CORNELL CENTER FOR HOSPITALITY RESEARCHTotal Hotel RevenueManagement:A Strategic Profit Perspectiveby Breffni M. Noone, Cathy A. Enz, and Jessie GlassmireEXECUTIVE SUMMARYHospitality firms are expanding traditional revenue management (RM) practice tofocus on customer value and strategic profit management. Participants in series ofsemi-structured interviews suggested that revenue management is moving awayfrom a sole focus on top-line rooms revenue toward a bottom-line orientationfocused on the customer. Thus, RM will expand to multiple revenue sources and encompass amulti-channel demand management approach. The interviews with sixteen senior hotel leaders,RM vendors, and solution providers highlighted the importance of profit, rather than just revenue,given rising distribution and variable costs. Despite the attraction of other revenue and profitsources, such as F&B, spas, and function space, the participants noted that expanding RM to thoseareas involves complexities not found in the rooms division. Ideally, hoteliers seek to assess thevalue of each customer’s patronage and develop a specific relationship with each customer. Withchanges envisioned by these hotel leaders, the practice of revenue management will evolve intothe more accurate and expansive notion of strategic profit management.Keywords: Revenue Management, Strategic Profit Management, Non-Room Revenue Streams, Customer Relationship Management, Value Creation, Industry ExpertsCornell Hospitality Report March 2017 Vol. 17, No. 81

ABOUT THE AUTHORSCathy A. Enz, Ph.D., is associate dean for academic affairs and Lewis G. Schaeneman Professor ofInnovation and Dynamic Management at the School of Hotel Administration in the Cornell SCJohnson College of Business. She served as associate dean for industry research and affairs andexecutive director of the Center for Hospitality Research from 2000 to 2003. Enz has published overone hundred journal articles and book chapters, as well as four books in the area of strategicmanagement. Her research has been published in a wide variety of prestigious academic andhospitality journals such as Administrative Science Quarterly, Academy of Management Journal, andCornell Hospitality Quarterly. Enz teaches courses in innovation and strategic management and is the recipient of bothoutstanding teaching and research awards. She developed the Hospitality Change Simulation, a learning tool for theintroduction of effective change, which is available as an online education program of eCornell. Prior to her academic activities,Enz held several industry positions, including strategy development analyst in the office of corporate research for a largeinsurance organization and operations manager responsible for Midwestern United States customer service and logistics in thedietary food service division of a large U.S. health care corporation. Enz received her PhD from the Fisher College of Businessat Ohio State University and taught on the faculty of the Kelley School of Business at Indiana University prior to arriving atCornell in 1990.Breffni Noone, Ph.D., is an associate professor in the School of Hospitality Management atPennsylvania State University. A graduate of University of Dublin, she holds a doctoral degree fromCornell University. As a revenue management consultant, she has served such clients as USFoodservice, The Dorchester Collection, and the Irish National Tourism Development Authority. Shehas taught executive education courses in revenue management at the Dublin Institute ofTechnology and at the Cornell University School of Hotel Administration. She is on the editorial boardof the International Journal of Hospitalilty Management, the Journal of Hospitality and TourismResearch, and the Journal of Revenue and Pricing Management.Jessie Glassmire graduated from the Pennsylvania State University School of Hospitality Management in May 2014 with a BSin hotel, restaurant, and institutional management.2The Center for Hospitality Research Cornell University

