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SPIRITUAL PSYCHOLOGY AND COUNSELINGCopyright 2017 EDAMReceived: April 5, 2019Revision Received: July 16, 2019eISSN: 2458-9675Accepted: September 28, 2019spiritualpc.netDOI 10.12738/spc.2019.4.3.071Original ArticleSpiritual Dimension in Art TherapyBeyza Kırca1Istanbul Sabahattin Zaim UniversityAbstractSpiritually-oriented art therapy interventions are based on a holistic, therapeutic approach that aims to enable peoplewho are in fragmented states to achieve integrity, unity, harmony, and balance by taking all the mental, emotional,physical, and spiritual dimensions of human nature into account using the medium of art and its creative processes.Art is considered intrinsically spiritual by many artists and art therapists, and the history of art and its relationship totreatment is as old as human history; however, open consideration of the spiritual dimension in therapeutic settings,particularly in art therapy interventions, is relatively new. Reviewing the emergence of spiritually-oriented art therapyinterventions and their mechanisms of change is considered useful for seeing how they enable holistic transformation.These mechanisms have been determined as self-realization and understanding, transcendence, meaning-making andsearching for a purpose, and achieving integrity through the holistic wellbeing approach.KeywordsArt therapy Spirituality Therapeutic factorsSanat Terapisinde Manevi BoyutÖzManevi yönelimli sanat terapisi müdahaleleri, sanat ve yaratıcı süreç aracılığıyla, insan doğasının zihinsel, duygusal,fiziksel ve ruhsal olmak üzere tüm boyutlarını göz önünde bulundurarak parçalanmış hallerdeki insanların, bütünlüğe,birliğe, uyuma ve dengeye ulaşmasını amaçlayan bütünsel bir terapötik yaklaşıma dayanmaktadır. Sanat, birçok sanatçıve sanat terapisti tarafından özünde manevi olarak kabul edilir ve sanat ile tedavi ilişkisinin tarihi, insanlık tarihikadar eskidir; yine de terapötik ortamlarda, özellikle sanat terapisi müdahalelerinde manevi boyutu açıkça dikkatealmak nispeten yenidir. Bütüncül bir dönüşümü nasıl sağladıklarını görmek için manevi yönelimli sanat terapisimüdahalelerinin ortaya çıkışını ve değişim mekanizmalarını gözden geçirmenin yararlı olacağı düşünülmüştür. Bumekanizmalar, kendini gerçekleştirme ve anlama, aşkınlık, anlamlandırma ve amaç arayışı, bütünlüğe ulaşma yoluylabütünsel iyi oluş yaklaşımı olarak belirlenmiştir.Anahtar kelimelerSanat terapisi maneviyat terapötik faktörler1 Correspondence to: Beyza Kırca, Istanbul Sabahattin Zaim University, Faculty of Education, Department of Guidance andPsychological Counselling, [email protected]: Kırca, B. (2019). Spiritual dimension in art therapy. Spiritual Psychology and Counseling, 4, .071

SPIRITUAL PSYCHOLOGY AND COUNSELINGThe use of art as a way of healing people is as old as the history of humankind(Malchiodi, 2006). Art’s power as a means of communication has been recognizedlong before the emergence of its use as a therapeutic technique in professionalpractices (Junge & Wadeson, 2006; McNiff, 1981). The first examples of art used as atreatment date back to the early and pre-Stone Age and are associated with shamaniccultures. In these early examples, the use of the imagination in the form of animaldrawings found in the 30,000-year-old Chauvet-Pont-d’Arc cave, which have beenassumed to be drawn for ritual purposes, is one striking example (McNiff, 1992). Theexperience of making art as a spiritual activity has taken place at various times and invarious cultures; as Rudolf Steiner (1964, p. 17) stated, “In all ages the human soulsin which the artistic element flourished have had a definite relation to the spiritualworld. It was out of a spirit-attuned state that the artistic urge proceeded.” TibetanLamaist monks’ (Gordon, 1973, as cited in Soden 1998), Native Americans’ (Cajete,1994), and Islamic Sufis’ (Tenik, 2014) engagement in art work as a spiritual activitycan be added as other examples.In addition to its deep-rooted history, art is a universal language with respect to theview that man thinks through images, and language is not a substitute for this process(Sutherland, 1995). The healing power of art is hidden in its abilities to eliminatethe limits of introspection through verbal access and oral defenses, to communicatedirectly with emotions beyond the state of consciousness, and to address the humanbeing as a whole (Czamanski-Cohen & Weihs, 2016; Hartley, 2012; Kapitan, 2014).Along with the power of art therapy in removing the limits of oral communication, artoffers opportunities to remove blockages and reframe old behaviors and thoughts withthe help of creative processes (Wallace, 2015). As stated by the American Art TherapyAssociation (2017), “Through integrative methods, art therapy engages the mind,body, and spirit in ways that are distinct from verbal articulation alone. Kinesthetic,sensory, perceptual, and symbolic opportunities invite alternative modes of receptiveand expressive communication, which can circumvent the limitations of language.”Additionally, art can be used as a support for improving people’s strengths, their growth,and improvement by providing access to individuals’ internal resources; increasingtheir sense of self, awareness, and accomplishment; and enabling psychosocialdevelopmental transformation (Olivera, Toler, & Trevithick, 2011).The philosophical foundations of art therapy are based on holism; according tothis view, the importance given in today’s culture to the mechanistic approach ratherthan the creative process underlying art creates a kind of imbalance in people thatthen leads to physical and mental illnesses. This mechanistic approach, particularlycommon in Western society, involves compartmentalizing information. Its practice ofunderstanding human beings involves separating an individual’s sensations, feelings,thoughts, and deep desires of the soul into segments. As a result, a loss of unity in258

