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What is Azure ActiveDirectory (and Why Should Icare)?Eric Kool-Brown ([email protected])Software Engineer UW-IT Identity and Access ManagementPresented to the Internet2 2018 Technology Exchange

Subtitle: Is it a Desert Topping or an OvenCleaner?Microsoft’s Office 365 includes Azure AD. Now what? Do you need on-premise Active Directory?How does identity data get into AAD?How does one manage AAD?What can AAD do?How much does AAD cost?This talk will attempt to answer these questions and more. I willdemonstrate how AAD fits into the identity mix at the UW and discussthe pros and cons of our architecture.Please hold questions to the end

Agenda Intro to Azure ADWho uses itHow is it usedLicensingAAD featuresGraph APIOAuth Consent AAD at the UWMFA for AADAAD GovernanceDeveloping for AADSummaryQuestionsResources and Glossary* Personal views and not the views of the University of Washington

Intro – What is Azure AD? (part 1) A directory service – storing user and group objects andtheir attributes– AAD objects are accessed via RESTful APIs– Other object types are stored to support additional functionality A credential store – storing hashed passwordsand certificates– So that AAD can be a stand-alone IdP and/or do cert auth

Intro – What is Azure AD (part 2) An identity provider – authenticating via OIDC, SAMLand WS-Fed/WS-Trust– No multi-lateral federation– Federation via ADFS or other proxies possible (Not straightforward)– AAD Business-to-Business (B2B) is not true federation It creates shadow accounts for B2B “guests” but authenticates them usingtheir home IdP– AAD Business-to-Consumer (B2C) creates a separate “tenant”to store these accounts

Intro – What is Azure AD (part 3) An authorization server (AS) – managing access toresources via OAuth scopes and Azure roles– Azure and Office 365 web APIs have AAD scopes– Scopes can be combined into roles which can be used by Azurepolicies– Developers can create AAD application objects These are OAuth clients Custom scopes and roles can be defined on them A licensing store A rapidly evolving IDaaS platform

Intro – AAD is not ADActive Directory An LDAP directory– LDAP API and auth– Hierarchical namespace– Extensible LDAP schema Kerberos authentication– And NTLM Computer joining– Group PolicyAzure Active Directory Not an LDAP directory– No LDAP API– No hierarchical namespace– No LDAP schema No Kerberos auth– No NTLM (yay!) AAD device joining– Device Management (MDM)via InTune

Intro – More on AAD Limited support for custom attributes Syncing custom AD attributes to AAD not simpleAAD underpinnings Based on AD-LDS, modified for the usage and scaling Internally, it is called MSODS – Microsoft Operational Data Store Core of AD is the Jet database with an LDAP head above that DB It would be possible to put a non-LDAP head above the Jet DB (but I don’t know thedetails) Several Office workloads (EO, SPO) have shadow directories that have beenextended with their own attribute needs Back-end sync processes move changes from the master AAD to those shadowdirectories.

Who Uses AAD? Office 365 apps (online and thick client versions of Outlook,Word, Excel, SharePoint, etc.) use AAD for userauthentication Azure workloads (VMs and other Azure services) canuse AAD for autheNticateion/authoriZation Custom applications that need enterprise authN/authZand identity information Third party “Gallery” apps use AAD, e.g. Salesforce

How Is It Used – 2 Basic Modes Stand-alone: all accounts created directly in AAD– Provision to AAD from Workday or using the Graph API Synced from on-premise AD– On-premise AD is the master but you can configure sync-backfor changes made in AAD– AD sync has two modes of operation: password hash sync or nopassword hash sync– If password hashes are synced from AD, then authN can bedone entirely in AAD– If password hashes are not synced, then federation must beconfigured to allow AAD to use an external IdP

AAD Licensing AAD stores user license assignments– Includes the licenses to use AAD and Office 365 features– Many advanced AAD features require a high level of licensingfor all your AAD users An Office 365 license includes a basic AAD license– Covers the standard set of AAD features e.g. user authN/authZ MS licensing is complex and constantly changing

Licensing LevelsFrom active-directory/ (only the top of a very long page)

AAD Features (part 1)A wide variety of standard and optional features areavailable based on your level of licensing Tenant isolation: each AAD/O365 organization has aseparate DNS namespace and entity ID (basic license)– DNS namespaces form the set of allowable UPN suffixes– Every Azure subscription must be bound to an AAD tenant Multiple subscriptions can be bound to the same tenant Allows you to segregate your Azure usage into different expensebuckets