CORNELL HOSPITALITY RESEARCH BRIEFTotal Hotel Revenue Management:A Strategic Profit PerspectiveTby Breffni M. Noone, Cathy A. Enz, and Jessie Glassmireraditional hotel revenue management (RM) is in transition from being chiefly astand-alone, tactical technique for managing rooms inventory to adopting a strategic,customer-centric approach to demand creation and profit maximization.1 Whileacademics have suggested for some time that RM should be applied to non-roomrevenue sources, the industry is now moving toward extending the scope of RM practice beyondthe rooms division.2 However, given that some revenue streams, such as restaurants, have highvariable costs associated with them, Thompson, for one, has called for a shift in focus from revenueto profitability.3 This suggests that the future will require RM to consider both the revenue andcosts associated with other revenue streams as it expands its focus beyond the management ofrooms revenue to a more complete profit-based approach.41 Cross, R.G., J.A. Higbie, and D.Q. Cross. 2009. “Revenue management’s renaissance: A rebirth of the art and science of profitable revenue generation.”Cornell Hospitality Quarterly 50 (1): 58-81; and Noone, B., K. A. McGuire, and K. V. Rohlfs. 2011. “Social media meets hotel revenue management: Opportunities,issues, and unanswered questions.” Journal of Revenue and Pricing Management 10 (4): 293-305.2 Kimes, S. E. R. B. Chase, S. Choi, P. Y. Lee, and E. N. Ngonzi. 1998. “Restaurant revenue management: Applying yield management to the restaurantindustry.” Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly 39 (3): 32-39; Kimes, S. E., and K. A. McGuire. 2001. “Function-space revenue management: A casestudy from Singapore.” Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly 42 (6): 33-46; Kimes, S. E., and L. W. Schruben. 2002. “Golf course revenue management: A study of tee time intervals.” Journal of Revenue and Pricing Management 1 (2): 111-120; and Licata, J. W., and A. W. Tiger. 2010. “Revenue management inthe golf industry: Focus on throughput and consumer benefits.” Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management. 19: 480-502.3 Thompson, G. M. 2010. “Restaurant profitability management: The evolution of restaurant revenue management.” Cornell Hospitality Quarterly 51 (3):308-322.4 Kimes found a similar expectation in a recent survey of RM practitioners. See: Sheryl E. Kimes, “The Future of Hotel Revenue Management,” CornellHospitality Report, Vol. 17, No. 1 (2017) Cornell University Center for Hospitality Research.Cornell Hospitality Report March 2017 Vol. 17, No. 83

The abilities to understand total customer contribution over time and to optimize price and inventory availability for customers based on estimates of their longerterm profit potential have been recognized as a futuremilestone for RM.5 While price optimization solutionsare currently centered around pricing rooms inventory,6a diverse literature within RM has surfaced to clarify therole of the consumer. This customer-centric dimension ofRM has been addressed in various forms, including theintegration of customer relationship management into theRM process,7 and the increasing importance of demandmanagement,8 customer-value based RM,9 and customercentric RM.10The need to balance short-term revenue maximizationwith long-term customer development is driving changein how the RM function collaborates with other functionalunits, including operations and marketing.11 Indeed, anumber of researchers have called for the integration ofmarketing, sales, and channel management to facilitatethe development of differentiation strategies that can assure longer-term competitive advantage.12 This call withinRM is consistent with a strategic management perspective that emphasizes developing a long-term strategy toprovide guidance for the preparation of short-term plans5 Cross, R. G., J. A. Higbie, and Z. N. Cross. 2011. “Milestones in theapplication of analytical pricing and revenue management.” Journal of Revenueand Pricing Management 10: 8-18.6 See, for example: Koushik, D., Higbie, J. A. and Eister, C. 2012. “Retail price optimization at intercontinental hotels group.” Interfaces 42(1): 45-57;and Pekgün, P., Menich, R. P., Acharya, S., Finch, P. G., Deschamps, F., Mallery, K. and Fuller, J. 2013. “Carlson Rezidor hotel group maximizes revenuethrough improved demand management and price optimization.”Interfaces 43 (1): 21-36.7 See, for example: Belobaba, P. B. 2002. “Back to the future? Directions for revenue management.” Journal of Revenue and Pricing Management 1(1): 87-89; Dickinson, C. B. 2001. “CRM-enhanced revenue management inthe hospitality industry.” Hospitality Upgrade Summer 136-138; Jonas, D. 2001.“Carriers melding revenue management and CRM systems.” Business TravelNews March 18-19; Noone, B.M., S. E. Kimes, and L. M. Renaghan. 2003.