Kırca / Spiritual Dimension in Art Therapyexploring complex dynamics has emerged as the primary basis of pathologies (Doyle,2001; Kliewer & Saultz, 2006; Sutherland, 1995). Beck (1989) emphasized theimportance from a Zen philosophical perspective of becoming aware of everythingthat enters one’s life internally or externally for achieving transformation and stated,“A mind that is not aware will produce illness.” While very powerful statements interms of causality, they have lain the foundation for the philosophy of art therapy andmechanisms of change rather than for asserting scientific results.Despite the old relationship between art and treatment, art therapy is a youngdiscipline (Franklin, Farrelly-Hansen, Marek, Swan-Foster, & Wallingford, 2011)with the consideration and open incorporation of the spiritual dimension in arttherapy as a more recent effort. Art’s intertwined relationship with spirituality makesit possible to practice art therapy on the basis of very different and diverse approachesand beliefs. Art therapy interventions differ greatly in terms of aim, scope, context,and technique (Blomdahl, Gunnarsson, Guregard, & Björklund, 2013; Geue et al.,2010), nor does the situation appear to differ for spiritually-oriented art therapyinterventions as well. Making an overview of the spiritually-oriented art therapyinterventions and therapeutic factors they share is considered useful for seeing howthey make transformation and healing possible by integrating the spiritual aspectinto therapy. Using this aim, this article will present the origins of art therapy; whatart therapy is; the emergence of spiritually-oriented art therapy interventions; therelationship among art, spirituality, and healing; and the mechanisms of change thisrelation enables.The Origins of Art TherapyArt therapy is a product of the intellectual and social climate of the 20th century(Junge & Asawa, 1994). The post-industrial era is when art became accessible toa new segment in Western society. The emergence of art therapy has historicallycoincided with the transition period when the art industry was eager for productionand art movements broke away from the classical and conservative, presented newideas, and became accessible to the middle class (Hart, 1976, as cited in Hluska,2016). In the period when art therapy was emerging as a profession, the concept ofart was being widely discussed by many philosophers and educators such as Deweyand Langer. Margaret Naumburg, Edith Kramer, Hanna Kwiatkowska, and ElinorUlman are four important writers who contributed to the field’s development (Vick,2003). Margaret Naumburg, known as the Mother of Art Therapy, is especiallyregarded as the primary founder of American art therapy (Junge & Asawa, 1994).Cane (1951/1983), Kellogg (1969), Lowenfeld (1987), and Uhlin (1972/1984) arealso some names that have emphasized the importance of art in child development(cited in Vick, 2003).259

