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MISSION AND MINISTRY ATVILLANOVA UNIVERSITYLeadership in theAugustinian Tradition

As both Catholic and Augustinian, Villanova University pursuesacademic excellence, promotes a vision of the common good andcelebrates the sacramental character of all creation with respect andreverence. We search for truth with openness to ultimate meaning and valuethrough the lens of Christian faith and engagement with all disciplines in theliberal arts tradition. Through innovative academic course work and pastoralministry, we express a “special concern for the poor, compassion for the suffering,regard for the value of life and dedication to social justice and human rights.”(Augustinian Ministry of Higher Education, 1996)The Heart of the Matter is an annual publication of the Office for Mission &Ministry. It hopes to show the centrality of Villanova’s Augustinian and Catholicidentity and its unique contribution to American Catholic higher education.The cover image depicting St. Augustine giving his rule to his followers hangsin St. Augustine Church in Old City, Philadelphia. It is a fitting illustration formuch of the content in this issue. Though he never penned a theory of leadership,through his Rule, St. Augustine offers all who read it lessons for leadership and life.We are especially indebted to collaborators Most Reverend Diarmuid Martin,Mary Anne Glendon, Bruce Winston, Fr. Joe Mostardi, OSA, Daniel Madden,Chris Janosik and guest author Devin Brown, who contributed content for thisissue. Our hope is that this publication and their efforts will provide insightinto the heart of Villanova University and inspire not only personal growth butparticipation in and fulfillment of our Augustinian mission.Barbara Wall, PhDVice President for Mission and Ministry“SERVANTS.The first thingGOOD SUPERIORSconsider itThey shouldbtheirendignityeat hnot”to be servants to many.St. Augustine—Sermon 340A, 1PAOLA NOGUERAS/VILLANOVA UNIVERSITYm u st re al i ze is th at th ey a r e

ISSUE 5—201526Who arethe Augustinians?Ever wonder how Augustiniansdiscern their vocations and becomepriests? Find out how.Worldview: Building aFramework forFulfillmentEveryone has a worldview. It helpsmake decisions, find meaningand define the “good life.”81418C.S. LEWIS IMAGE—HANS W ILD/ST. AUGUSTINE IMAGE— KEAN COLLECTION20How ThenShall We Live?The Rule of St. Augustine offers soundadvice for life. It’s as relevant for ustoday as it was when it was written.Pope Francis andCatholic Social TeachingArchbishop Diarmuid Martin saysthat Pope Francis calls us to gobeyond “thinking” about the poor.We are required to “desire, seek andprotect the good of others.”Beatitudinal LeadershipThe Sermon on the Mount is morethan the most frequently quotedpassage in the Bible. It’s also auseful theory of leadership.1624C.S. Lewis and Augustine:Conversion ParallelsDevin Brown shows us that Lewisand Augustine had much in commonwhile struggling to find their wayto God.Religious Freedom:Issues and ConcernsIn accepting Villanova’s Civitas DeiAward, Mary Ann Glendon outlinedformidable challenges facing our country.Servant-Leadership:An AugustinianTradition?Robert Greenleaf’s 1970 theoryis widely practiced. ThoughSt. Augustine never offered hisown “theory,” to lead as he did isto be a Servant-Leader and more.Cover Image:St. Augustine Giving the Rule (1898) Tito Troya 1847-1916This painting is one of a series of eight canvases painted in Romein 1897–1898 and shipped to St. Augustine Roman Catholic Church,Philadelphia, PA where they are displayed.Photographer: Paul Crane for VIllanova UniversityUnless otherwise noted, content for The Heart of the Matter is prepared by editor, Dr. Christopher M. Janosik, Director of Planning and Research, Office for Mission & Ministry,Villanova University. No part of this publication may be reproduced or retransmitted without express written permission of the editor.Since 1842, Villanova University’s Augustinian Catholic intellectualtradition has been the cornerstone of an academic community inwhich students learn to think critically, act compassionately andsucceed while serving others. As students grow intellectually,Villanova prepares them to become ethical leaders who createpositive change everywhere life takes them.T H E H E A R T O F T H E M AT T E R 1

