Global dwelling: sustainability-Design participation, ThirdOIKONET conference, Manchester, UKA review of Islamic Traditional andContemporary Dwellings in Hot Climates, ,with Reference to Benghazi, LibyaBy: Nagah Ali, Dr. Ahmad Taki & Dr. Birgit PainterLeicester School of Architecture & Institute of Energy andSustainable Development23 September 2016

Outline Aim of the research Methodology Islamic traditional houses Climatic design Benghazi (case study) Research problems The survey Conclusion

Aim of the research The overall aim of the study is to investigate the main features of traditionalIslamic houses, which can enhance environmental comfort and reveal insightswhen compared with contemporary houses.o Traditional Islamic dwellingo Current contemporary dwelling

MethodologyStep123Methodliterature reviewQuantitativeAnalysisType and materialResults were achievedPrevious research, articles,journals, and booksDetermine and understand themain principles sustainable socialcultural and climatic design intraditional Islamic houses.Questionnaires ( 60 surveyswith local residents)Determine the physicalenvironment and human behaviourregarding to thermal comfort andprivacy in housesData collected, analysedDetermine the main environmentalprinciples of traditional Islamichousing design, which canimplement in contemporary housesto enhance environmental comfort(orientation, openings, and internalopen spaces).

1. The main features in Islamictraditional houses1. The compact system and narrow and irregular streets.2. The open interior domestic courtyard gives anacceptable environment for the residents with regard totemperature, and privacy.3. Orientation of courtyard can decrease the temperatureindoors and outdoors from 46 C to nearly 30 C (Edwardset. al., 2006).o The orientation of the courtyard is longitudinalaxis (East-West) for the sun movement.o Traditional urban fabric based on courtyard housing

The main features in Islamic traditionalhouses4. Courtyard includes pool and plants, which can helpwith orientation to decrease indoor temperature.5. Passive cooling in traditional houses is by naturalventilation between courtyard and small high openings(Heidari, 2010) .o Air circulationso The sun projection during summer days

1. The main features in Islamic traditionalhouses6. Building envelope and materials, local materials were used tobuild traditional houses (brick, stone, palm trunks, and wood)which have physical properties to act as thermal insulators withthick external wall and minimum external windows.o A street view of courtyard housing showing the high-level ofthe small openings (Edwards et. al., 2006).

Climatic design1. Building formA building form is responsiblefor up to 35% of the reductionin energy demand (Tereci,el.,2013).The effect of envelope to volume ratio on energy efficiency (Mikler et al. 2008)2. OrientationThe size of W-E facades should be less than the sizeof facades facing north and south (Tereci ,el.,2013). Sun movement (solar radiation). Wind direction ( natural ventilation).

Climatic designType 63. CourtyardA 3D view of the sixsimplified house/yardcombination types(Malekzadeh,2008).a) Koch-Nielsen draws a recommended widthof the courtyard that ranges from x to 3x,having x the courtyard height.b) Aspect Ratio (AR) area of the courtyard floor (m2)(Average height of surrounding walls)(AR 5 to 8)Comparative outdoor thermal comfort of all house types

Benghazi as case study City of Benghazi is the second largestcity in Libya, and the capital of theeastern region of Libya. Benghazi has a typical of theMediterranean climate, Mildwinters (5–18 C) and dry,hot summers (23–38 C). Benghazi has 631,555populations. The highest populationdensity, 2000 inhabitants/km2 (Agll et al., 2014).Building by type Yearly, housing demand,from 24,000 units to 38,000units (2000 – 2025) (UPA,2006).Location of Benghazi (Agll et al., 2014)Type%Flats39.50%Privatehouses60.50%Houses by Type, Benghazi,2006 (Mohamed, 2013)

The research problemsa) Housing design changes Not to use balconies (privacy) Excessive use of airconditioning and glazedwindows Use outdoor open space andnot considering withorientation of house Close most of the balconies with big glazedwindows (privacy)

Contemporary villa in BenghaziIndoorUsing artificial lightingOutdoorNo shading andprivacyUsing big glazedwindowsOutdoor seating areaReception roomopened to living roomDesign open planUnused swimming poolEntrance of villa

The research problemsb) Energy consumption Energy consumption distribution in Benghazi.Source GECOL report 2006 (GABRIL, 2014). Carbon dioxide emission per capita, MDG indicator.Source UN statistic, Division/ CDIAC (GABRIL,2014).

The percentage of preference to live in villas The main findings of the survey On January 2016, the survey was distributedrandomly in two different neighbourhoods(apartments and villas). The size of samples was 60 pilot surveys (30for apartments and 30 for 13%YesNoIf your house is villa, did you live in an apartment before?If your house is an apartment, would you to move to a villa?What is the building material of your partmentsVillasConcreteSandwich panelOther

The main findings of the surveyIf your house has open space, is it?100%Who designed your ctAre you satisfied with the level of privacy in youropen space (between your family 0%Repeater designThe number of windows,doors,and balconies in allfacades of villas10080%666040%4030%20%Civil engineer2011%7%10%0%0%85slightly satisfiedmoderatelysatisfiedvery satisfiedExtremelysatisfied431260North facadeNot at allsatisfied2113East facadeWindowWest facadeDoorBalconySouth façade

The main findings of the surveyThe usage of balconiesType of cooling mechanical system in houses120%120%100%100%100% 100%100%100%80%80%54%60%60%41%40%26%40%20%15%11%0% 0%0%0% 0%20%rare ayingspacePortable fan FixedFlats10%38%0%OtherVillasIn what season(s) is the Air Conditioning systemused?120%89%80%30%11%70%60%19%8%Air conditioning unit100%40%20%0%100% 100%46%30%0%Roof fanVillasAre you satisfied with the level of privacy inbalconies (between your family andneighbours)?50%0%46%50%40%8% 7%0% 0%20%Extremelysatisfied0%0%19%0%Not at allsatisfiedslightly satisfiedmoderatelysatisfiedFlatsVillasvery satisfiedSummerWinterAutumnFlatsVillasSpring

ConclusionUsing outdoorspacesUsing manyglazed windowsDecrease energyconsumption andCO2 emissionIncorrectorientationDecrease of useof airconditioningDecrease ofindoortemperatureIncrease ofindoortemperatureIncrease of useof airconditioningIncrease energyconsumptionand CO2emissionContemporary Islamic dwellingsUsing indooropen spacesDesign ofwindowscorrectorientationDifferentdesignsNumber andform of windowsOrientation ofwindowsType,color, andratio of glassEast-westdirection ofindoor openspacesDifferentlocationsTraditional Islamic dwellings

Thank you

build traditional houses (brick, stone, palm trunks, and wood) which have physical properties to act as thermal insulators with thick external wall and minimum external windows. o A street view of courtyard housing showing the high-level of the small openings (Edwards et. al., 2006). 1. The main features in Islamic traditional houses