“Integrating customer relationship management and revenue management:A hotel perspective.” Journal of Revenue and Price Management 2 (1): 7-21; andVaeztehrani, A., Modarres, M., & Aref, S. 2015. “Developing an integratedrevenue management and customer relationship management approach in thehotel industry.” Journal of Revenue & Pricing Management, 14(2), 97-119.8 Anderson, C. K., and B. Carroll. 2007. “Demand management:Beyond revenue management.” Journal of Revenue and Pricing Management 6 (4):260-263.9 Von Martens, T., and A. Hilbert. 2011. “Customer-value-based revenue management.” Journal of Revenue and Pricing Management 10: 87-98.10 Cross, R. G., and A. Dixit. 2005. “Customer-centric pricing: Thesurprising secret for profitability.” Business Horizons 48 (6): 483-491; and Vinod,B. 2008. “The continuing evolution: Customer-centric revenue management.”Journal of Revenue and Pricing Management 7: 27-39.11 Cross et al., 2009.12 Cross et al., 2009; and Noone et al., 2011.4and integrate functional plans into an overall scheme forthe organization.13 New capabilities will be needed as theindustry shifts focus from rooms inventory managementto the complex management of a hotel’s entire revenuestream, customer-based pricing, and long-term customervalue creation. These include technological support forintegrated decision making and data sharing; advancedinterpersonal, analytical, leadership, and communicationskills; and the development of integrated functional strategies that support profit maximization.In this paper, we explore the shifting competitivelandscape as viewed by sixteen of the hotel industry’sleading senior RM managers. From these interviews, wegain a first-hand understanding of the evolving natureof the field and its shift from the optimization of roomrevenue to a strategic and multi-disciplinary domain. Inconducting this study, we seek to share the voices fromthe field as they reflect on the ongoing evolution of hotelRM and provide insights.Study MethodWe conducted semi-structured, in-depth telephoneinterviews with sixteen senior RM leaders in the industry,representing some of the largest international hotelchains (e.g., Marriott and Hilton) and leading systemsand analytics vendors in the hotel RM space (e.g., IDeaSand Duetto). Indeed, it is meaningful to note that over 2.6million rooms or approximately 34 percent of the globalbranded hotels’ room supply is controlled by the seniorleaders we interviewed for this study. Twelve of thesixteen interviewees hold leadership positions in hotelcompanies, while the remainder are CEOs and foundersof their own firms or executive directors and directors ofvendor data analytics enterprises. Exhibit 1 lists the studyparticipants who did not wish to remain anonymous.14The executive leadership positions held by thestudy’s participants enabled them to speak as strategistswho are involved in devising corporate RM philosophy,as well as implementing strategic initiatives surrounding RM practices and solutions. The mix of companiesin this sample enabled us to view any variability in thescope and focus of RM efforts by company size and segment (e.g., luxury full-service properties versus limitedservice hotels). Additionally, all of the hotel companiesrepresented in the study have a global reach, allowingus to acknowledge potential differences in RM practices13 Enz, C.A. 2010. Hospitality Strategic Management: Concepts and Cases,2nd ed. Wiley Publishing, Hoboken; and Enz, C.A. 2012. “Strategies for theImplementation of Service Innovations.” Cornell Hospitality Quarterly 53 (2):187-195.14 We have included ideas from the two anonymous participantswithout attribution.The Center for Hospitality Research Cornell University

Exhibit 1Study participant profilesParticipant NameTitleCompanyMarco BenvenutiCo-founder and Chief Analytics and Product OfficerDuettoGreg CrossSenior Vice President of Revenue ManagementHyatt Hotels CorporationKathleen CullenSenior Vice President of Revenue and DistributionCommune Hotels ResortsCraig EisterSenior Vice President of Global Revenue Management and SystemsInterContinental Hotels GroupSiv ForlieVice President of Revenue ManagementShangri-La International HotelManagement Ltd.Cindy Estis GreenCo-founder and CEOKalibri LabsJeannette HoVice President of Revenue Management and AnalyticsFRHI Hotels & ResortsSharon HormbySenior Director of Total Yield Systems, Global Revenue ManagementMarriott InternationalPuneet MahindrooCorporate Director of Revenue Management, Asia PacificFour Seasons Hotels and ResortsKelly McGuireVice President, Advanced