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Who are theAugustinians?Pre-Novices, Novices, Friars, Brothers,Deacons and PriestsJust who and what draws men andwomen to religious life in the21st century has been andcontinues to be a topic forextensive research and extendedcommentary. Both are beyondthe scope of this brief article. Thequestion to be addressed here howeveris how does a man interested inbecoming an Augustinian Friar beginand complete the process.DOES IT TAKE ONE TOKNOW ONE?Men considering religious life are verylikely to know at least one priest verywell. As you might suspect, many,but not all, have been very activein parish life. A majority still beginthinking seriously about a vocationduring their elementary and highschool years; though a full 20% nowindicate that their considerationbegan after college. Seven of ten saythey were encouraged to do so by aparish priest.1KNOCKING AT THE DOORThe Order of Saint Augustine hasthree official vocation directors inthe United States: Reverend ThomasMcCarthy, OSA is responsible forthe Eastern and Midwestern regionsof the country. Reverend JorgeCleto, OSA is Director of HispanicVocations within these two regionsand Reverend Thomas Whelan, OSAmanages vocation programs on theWest Coast. Anyone interested inbecoming an Augustinian meets withone of these priests to discuss interestin religious life. After an initialevaluation, a candidate is introducedto a local Augustinian community andis invited to spend time with membersof the group as a DISCERNER.PRE-NOVITIATE YEARAfter at least a year in discernment, aprospective candidate becomes a PRENOVICE. A candidate lives in anAugustinian community and beginsthe work of formation. Pre-Novicesstudy philosophy and theology and areintroduced to the Rule of Augustineand the Constitutions of the Order.Discernment of vocation continuesas they participate in community life.Upon completion of pre-novitiaterequirements, the formation teamevaluates the readiness of the candidateto advance to the next stage.Currently, pre-novices from theEastern and Mid-Western regionslive in community at BlessedStephen Bellesini Friary in Ardmore,Pennsylvania. The Friary is led byReverend Joseph Mostardi, OSA andReverend Frank Doyle, OSA.NOVITIATE YEARCandidates from all three regionsin the United States who continueformation move to Racine, Wisconsinand receive the white habit of aNOVICE. The candidate continuesdeveloping a life of prayer anddeepening his relationship withGod. Formation as an Augustiniancontinues as novices live according tothe Rule of Augustine and prepare forfirst profession of the religious vows ofpoverty, chastity and obedience.THEOLOGATE YEARSAfter a year as a novice, First Vowsare professed and the novices are thencalled BROTHERS of the Order.Having professed first vows, thebrothers move into formal academicpreparation. Theological studies cantake four or five years depending onthe particular calling. The white habitis replaced with a black one. BrothersTTHHEE HHEEAARRTT OOFF TTHHEE MM ATAT TTEERR 3

move to St. Augustine Friary in Chicago, Illinois andcontinue theological studies at the Catholic TheologicalUnion (CTU) in preparation for ministry, whilecontinuing to discern their vocation. In the third year atCTU, each candidate spends a “pastoral” year of servicein one of the ministries of his province. Solemn Vows aremade between the fourth and fifth years.A Solemnly Professed friar will usually be ordained as aDEACON in the beginning of his fifth year. And uponcompletion of this final year, the major superior, withconsent of his council, will present deacons for receptionof Holy Orders, after which the deacon becomes anAugustinian PRIEST.BUT WHAT’S IT LIKE?The Bellesini Friary in Ardmore opened in 2010.Currently, there are eight pre-novices at the house.They come from as nearby as Pennsylvania and as faraway as Japan. Most are taking classes at VillanovaUniversity or ESL (English as a second language)classes at St. Joseph’s University.Fr. Joe Mostardi, OSA, Director of the Pre-NovitiateProgram, describes the year this way: “St. Augustinereminds us that in order to know God we need to getto know ourselves. The Pre-Novitiate Program is anopportunity for young men who are serious about ourway of life, to dedicate at least a year getting to knowthemselves in light of their call to religious life in the4