SPIRITUAL PSYCHOLOGY AND COUNSELINGArt therapy began to be used in the clinical setting back in the 1930s with thework of Mary Huntoon. These first works began with a program supported by theAmerican government. Huntoon (1949) was the first to make explanations about thehealing mechanisms of art on war veterans (as cited in Wix, 2000).Marty Huntoon’s efforts to heal the psychological damages of war in the1930s pioneered the attempts to practice art therapy as a profession. An importantadvancement in the field occurred in 1969: the establishment of the American ArtTherapy Association. Looking at the general course, art therapy has emerged anddeveloped over the last 70 years. Previously, the focus was mainly on functionssuch as evaluating and relieving those with severe mental disorders. Just like thecourse of the science of psychology, art therapy was primarily influenced by thepsychodynamic approach, and art therapist Margaret Naumburg is the name thatsymbolizes the crossover between art therapy and the psychodynamic approach (Vick,2003). Later on, this would be characterized by the Jungian, behavioral, cognitive,and humanistic movements (Allen, 2013; Vick, 2003). Although the transpersonaldimension had not been mentioned much until the 2000s, it has begun to be used withan eclectic approach along with the developments in this field, especially in wellbeing based therapies (Allen, 2013; Franklin, Farrelly-Hansen, Marek, Swan-Foster,& Wallingford, 2011).What is Art Therapy?Combining the fields of art, psychology, and therapy, art therapy is a disciplinewithin the scope of human services that enables people to discover their problemsand potentials through non-verbal means (Olivera, Toler, & Trevithick, 2011). TheAmerican Art Therapy Association (2017) defines art therapy as “an integrativemental health and human services profession that enriches the lives of individuals,families, and communities through active art-making, creative process, appliedpsychological theory, and human experience within a psychotherapeutic relationship.”Art therapy uses creativity to deal with individuals’ emotional, psychological, andphysical problems. It enables clients to accept and establish a deep relationship withthemselves (Wallace, 2015) while offering a tangible object for self-reflection andunderstanding (Bell, 2011).Art therapy provides benefits in the following processes (Olivera, Toler, &Trevithick, 2011):1. It provides information during evaluation and diagnosis.2. It helps greatly while making decisions about treatment.3. It allows one to access emotions and becomes a safe outlet for them.260

Kırca / Spiritual Dimension in Art Therapy4. It provides direct access to conflicts, as clients have no commonly-used defensesin oral therapies.5. It makes arriving at inner experiences metaphorically possible.6. It offers the opportunity for catharsis and to orientate the drives towardsomething good.7. It ensures an active and responsible role for the client in therapy.Above all, art therapy can be applied to individuals of all ages and conditions, aswell as to groups, families, and couples. In particular, people who are emotionallyobstructed, who have a tendency to scrutinize with too much logic, who find it easierto express themselves with visual images, who experience deep emotions afterproducing art, who have pre-speech traumas, who have unresolved issues such astrauma or loss, or who have transformational challenges can appropriately be directedto art therapy (Monti et al., 2006; Olivera, Toler, & Trevithick, 2011, p. 256). Whenconsidering that some clients drop out of treatment and others don’t share a Westernculture, some people can be assumed to need different kinds of interventions otherthan conventional ones (Sandell, 2003, as cited in Blomdahl, Gunnarsson, Guregard,& Björklund, 2013; Geue et al., 2010; Johnson, 2013). Art therapy is seen usedparticularly in hospitals as a complementary therapy for people with serious illnessessuch as cancer, AIDS, asthma, burns, chemical dependency, trauma, tuberculosis,psychosis, and other medical and rehabilitation needs, particularly those in palliativecare (Malchiodi, 1999a, 1999b; Ponto et al., 2003; Collie, Bottorf, & Long, 2006;Hartley, 2012; Van Lith, 2016; Vick, 2003).The Emergence of Spiritually-Oriented Art Therapy InterventionsScience and religion have begun to speak with each other in today’s Westernworld again after 200 years of resentment (Farrelly-Hansen, 2001; Koepfer, 2000).Since the 17th century, an “unwritten contract of non-relationship between religionand science had existed, and the mention of spirituality was done at the expenseof being alienated from some scientific camps (Horowitz-Darby, 1994). Althoughpatients consider spirituality as an integral part of their recovery process (Koepfer,2000) and many psychologists and psychiatrists have stated personally appreciatingand giving importance to spirituality (Larson, 1998), for a long time spiritualityand religion were ignored in the clinical and psychotherapeutic fields for the sakeof being rational, objective, intellectual, reductive, and thus scientific (Dossey,1997). Many professionals were afraid to include the spiritual element in the therapyenvironment (Koepfer, 2000), and this element was also largely overlooked in arttherapy discussions about recovery (Van Lith, 2014). The reasons for this misgivingmay be considered as the Freudian stance of considering religious and spiritual261