AAD Features (part 2) Conditional access– Set rules for what and how resources are accessed– MFA requires conditional access (P1 license for those users) Azure Identity Protection (AIP)– Machine learning is used to analyze access patterns such thatunusual patterns can be flagged as suspicious (P2 license for allusers) Reporting and auditing– Reports on activity and access can be viewed through both theGUI and via RESTful web API calls– More advanced reports require P1 licensing

AAD Features (part 3) Application publishing: develop an application and makeit available to be used by any and all Azure/O365 users(basic license)– An Azure app is the anchor object for an OAuth client It defines the client ID and the client secret– The app can be limited to your tenant or can be published in theapp gallery for any tenant to use– Conditional access can be used to limit who has access to anapplication E.g. only members of a specific group (P1 license for those users)

AAD Features (part 4) Device authentication– Devices can be "joined" to AAD to provide a higher level ofassurance for user authN (premium license for some flavors)– This is a certificate-based process with the device's private keystored in its TPM (if it has one)– E.g. via conditional access, don't require MFA if logging in from ajoined/trusted device Device management: Intune MDM (P1 license)– Join devices to AAD and manage the devices includingconfiguration and remote wipe

AAD Features (part 5) AAD Domain Services– Provides LDAP, machine join, Kerberos, NTLM and Group Policy– It is not full AD; you are limited in what you can do No schema modification– AD join Azure VMs so they can use Windows Integrated Auth Use an Azure Virtual Network for the VMs and the AAD DS so that thoseports are not wide open to the Internet– Open LDAPS (port 636) to the public internet for use by SaaS apps– The licensing cost is per AAD DS user/group account(continued)

AAD Features (part 5 continued) AAD Domain Services– If your AAD is federated with your local AD then you must haveAAD password hash sync enabled– The AAD DS domain is a stand-alone domain There is no trust from it to your on-prem AD (but it does have SIDhistory)– No domain admin privileges It is a fully managed instance of AD

AAD Features (part 6) Business to Business (B2B) – not really federation– Creates shadow accounts for "guest" users– Defers account management and authN to the guest’s IdP– Guests must be invited either interactively or programmatically –it isn't a formal IdP-to-IdP relationship Business to Consumer (B2C)– Creates separate "tenant" for you to hold consumer accountsyou create (or that customers create themselves using yourcustom web app) Effectively an IdP-of-last-resort– Can employ other IdPs such as Google and FB for authn

AAD Features (part 7) App Proxy– A service that allows AD-joined machines to use their AAD logintoken to be exchanged for a Kerberos service ticket– This extends OIDC SSO to Windows Integrated Authentication– Requires a “connector” server in your on-prem data center Privileged Identity Management (PIM)– Monitor, audit, and JIT approve use of roles that convey elevatedaccess Group Management– Three type of groups – synced from AD, AAD native, and Officegroups

Graph APIRESTful web API CRUD access to AAD and Office 365 Two variations– Azure Graph - the original, only manages AAD, reasonablycomprehensive– Microsoft Graph - manage both AAD and Office 365 workloads,not yet up to par with the Azure Graph WRT AAD Both Use– "industry standard" O-Data query language but onlyimplements a subset of the functionality– OAuth authentication and its authorization scopesE.g. https://graph.windows.net/uw.edu/users/[email protected]

OAuth Consent in AAD AAD as an OAuth AS also manages user consent It will prompt for consent on first use– For API access, consent must be granted through the Admin Portal It saves the response You can query the state of user consent– E.g. you can ask “what consent has user X granted?” Consent can be either per-user or admin consent for allusersExamples of consent screens follows

Azure Graph API ExplorerConsent DialogThis is a fairlyold consent UI

MS Graph Explorer Consent Dialog – recent version

AAD at the UWUW NetID system provides identities to Linux, Main-frames, and Windows User Provisioning– SOR - ID-Registry - OpenLDAP/MIT-Kerberos - AD - AAD UW AD provisioning via homebrew pub/sub system AAD Connect used to sync AD changes to AAD Group Provisioning– Grouper - AD - AAD Grouper changes posted to AWS event queue A process listens for those events and updates AD Office/Azure Authentication– AAD - ADFS - Shibboleth