Augustinian Order. Communitylife, common prayer, and a varietyof academic and ministerialopportunities provide these menthroughout the year with a chance tosee firsthand the true nature of theirrestless heart, as they seek to do God’swill in their lives.”An average day in the life of thisAugustinian community begins at7:30 am with Morning Prayer. Thenthe pre-novices will go to school formost of the day, returning togetherfor Evening Prayer at 5:00 pmfollowed by Mass and dinner. EachSt. Augustine remindsus that in order toknow God we need toget to know ourselves.week there is a Formation Meeting,where topics on spirituality and faithas well as St. Augustine’s Rule andConfessions are discussed. Othernights and weekends may be spentin joyful fellowship, cooking dinnertogether, hiking at Valley Forge andplaying sports.Those who attend VillanovaUniversity for school take classesin philosophy to prepare for coursework in Chicago. Being at Villanovaprovides the community with anopportunity to engage in events suchas service days and break trips. Manyare also in the Knights of Columbus.In addition to school, pre-novicesare involved in various liturgical andpastoral ministries, such as visitingnursing homes and teaching CCDin local parishes.The community attends Mass in theevening on campus twice a weekand twice at the friary. Augustinianguest presiders celebrate Mass at thehouse, which connects the group tothe greater Augustinian community.So while much time during the daymight be spent on one’s own or withanother member of the communityin class or ministry, the beginning ofthe day and the end are always spenttogether. One current pre-novicedescribed living in the house as being“a family apart from the world whilestill being right in the midst of it.”And just for good measure, Fr. Joe andFr. Frank are always there to reinforcethe importance of community living—growing in relationship with othersand with God. It keeps us together“intent upon God in oneness of mindand heart.”2Content for this article is adapted from the organizationalwebsite of the Augustinian Province of Saint Thomas ofVillanova, Villanova, Pennsylvania in collaboration withDaniel Madden ’11 CLAS, ’14 MA, Villanova University.1. Gautier, M and Saunders, C. The Class of 2014: Survey ofOrdinands to the Priesthood. Washington, DC: Center forApplied Research in the Apostolate, 21.2. Rule of Augustine, I, 3.T H E H E A R T O F T H E M AT T E R 5

Worldview:Building a Frameworkfor FulfillmentLeading Christian thinkershave attempted to define andapply this concept for centuries.One says that “a world view isa framework or set of fundamentalbeliefs through which we view theworld, our calling and our futurein it.”1 Another contends thata world view is “a conceptual universefashioned by words and concepts thatwork together to provide a coherentframe of reference for all thought andaction.”2 They and their advocatesclaim that “development of a worldview satisfies the human need to‘define the good life’ ‘find hopeand meaning’ ‘guide thought andaction’ in it.”3“Worldview literature” insists everybody has a world view, whether weknow it or not—no matter howconsistently or inconsistently we acton it. Further, “four fundamentalquestions are at the heart of everyworld view: ‘Who am I? Where am I?What obstacles keep me from fulfillment? How do I overcome these?’”4Evangelical Christians have describedwhat they call the Biblical Worldview.Those that hold this view believethat God is the Creator of theuniverse, that the Bible is historicallyaccurate, that there are moral absolutes, that Jesus Christ, the Son ofGod, was born, lived on Earth, died,was buried and rose for our sins andthat salvation is obtained solely byindividual faith in Christ.5In contrast, a Modern Worldviewis frequently characterized as onethat “privileges human autonomyand scientific reason, divides reality6