AnalyticsWyndham Destination NetworkMark MolinariCorporate Vice President of Revenue Optimization, MarketingPerformance, and Strategic InitiativesLas Vegas Sands Corp.James RuttleyVice President of Client ServicesIDeaS Revenue SolutionsPeter Van AllenDirector of Non-Room PricingHilton WorldwideDavid WarmanVice President of Revenue Management and Worldwide ReservationsFour Seasons Hotels and Resortsacross different geographic areas. On the vendor side,the study’s participants represent companies that havedemonstrated progressive and innovative approaches todifferent aspects of the RM problem, and capture both offthe-shelf and custom RM solutions.The average duration of the interviews conductedwith participants was one hour. The interview compriseda set of questions designed to capture (1) participants’perceptions of the scope of total RM; (2) initiatives thatare currently in place to support the application of RMto non-room revenue streams; (3) RM initiatives that arecurrently in place to support a customer value focus;(4) challenges to the implementation of current initiatives;and (5) the support system in place to support initiativesincluding organizational culture, structure, and humancapital.Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and sent toparticipants for review, resulting in 359 pages of interviewcomments (120,431 words). We then conducted a contentanalysis whereby we first read participants’ responses toobtain a feel for the content. Next, guided by the interview questions, we developed a code list consisting ofthemes, sub themes, and inter-related themes identifiedby participants. Two independent raters reviewed andcoded the data.15 The themes identified in the qualitative15 Inter-rater reliability was acceptable (Cohen’s k .91).data were non-room revenue, customer value creation,data use, technology, operating structures, and employeedevelopment. To strengthen the validity of the themesgenerated through our content analysis, ensure thatresponses were adequately represented, and uncover anyideas not captured through our initial content analysis,we used the count function and coding process inAtlas.ti 7, a qualitative software tool designed to assist inanalyzing large bodies of textual data. This tool searchedthe transcripts for each theme identified through ourmulti-rater content analysis, enabling us to locate allquotations within the transcribed documents that usedkey word families. In this report, we share the themes thatemerged from our interviews about what companies aredoing to move toward strategic profit management.Observations from the FieldDefining total hotel revenue management. Total hotelrevenue management (THRM) includes consideration ofmultiple revenue sources, a deep understanding of customer value, and a shift from top-line metrics to bottomline measures to take into consideration distribution andoperating costs (see Exhibit 2). In that context, Craig Eister,senior vice president of global revenue management andsystems for the InterContinental Hotels Group (IHG),said his company’s approach to THRM comprises threecomponents: (1) looking beyond rooms to the applica-Cornell Hospitality Report March 2017 Vol. 17, No. 85

Exhibit 2Defining total hotel revenue management“So traditional RM has been all about really understanding the money that a room can make. And now we’re expanding that to think aboutwhere it is sold and the channel that’s sold and the costs associated, so it’s about profit and not just rooms. So rather than just thinkingabout transient room revenue, we’re expanding that to think about all segments, all products that we’re selling, and about profit ratherthan revenue.”—Craig Eister, InterContinental Hotels Group“Hotels are not just rooms anymore,” she stated, adding that hotels in the luxury segment build a stronger brand reputation, and are moresuccessful, if they have great food and beverage (F&B) concepts and have the function space capacity to cater to profitable high-endevents. She also noted that, in these types of hotels, spa, golf, and retail become increasingly important, highlighting the revenue andprofit contribution that non-room revenue streams can make: .“These ancillary revenue streams become increasingly significant, which iswhy now we have enough demand to innovate with industry partners, and work internally to invest in systems, processes, and people.”