper describes analytical simulation to evaluate the proposed repetition of cooperative process performance for LTE-NPUSCH channel.4  5G Network SecurityThe area of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is gaining considerable attention recently dueto the promises it offers as a background cooperative mobile relay network and as an augmented network to enhance the performance of mobile networks. The paper by Anandpushparaj et al. studies the system performance of UAV-assisted relay systems. Besidesderiving a closed-form expression for outage probability and system throughput, simulation results provide some interesting insights on the impact of self-interference and thefading parameter.Chochliouros et al. discuss several security requirements coming from an assessment ofthe use cases developed within the context of the original 5G-PPP “5G ESSENCE” project. They have separately assessed each one towards identifying security threats affectingthe development of associated virtualised services within the broader 5G scope.Jayapandian et al. propose tabu search concept to solve this encryption algorithm selection problem that reduces the average encoding and decoding time in multimedia data. The13

5G System Design Solutions for Wireless Personal Applications 1927local search scheduling concept is to schedule the encryption algorithm and store the datain local memory table.Anil Kumar K et al. propose two reinforcement-learning techniques, namely the physical layer secured Q-learning algorithm for RS (PQL-RS) and the modified physical layersecured Q-learning algorithm for RS (MPQL-RS) for different scenarios. The proposedalgorithms are compared to the different RS schemes. The simulation results show that theMPQL-RS can deliver better performance and save the convergence time. It is shown thatthe secrecy of the system improves by 7% on average for every doubling of modulationorder.Narasimha Vankudoth and Kiran Kumar Gurrala introduce a hybrid-decode-amplifyforward (HDAF) cooperative relaying into a control jamming aided NOMA network underRayleigh-flat-fading channel conditions. The secrecy performance of the considered network in terms of secrecy rate at both NOMA users analytically under different jammingscenarios. Differential Evolution (DE) algorithm-based power allocation is adopted to optimize the powers of jammer, relay, and NOMA users for which maximization of secrecyrate is chosen as the cost function.We have grouped the papers appearing in this special issue under four major 5G themesso as to direct the readers of this journal to the appropriate theme(s) and papers of interest. Though we selected papers targeting four key themes under 5G, we do think that manyof the papers will find applicability to 6G systems and beyond and spur further researchinterests.Publisher’s Note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps andinstitutional affiliations.Dr. Pavlos I. Lazaridis is a Professor in Electronic and Electrical Engineering at the University of Huddersfield, UK. He received the Electrical Engineering degree from the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki,Greece, in 1990, the M.Sc. Degree in Electronics from UniversitéPierre et Marie Curie, Paris 6, France, in 1992, and the Ph.D. degree inElectronics and telecommunications from Ecole Nationale Supérieuredes Télécommunications (ENST) and Paris 6, Paris, in 1996. From1991 to 1996, he was involved with research on semiconductor lasers,wave propagation, and nonlinear phenomena in optical fibers for theCentre National d’Etudes des Télécommunications (CNET) and teaching at the ENST. In 1997, he became the Head of the Antennas andPropagation Laboratory, TDF-C2R Metz (Télédiffusion de France/France Télécom Research Center), where he was involved withresearch on antennas and radio coverage for cellular mobile systems(GSM), Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB), and Digital Video Broadcasting-Terrestrial (DVB-T). From 1998 to 2002, he was with theEuropean Patent Office, Rijswijk, The Netherlands, as a Senior13

1928P. I. Lazaridis et al.Examiner in the field of Electronics and Telecommunications. From 2002 to 2014, he was involved withteaching and research at the Alexander Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki, Greece, andBrunel University, West London. He is leading the EU Horizon 2020 projects ITN-MOTOR5G and RISERECOMBINE for the University of Huddersfield. He is a member of the IET, senior member of the IEEE,and senior member of URSI.Dr. J. N. Swaminathan has received the B.E. Degree from Anna University, Chennai and the M.Tech. Degree from Sastra University,Thanjavur. He has completed his Doctoral Degree in Anna University,Chennai. He is currently working as Professor in QIS College ofEngineering and Technology, Ongole, Andhra Pradesh, India. He haspublished his work in many refereed International journals and International conference proceedings. His area of interests includes IOT,Sensors and OFDM. He is a Professional member in GISFI-CTIFGlobal Capsule, IEEE & IEEE SSIT and IETE.Dr. Seshadri Mohan is currently a professor in Systems EngineeringDepartment at University of Arkansas at Little Rock, where, fromAugust 2004 to June 2013, he served as the Chair of the Department ofSystems Engineering. Prior to the current position he served as theChief Technology Officer (CTO) and Acting CEO of IP SerVoniX,where he consulted for several telecommunication firms and venturefirms, and served as the CTO of Telsima (formerly known as Kinera).Besides these positions, his industry experience spans a decade at NewJersey-based Telcordia (formerly Bellcore) and Bell Laboratories.Prior to joining Telcordia, he was an associate professor at Clarksonand Wayne State Universities. Dr. Mohan has authored/coauthoredover 150 publications in the form of books, patents, and papers in refereed journals and conference proceedings with citations to his publications in excess of 6330. He has co-authored the textbook Source andChannel Coding: An Algorithmic Approach. He has served as a GuestEditor for several Special issues of IEEE Network, IEEE Communications Magazine, and ACM MONET. In April 2011, he was awarded2010 IEEE Region 5 Outstanding Engineering Educator Award. He received the best paper award for thepaper “A Multi-Path Routing Scheme for GMPLS-Controlled WDM Networks,” presented at the 4th IEEEAdvanced Networks and Telecommunications Systems conference. Dr. Mohan holds a Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering from McMaster University, Canada, the Master’s degree in electrical engineering fromthe Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, India, and the Bachelor’s degree in Electronics and Telecommunications from the University of Madras, India.13

[email protected] 1 Computing and Engineering, University of Hudderseld, Queensgate, Hudderseld HD1 3DH, UK 2 Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, QIS College of Engineering and Technology, Ongole, Andhra Pradesh 523272, India 3 Systems Engineering Department, EIT 546, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, 2801 S