into the mutually exclusive categoriesof sacred and secular, allows forsituational solutions to moraldilemmas and swears allegianceto the ‘gods of our age’—science,technology and the market.”6As for the Catholic Worldview,sometimes referred to asa Sacramental Worldview,Lawrence Cunningham, JohnA. O’Brien Professor of TheologyEmeritus at the Universityof Notre Dame, suggests thatit is “a mode of being in anda way of seeing the world, whichis at the very least, characteristicof Catholicism.”7 Concerningcreation then, the Catholicview holds that ”the world andeverything in it is a gift from God;that the world is good, that it is theproper sphere of human activity,and as such it is to be received withgratitude and pursued as a stewardship.”8 Concerning sin and evil, theCatholic view “succumbs to neitherexcessive optimism nor hopelesspessimism, but embraces a realisticviewpoint grounded in the themesof the goodness of creation, the tragicfall of man and hopeful redemptionin Jesus Christ.”9 The Catholic view“stresses the importance of time; past,present and future, which createsan understanding of solidarity withthe historic church and the communion of saints”10 “rememberingGod’s work in the past, celebratingthe Good News of the present andanticipating the victorious returnof Christ in the future.”11Developing a WorldviewCatholic philosopher James Schall, SJ claims that the purpose of a liberaleducation is “to explain man to himself.”12 There are, no doubt, moreeloquent, elaborate statements of purpose. But where, during the collegeyears, does one find an opportunity to develop a world view? With its“Gateway Courses” Villanova’s Humanities Department helps studentsask and answer BIG questions:Is there a God and what difference does it make if there is? What does it mean to be a human being? What can I know about the world around me and my place in it?13 How do I relate to my family, my friends, society, politics? Its mission “is to seek wisdom for personal and cultural renewal throughthe pursuit of an integrated, interdisciplinary approach to human questions.”At the foundation of its method of inquiry “lies the conviction that reason willnot be satisfied with fragmentary bits of information, but aspires to a view of thewhole, and an insight into the foundation of things. This conviction is joinedby a second: that the light of faith neither compromises nor substitutes forrigorous intellectual reflection, but informs the work of reason, even as itprovokes constant wonder and promotes deeper inquiry.”14 It’s in this waythat the Humanities program encourages students to “go beyond the mindthat you have” “to change your way of knowing” “to learn and liveat a deeper level.”15Looking to explore life’s biggest questions? Interested in testing your thoughtsin reasoned debate? Want to develop a framework for life-long fulfillment?There may be no better place to begin than Villanova’s Humanities Department.For more information, visit the St. Augustine Center for the Liberal Artsand Sciences, Room 304. CMJ1. Olthuis, J. (1989). “On Worldviews” In Paul Marshall, Sander Griffioen and Richard Mouw (ed.) Christian Studies Today.Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 29.2. Sire, J. (1997). The Universe Next Door: A Basic Worldview Catalog. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 16.3. Holmes, A. (1983). “Contours of a World View” In Carl Henry ed. Studies in a Christian World View. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 5.4. Walsh, B. and Middleton, J. (1984). The Transforming Vision: Shaping a Christian World View. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press,35.5. Dockery, D. and Thornbury, G. (2002). Shaping a Christian Worldview. Nashville, TN: B&H Publishing, 1-15.6. Naugle, D. (1983). Worldview: A History of the Concept. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 351.7. Cunningham, L. (1987). The Catholic Faith: An Introduction. New York: Paulist Press, 111.8. Naugle, 34.9. Ibid., 36.10. Ibid., 36-37.11. McBrien, R. (1980). Catholicism, 2 Volumes. Minneapolis: Winston Press, 1:135-137.12. Schall, J. (2003) “What are the Liberal Arts?” In William Stancil ed. A Student’s Guide to Liberal Arts. Kansas City:Rockhurst University Press, 1-19.13. Villanova University Humanities Department website.14. Ibid.15. Barron, R. (1998) And Now I See: A Theology of Transformation. New York: Crossroads Publishing, 5-7.T H E H E A R T O F T H E M AT T E R 7