SPIRITUAL PSYCHOLOGY AND COUNSELINGbeliefs as neurotic and pathological (Ahlskog, 1990), the idea that science should bevalues-free, and the lack of clarity and debate about the definition and application ofspirituality (Horowitz-Darby, 1994; Kubler-Ross, 1983). In spite of these influencesfrom the past, spirituality has been considered and accepted as a matter of scientificimportance and has begun being considered as an element of support for treatmentin many medical fields (Kearney & Mount, 2000; Koepfer, 2000; Swinton, 2001).Not only did psychology and spirituality have a falling out during the industrialrevolution and the social climate of that time; so also were art and spirituality alienated(Farrelly-Hansen, 2001). Rudolf Steiner (1964, p. 116) expressed this as: “Art, alwaysa daughter of the divine, has become estranged from her parent. If it finds its wayback to its origins and is again accepted by the divine, then it will become what itshould within civilization, within worldwide culture: a boon for mankind.”In the last quarter of the 19th century, artists began to show a tendency towardsreality beyond the material again. One of the most important artists in this field isKandinsky, who presented art as a form of spiritual expression and tried to drawattention to the spiritual aspect of art. Although many artists have supported thistrend, one can say it remained a downstream flow. While interest in spirituality haddecreased before and during World Wars I and II, topics such as Jungian thoughtand the place of spirituality in art began being spoken openly among artists afterthe 1960s (Farrelly-Hansen, 2001). Carl Jung is seen by many as the pioneer ofart therapy (Landgarten, 1981; Wadeson, 1980) and has also been described as“the earliest transpersonal art therapist” (Franklin, Farrelly-Hansen, Marek, SwanFoster, & Wallingford, 2011). He is known for utilizing sand play and other freeform improvisational art, including dance and music, for the sake of releasingunconscious materials and resistance (Kossak, 2009). The process of individuationis a central theme in Jung’s theory (LaPointe, 2009), which he basically explained as“to penetrate into the secret of personality” (Jung, 1961, p. 206). Jung emphasizedthe importance of the processes of exploring and integrating the spiritual dimensionsfor individuation, which could be achieved using the imagery (archetypal symbols)of dreams and art (Jung, 1961).Some art therapists who had added a spiritual dimension to their art therapyinterventions can be named here. Florance Cane (1951), sister to Margaret Naumburg’ssister (Vick, 2003), was one of the pioneers who brought artistic exercises togetherwith meditative awareness. Joan Kellogg (1976), another art therapist in the field,used mandala drawing activities as the subject of consciousness studies at the Instituteof Maryland Psychiatry Research. Joseph Garai (1976), meanwhile, engaged in there-identification of personality. He achieved this re-identification and transition to thetranspersonal through the use of artistic imagery and mediation that emerged after262

Kırca / Spiritual Dimension in Art Therapyinternal discovery (Farrelly-Hansen 2001; Franklin, 2015, Franklin, Farrelly-Hansen,Marek, Swan-Foster, & Wallingford, 2011).Catherine Moon was one of the first to make a connection between art and worshipin 1989 at a conference on art therapy. Roberta Shoemaker-Beal and Phoebe Dufrene(1991) were the organizers of the panel “My God Left Me? Spirituality, Wholeism, and the Transpersonal in Art Therapy” (as cited in Farrelly-Hansen, 2001;Franklin, Farrelly-Hansen, Marek, Swan-Foster, & Wallingford, 2011). HorovitzDarby (1994) is another important name that had published the book Spiritual ArtTherapy, developed art-based spirituality assessments, and established a clinicalconnection between art and spirituality. Farrelly-Hansen (2001) and McNiff (1992)emphasized spiritual and philosophical concepts over psychological theory (Vick,2003). Franklin, Farrelly-Hansen, Marek, Swan-Foster, and Wallingford (2000)described a transpersonal approach to art therapy and initiated a graduate program atNaropa University that combined art therapy training with transpersonal counselingpsychology.Art, Spirituality, and HealingThis section will examine the relationships among art, spirituality, and healing andto this end will summarize the ideas of different art therapists with different spiritualorientations regarding the relationship between artistic practices and spirituality andthe healing power of this association. The therapeutic factors in spiritually-orientedtherapy interventions will be examined to see how these different practices maketransformation and healing possible.Spirituality comes from the Latin word spiritus, meaning breath, courage,strength, or spirit; in this sense spiritus is that which gives life (Spiritus, 2019).For this reason, spirituality exists within everything and is also intimate in thetherapy session. Therefore, art is intrinsically spiritual, and spirituality is anindispensable element of psychotherapy and integration (Farrelly-Hansen, 2001,Bell, 2011). Emphasizing spirituality as an inevitable dimension of psychotherapyseems plausible and also necessary, considering its religious connotations. Whilereligious affiliation is subject to choice, spirituality is the fundamental aspect of aperson that is universal across cultures and history (Cobb, 2001; Larson, Swyers,& McCullough, 1997; Matthews & Clark, 1999). It is a significant part of life thatallows one to understand the self beyond the level of ego (Corrigan, McCorkle,Schell, & Kidder, 2003). While some theorize spirituality as one of the variousaspects of personhood (Rougemont, 1945, as cited in Kliewer & Saultz, 2006)others consider spirituality as a core component and intersection point between allaspects of personhood (Tournier, 1964; Puchalski, 2012).263