AAD at the UW Graphically

AAD at the UW continuedThe authentication flow is complicated with a lot of hops Upgrading ADFS to 4.0 was a huge undertaking– ADFS 4.0 removed features we had been using requiring us toengineer clumsy work-arounds– We had to modify Shibboleth to accept a non-standard SAMLAuthnContextClassRef Office 365 “Modern Auth” can break in many ways– Different versions of the Office thick clients have different authbehavior (2016 C2R vs. 2016 MSI vs. 2013)– Fiddler can be necessary to figure out what is going on

AAD at the UW – MFA UW currently using Duo with Shibboleth IdP Lots of options for AAD MFA, none simple orinexpensive– We’ve launched an analysis project– Options table with multiple rows and columns Duo vs. AAD MFA Duo in AAD vs. Duo in ADFS vs. Duo in Shib PW hash sync to AAD and AAD MFA would be the simplest butthere would be two different user experiences for login and MFA Legacy clients are problematic (app passwords?)

MFA with AADThese are thefinalist options outof the 14permutations thatwere initiallyidentified

AAD Governance Inadequate Technical Controls – examples:– No group member privacy– Poor group naming control– Poor object ownership and lifecycle management– Misbehaving/compromised user accounts– Cumbersome e-discovery mechanisms Involve your data custodians and stakeholders– Create technical controls where possible– Create policy when necessary

AAD Futures at the UW Password hash sync– Pro: Would simplify the login flow (no ADFS or Shib)– Pro: More signal intelligence for AIP– Con: Can’t use AAD self-service password reset no simple way to reverse sync the new password to our NetID system– Con: User education and phishing – two different login experiences– Neutral: Required for AAD Domain Services Leveraging the Azure Platform– UW apps Azure hosted and authenticated via OIDC– UW web services using Azure OAuth versus using the new Shib orother AS/OP?– Hybrid networking by connecting the UW net to Azure (TBD)

Developing for AAD Building a Visual Studio IIS web site that uses AADOIDC/OAuth is drop-dead simple It is “standard” OIDC/OAuth such that libraries for otherlanguages should work– MS folks on the OpenID Foundation working groups may helpensure that the MS implementations adhere to the emergingprofiles and their conformance tests I built a monitoring app that downloads audit events andother Graph objects– At the time there was limited library support, but it wasn't hard tocode directly

SummaryAzure Active Directory is:– Capable and complex (almost dizzyingly so!)– Maturing but not mature (especially the documentation)– Being enhanced on a rapid cadence– Not cheap and can be quite expensive The security features being P1/P2 is troubling– Mostly standards compliant– MS recognizes the security weaknesses of its legacy protocolsand is moving to an all-new model with web-friendly APIs andstrong public-key-based processes

Questions?

Resources Doc entry point: tory/ Azure Licensing: ctive-directory/ Workday provisioning: tory/saas-apps/workday-inbound-tutorial UW AAD Architecture n/arch/ UW MFA Analysis: https://wiki.cac.washington.edu/x/pppABQ UW Group Sync code: https://bitbucket.org/uwitiam/group-sync EKB blog on cert auth for services: https://blogs.uw.edu/kool/

Glossary OAuth a web-friendly authorization protocol––– OIDC OpenID Connect, an authentication protocol built on OAuth– AS Authorization Server, the server that issues OAuth tokensClient the web app/API that is protected by OAuthClient ID and secret the credentials of an OAuth clientOP OIDC Provider, the OIDC equivalent of an IdPModern Auth Microsoft’s term for OAuth/OIDCWS-Federation, WS-Trust the protocols used by ADFSADFS Active Directory Federation Services, a locally run service that enablesfederated authenticationNTLM a very old and very insecure authentication protocolMicrosoft Organizational Accounts (org accounts) – in an AAD tenantMicrosoft Consumer Accounts – from Hotmail, Outlook, Live, a separate tenantJIT Just In Time – a short term conveyance of privileges

- Pro: Would simplify the login flow (no ADFS or Shib) - Pro: More signal intelligence for AIP - Con: Can't use AAD self-service password reset no simple way to reverse sync the new password to our NetID system - Con: User education and phishing -two different login experiences - Neutral: Required for AAD Domain Services AAD .