HOW SHALLWE LIVE?Guidance fromthe Rule of Saint AugustineA“rule” is a guide by which one can measure progress in one’slife. There are four great rules in the Church. Their authorsare St. Basil, St. Benedict, St. Francis and St. Augustine. TheRule of St. Augustine is renowned for its simplicity, its moderation andits care for those in need. The spirit of the Rule is what aids our entirecommunity—faculty, staff and students—in the collaborative search forwisdom and meaning in all aspects of life. While it was explicitly writtenfor Christians living in religious orders, most of its content is applicableto any community.ABOUT THE RULEIn the year 397, Augustine wrote a rule of common life for lay Christians. In it, heexpressed his ideas about living in an intentional religious community. Comparedwith other monastic rules, it is very brief, but its precepts get to the heart ofcommunity life. The Rule has been chosen by more than one hundred otherreligious orders and societies as the pattern for their daily lives.At its core is the description found in the Acts of the Apostles 4:32, “The whole groupof believers was of one mind and one heart. No one claimed any of his possessionsas his own, but everything was held in common.” Upon this passage, the Rule ofAugustine established that the community must live in harmony, “being of one mind8

“The whole group of believerswas of one mind and one heart.No one claimed any of hispossessions as his own, buteverything was held in common.”and heart on the way to God.” The fundamental message of the Rule is love—loveof God, love of neighbor—the foundation of Christian living.Central to these principles is overcoming the human tendency to favor one’s ownego, which Augustine saw as a major obstacle to achieving unity among membersand to living the Christian message. Every member’s spiritual and material goodsare to be shared in humility, which is a necessary condition for love. By their lovefor one another, by their ability to live together in harmony, members ofthe community embody the truth of the teachings of Christ. Inso doing, they make His love present to others.One might legitimately wonder how something of suchgreat antiquity can be relevant for a 21st centuryuniversity community. Augustine’s day and oursare still similar in many ways. The whole worldwas in turmoil, the ancient world was collapsingand what the new world would be like no oneknew. As in our own day, it was a time of crisisand transition, a time of uncertainty andconfusion in the world and in the Church. As apractical application of the Gospels to a life livedtogether in community amidst turmoil, the Rulestill provides a wealth of spiritual and practicalwisdom. Life together is the ideal for a universitycommunity whose members are on a sharedjourney toward knowledge, wisdom and whatAugustine calls “the happy life.”T H E H E A R T O F T H E M AT T E R 9

PRINCIPLE ONE:HARMONY AND HUMILITYTherefore all should liveunited in mind and heartand should in one another honor God, whose templesyou have become. [I, 8]“Humility consists of knowing yourself.Pride does its own will. Humility does the will of God.”1Humility is the root of true charity. It calls us to accept thesacred in ourselves and others. In other words, the humbleperson sees her or himself with all of her/his gifts and faults.Humility teaches us to see others as equals. “Humility inducesus to presume on our own strength and to trust in God.”210PRAYER ANDINTERIORITYPRINCIPLE TWO:Persevere faithfully in prayers (Col 4:2),at the appointed hours and times. [II, 1]While this part of the Rule specifically describes theChristian prayer practice, it can be understood as centralfor anyone with a faith orientation. Thus interiority—developing and maintaining an inner life at the depthsof one’s person—is critical for anyone who seeksunderstanding. Prayer, meditation, religious celebration,all in the context of one’s own religious tradition or faithcommunity, is essential for individuals and communities.According to Augustine, the only way to reach an “abiding,active knowledge of the truth is through humility.”3“Do not go outside yourself,but enter into yourself,for truth dwells in the interior self.”10“An Augustinian community is a place where the search fortruth takes place in a climate of love and friendship, whereone can experience that the ‘truth is neither yours nor mine,so that it can belong to the both of us.”4Both Augustine’s personal life and his spiritual teaching aredominated by a continual call to interiority. He contendsthat it is “inside one’s self” where truth is found,11 and thatonly in reflection and silence is understanding achieved.12In an Augustinian community, the purpose of life is tosearch for God, the ultimate Truth, not alone, but amongfriends5 who are committed to the same journey. In such acommunity “love is at the center and the heart” of everyact and interaction,6 and respect for each person, as a childof God, is primary.According to Augustine, the sights and sounds of theexternal world only serve as signposts and reminders.Learning takes place in the interior world.13 The interioractivity of contemplation and a search for the ultimateTruth leads us to transcend ourselves to an eventualencounter with God.14 Members strive to live in harmony—mutual concernfor and assistance to each other in every way possible,including fraternal correction, in a spirit of loveand understanding.7 Members look upon their work as an expression of one’shuman nature, not as a burden, but in cooperation withthe Creator in shaping the world and serving humankind. Always conscious of the virtues of honesty, integrity, andcompassion as fundamental to the Christian way of life,8members seek in every effort to work for unity, makingjustice and peace, the fruits of love, a reality in theChurch and in the world.9