SPIRITUAL PSYCHOLOGY AND COUNSELINGSegregating spirituality from the core of human experience is impossible,particularly in the case of suffering (Bell, 2011). People who suffer from mentalillness are observed having hard times in life and questioning themself and theirlife. This questioning brings about a reconsidering and revision of their sense ofself and life. Afterwards comes rebuilding a sense of self, a process that enablesrecovery (Czamanski-Cohen & Weihs, 2016; Yanos, Roe, & Lysaker, 2010). This isa holistic transformation that requires taking all aspects of a person into account withspirituality being one of these (Cobb, 2001; Larson, Swyers, & McCullough, 1997;Matthews & Clark, 1999).Therefore, by investigating the mechanisms of change, this section will discuss howart therapy interventions that consider the spiritual dimension enable these processesand holistic transformation. These mechanisms of change have been determined asself-realization and understanding, transcendence, meaning-making and search for apurpose, and achieving integrity through the holistic wellbeing approach.Self-Realization and UnderstandingReviews investigating the benefits of art-based practices for mental-health recoveryhave stated psychological recovery to be most strongly supported by the constructsof self-discovery and self-expression (Van Lith, Scholfield, & Fenner, 2012). Thisparallels the findings from another study that revealed the healing mechanisms ofart therapy to be self-exploration, self-expression, communication, understandingand explanation, integration, symbolic thinking, creativity, and sensory stimulation(Blomdahl, Gunnarsson, Guregard, & Björklund, 2013; Geue et al., 2010).The essence of experiencing the creative process as a spiritual practice carries thecapacity to heal by allowing one to get in touch with the real nature of the self and thebeauty and mystery of life (Sutherland, 1995). Thus, creativity and transformationbecome interrelated in every context or act of art creation (Cajete, 2000). Franklin(2001) emphasized artistic activity to be strikingly similar to the process of selfrealization, which is known as Samadhi in the Yogic culture, and to allow one tonurture a personal reality. This becomes possible through self-immersion, diving intothe present and losing track of time, eliminating the duality of the object and subjectof art, forming deliberate action, and focusing and increasing attention. Moon (2001)suggested art making to be an alternative language of prayer language and consideredprayer as spiritual connectedness having a social nature and communicative function.She interpreted art as a prayer that includes a claim to understanding the dormantparts of the self, may be strong, fragile, broken, frightening, fearful, or brave. In otherwords, art is the desire to extend expression to the unknown. In this way, instead ofpraying passively, one actively expresses pain, creates hope, and recreates the self.Practicing art thus enables personal exploration and growth (Allen, 1995; Cameron& Bryan, 1992; Moon, 2002).264