PRINCIPLE THREE:PRINCIPLE FOUR:MODERATIONAND SELF-DENIALFRATERNAL CORRECTIONAND MUTUALRESPONSIBILITYDiscipline your flesh.so far as your health allows. [III, 1]It is better to need less than to have more. [III, 5]You should not try to please by your appearance,but by your behavior. [IV, 1]. protect one another’s modesty,for in this way God who dwells within youwill protect you from within yourselves. [IV, 6]Augustine’s thoughts on moderation and self-denial speakdirectly to our “post-modern” 21st century, consumer drivenculture. For us, “subduing” the flesh isn’t meant to indicatesome negative judgment about our human nature. It is, atheart, recognition that what we may desire or value is notalways most beneficial for our human growth or healthy life.He asks us to place a higher priority on connections amongthe mind, body AND spirit. The Rule is a reminder thatwe must feed our spirits as well as our bodies and thatover-consumption of anything can render us unhealthy ina variety of ways. Having too much can blind us to othersand to the truly important and beautiful things in life.This principle calls us to share our goods with those lessfortunate and reminds us that we are only stewards of thethings of this earth. It reminds us that appearances candeceive and the “good life” is to be sought above all.Whatever you are doing, your behaviorshould in no way cause offense to anyone,but should rather be in keepingwith the holiness of your way of life. [IV, 1-11].[Y]ou should warn [a brother or sister] at onceso that what has begun may go no furtherand may be immediately corrected. [IV, 7]Fraternal correction and mutual responsibility for each otheris fundamental to Augustine’s Rule and is a constant concernin the life of Augustine. We are indeed “our brother’s andsister’s keeper,”—an obligation which we must take mostseriously. It is not permission to be “busybodies” but is a call tocare for one another’s welfare. We’re all familiar withheadlines describing unimaginable tragedy on collegecampuses. Could any have been avoided, if members of thosecommunities had been more attentive to and responsible foreach other? One clear manifestation of such care is theobligation to act when another is in danger of straying intosin or is behaving in a manner that harms another.This principle is essential for responsible life together and isa real sign of respect for the other. It reflects a love and acare that goes beyond mere external social politeness andgets to the heart of the ideal of sharing all things. In today’sworld, however, it takes real courage to move past thetypical excuses: “So long as it’s not hurting me.” “It’s noneof my business.” “It’s a free country.” and other typicalresponses frequently used in uncaring communities.T H E H E A R T O F T H E M AT T E R 11

THE COMMON GOOD& CARE OF THE INDIVIDUALPRINCIPLE FIVE:So, then, no one should work at anything for [him/herself].All your work should be shared together,with greater care and more ready eagernessthan if you were doing things for yourself alone.For when it is written of lovethat it “does not seek its own.” (1 Cor 13:5)it means that it puts the common goodbefore its ownand not personal advantagebefore the common good. [V, 2]Stewardship of the common good requires that we willingly acceptaccountability for others through service to them, without control of them. Inthe Catholic tradition, “the Beatitudes teach us the final end to which God callsus, and confront us with decisive choices concerning earthly goods. They teachus [how] to love.”15 Likewise, the core teaching of the Gospel and the firstprinciple of social justice is that every human person is a child of God, worthyof respect and dignity. Villanova encourages each person to use his/herGod-given gifts in service to the community. The University also celebratesdifferences among individuals as a means of witnessing to the communitythrough each person’s uniqueness and diverse gifts.ASKING FOR PARDONAND EXTENDING FORGIVENESSPRINCIPLE SIX:Avoid quarrels or at least end them quickly,lest anger grow into hatred. [VI, 1]If anyone hurts another, [he/she] should be carefulto heal the wound made by apologizing as soon as possible;and the one who was hurt should be careful to forgivewithout further discussion. [VI, 2]A community without conflicts is impossible, but Augustine offers sound advice.Disputes are to be addressed quickly, directly and with compassion. Not only mustforgiveness be sought, but the one who has been offended must pardon withoutrancor. Most importantly, forgiveness must come from the heart not just the lips.Augustine makes it eminently clear that a community will be strong only if itsmembers interact honestly and lovingly. An Augustinian institution strives tomodel open, forthright and loving confrontation as it points out what is trulyharmful to individuals or the community for the welfare of all.12

PRINCIPLE SEVEN:OBEDIENCE AND LEADERSHIPYou should obey [those in authority] as you would a father,with respect for [his/her] office,lest you offend God who is within [him/her]. [VII, 44][Everyone in authority] should consider [themselves] luckynot in having power over youbut in being able to care for you with love.[Leaders] should show themselves to all around as a model of good works. [VII, 3]For Augustine, authority is an act of loving service. Designated leaders are not aboveothers but remain part of the community with special responsibilities and dutiestoward others. In this tradition then, two of the most important aspects of leadershipare guiding the community toward the fulfillment of Gospel ideals and being anexample to others.Every member, however, must take responsibility for achieving these ideals and fordiscerning the direction of the community. This requires a willingness to listen andcooperate for the common good. Moreover, obedience to authority shows lovingcompassion for leaders, who necessarily bear greatest responsibility for the community.THE GOAL FOR VILLANOVASome parts of this ancient rule are common sense. Other parts have become almostcounter-cultural. But these short excerpts demonstrate just how relevant the thought ofAugustine can be for life here at Villanova. What would our university be like if everyperson lived Augustine’s Rule to the fullest every day?The text for this article is an adaptation from Tolle Lege: A BriefIntroduction to Villanova University—Part 2 (2014). Quotationsfrom the Rule of Augustine are taken from the translation byRobert Russell, OSA. Chapter and paragraph appear in brackets.1. S ermon on John 25, 16.2. Pelligrino, M. (1996). Spiritual Journey: Augustine’s Reflection onthe Christian Life, 57-58.3. I bid. 35.4. Esmeralda, A. (2001). Augustinian Values, 9.5. C onfessions, 4, 4.7.6. T racts on the Gospel of John, 7, 8.7. R ule, 25-29, 41-43.8. Cf. General Statutes, 67.9. L etter, 234, 3-7.10. T rue Religion, 72, 102.11. I bid.12. S ermon, 56, 22.13. T he Teacher, XIV, 46.14. P elligrino, 11.15. C atechism of the Catholic Church, 1726-1728.T H E H E A R T O F T H E M AT T E R 13

is Pope FrancisREVOLUTIONIZINGCatholic Social TeachingIs Pope Francis

Program, describes the year this way: "St. Augustine reminds us that in order to know God we need to get to know ourselves. The Pre-Novitiate Program is an opportunity for young men who are serious about our way of life, to dedicate at least a year getting to know themselves in light of their call to religious life in the