Kırca / Spiritual Dimension in Art TherapyIn a longitudinal multiple-case study, participants reported that they saw artmaking to be directly related to spirituality and that they had rebuilt a sense of selfand a renewed perspective through art making over a one-year period (Van Lith,2014). In another study investigating the contribution of art to spirituality in addictionrecovery, Chickerneo (1990) reported the participants to have experienced admissionsof powerlessness, identification, knowledge, and self-acceptance. Conway’s study(1999), which was designed as an art therapy program utilizing twelve stepsand Rogerian principles, found art therapy effective at fostering increased selfawareness, self-esteem, empowerment, and spiritual development. In one case study,a childhood sexual-trauma survivor was reported realizing a spiritual life that shehad not considered possible prior to the art therapy experience. In other words, shehad realized and awakened her spiritual aspect, which had previously been dormant(Margolis, 2004). Considering that facing inner realities and meeting one’s true selfis not always easy, the pleasurable aspect of art making makes the negative contenttolerable and helps one cope with the negative emotions and experiences that comeout during the art-making process (Czamanski-Cohen & Weihs, 2016).TranscendenceThe creative process is one of the main elements of art and has been proposed toprovide philosophical evidence of the existence of the transcendent within a person(Franklin, 1999; Grey, 1990). In other words, the inner element that differs from theego and contains the transcendent essence is revealed through the process of creation.This becomes possible by transcending the linear explanations of known reality anddirect self-experience (Malchiodi, 2005; Turner, 2005). Transpersonal events thusallow participants to discover humility and conscientiousness, which leads to a morerobust and holistic sense of understanding their life (Ridgway, 2001).Creating art work can also be understood as a process of creation in themicrocosmos (Franklin, 2001). Allen (1995) stated that many artists consider theSupreme as the source of artistic images and Soul as the state of flow. This issimilar to the indigenous understanding, which sees art “as a form of individualexpression that speaks the language of the soul and connects the individual to theirinner sources of life” (Cajete, 1994, p. 30). On the other hand, human beings’ beingcreated in the image of God, a belief that exists in the monotheistic tradition, isexplained as the partnership of men and women’s willingness and ability to dothings with God. Being created in the image of God, humans are gifted with theability to create, and artistic work is akin to co-creating with God. Engaging increation in the artistic sense means surrendering to the supreme (Sayers, 1941),which cannot be grasped by the senses and wisdom but by imagination, which is aninstrument of faith (Moon, 2001; Tenik, 2014).265

SPIRITUAL PSYCHOLOGY AND COUNSELINGArt is a kind of meditation. The person experiences some sense of relief whilemaking art; not through experiencing catharsis or gaining insight but through a strongexperience of focusing on something completely outside of the self (Farrelly-Hansen,2001). Physicist and expressive art therapist Paulo Knill (2000, p.7) described theexperience of art making as “the practice of leaving the everyday situation andentering into a devotional space for a period of time.” Being engaged in art making isalso similar to praying in that it evokes a great sense of wonder and a transcendentalreality beyond the self (Moon, 2001). Joy Schaverien (1987) compared the experienceof art therapy to a kind of ritual transference. First, one reflects one’s attitudes andstatus to the object of the art; this object acts as a kind of talisman. The second stagehas a kind of ritual relief and salvation regarding the existing situation by dissolvingin the face of this object.Kossak (2009) pointed to the attunement phenomena as a transpersonal experienceseen in the art making process. He defined it as “being one with another being.”He stated this “experience of unitive” to be comparable to Maslow’s (1964) peakexperiences, which are “sensory or perceptual experiences that are typically shortlived, yet profound, and are accompanied by a sense of enhanced perception,appreciation, or understanding” (Kossak, 2009, p. 14). Marek (2001) pointed out thesame phenomena, stating that people who come to art therapy forget everything whenthey face colorful paints at the beginning of the process and experience some kind ofdaze. Becoming absorbed by colors, shapes, and images may enable clients to betterrelate to their own nature and to experience a kind of meditation. Marek stated thatthis experience, in which the perceiver and the perceived are one, has the power ofhealing. Similarly, Sutherland (1995) indicated that words distinguish between statesof being and experiencing. However, practicing an art form unifies the experienceand the end result this experience created.In one study on spiritually-oriented art therapy, participants reported feeling as ifGod had communicated with them, feeling a state of clarity through the making and/or processing of art, and also having knowledge of God and self (Chickerneo, 1990).Another study, this one a case study, revealed that the participant had experienced“a transpersonal connection to the numinous, where she achieved freedom from hershadow and gained the ability to see beyond herself as a traumatized child and intothe cosmos” (Margolis, 2004, p. 79). Johnson (2013), with her study incorporatingindigenous search methods, reported entering into “a profound deep unknowing andan intense sense of wonder that disrupted and disarmed the controlling nature of therational mind,” consciousness of another world (i.e., altered state of consciousness),journeying into the inner realm of meaning, moments of bliss, spiritual joy, and flow.She explained her experience as “My mind opened to the consciousness of creation266

Kırca / Spiritual Dimension in Art Therapyand I experienced a re-spiriting of the ‘more than human world.’ It was not an ‘otherworldly’ experience, but rather the experience of ‘simultaneous realities.’”Search for a Purpose and Meaning MakingVictor Frankl (1984) indicated the search for meaning as the primary motivationin humankind and emphasized the will to find meaning over mere gratification. Inpartic

experience of making art as a spiritual activity has taken place at various times and in various cultures; as Rudolf Steiner (1964, p. 17) stated, "In all ages the human souls . course of the science of psychology, art therapy was primarily influenced by the psychodynamic approach, and art therapist Margaret Naumburg is the name that .