—Jeannette Ho, FRHI Hotels & Resorts“I think the holy grail of THRM is to better meet the total needs of the customer, thereby capturing a higher share of the customer’s walletin the most profitable way possible. At the same time, managing inventory. It’s sleeping rooms and meeting space, and it could also betime spent or money spent in a casino. It could include food and beverage outlets, it could include spa, and golf, and ski slopes, beach—anywhere that we can inventory something and sell something to our guests. So there’s the revenue and profit side, there’s the inventoryside, and there’s the total customer side.”—Sharon Hormby, Marriott International“I view THRM as the application of RM principles and tools across each revenue center of the business—rooms, function space, catering,restaurant, or spa—taking into account the total profit contribution of each of these major revenue centers. When applying THRM, totalprofit contribution and customer lifetime value across all revenue centers should be considered.”—David Warman, Four Seasons Hotelsand Resortstion of RM principles to other revenue streams, primarilyfood and beverage and function space; (2) building moreintelligence around each customer segment and applyingknowledge to those segments; and (3) viewing RM from aprofit perspective, as well as a revenue perspective.Non-Room Sources of RevenueAll of the industry leaders we interviewed believed thatthe future of RM was shifting to a focus on multiple hotelrevenue streams, including restaurants, function space,catering, spas, and golf. Nine of the eleven hotel firms represented in this study have initiatives addressing functionspace RM, and IDeaS Revenue Solutions launched its firstto-market function space RM solution in 2014. Six of thehotel companies are engaged in restaurant RM initiatives,while three hotel company participants mentioned spa orgolf applications. On the vendor side, there has also beensome customized RM solution development, includingautomated RM solutions for cabana use and hotel entertainment ticket pricing.While participants in the study indicated a stronginterest in non-rooms RM initiatives they noted that thepresence of such practices at the individual hotel level isa function of the size of the hotel’s non-rooms operations6and their associated revenue contribution. Hotel companies are investing in a more systematic RM implementation in hotels where the amount of real estate dedicatedto a non-rooms revenue stream, along with the revenuepotential of that revenue stream, is significant. The luxurysegment appears to be leading the way in the application of RM practices and processes to non-room revenuestreams. However, a one-size-fits-all approach to RM fornon-room revenue is not advocated. Mark Molinari, corporate vice president of revenue optimization, marketingperformance, and strategic initiatives for Las Vegas SandsCorp., provided the example of a meeting space optimization project that was limited specifically to Sands properties in the Las Vegas market. This initiative, designed tomaximize the availability of meeting rooms, was spurredby a lack of space availability to meet the strong demandfor meeting rooms in the Las Vegas market, a problem notshared by their properties in other markets.Jeannette Ho described the restaurant RM programat FRHI Hotels & Resorts, where the focus has been ondemand management, understanding revenue per available seat hour (RevPASH), table mix, menu design, menuengineering, and optimizing server performance and pricing (based on demand rather than just cost-plus). UsingThe Center for Hospitality Research Cornell University

Exhibit 3Non-room sources of revenueF&B RM at FHRI. “This program brings the revenue manager together with the F&B manager, getting them to understand general RMconcepts, but also how to apply them within our restaurants. Before, this would have been too cumbersome for any restaurant to see theanalysis for themselves. The biggest win, apart from seeing the revenue lift, has really been the mindset change for our F&B teams. Theyfind it interesting and fun, it’s the first time they’ve seen their data in such an accessible format, the first time they know how they [andtheir strategies to build revenue] are performing in real time. I think it’s encouraged more people to think out of the box and be creative intrying new initiatives.” —Jeannette Ho, FRHI Hotels & ResortsNon-room forecasting at Marriott. “It used to be that culinary had their forecast, housekeeping had their forecast, revenue had theirforecast, catering had theirs, and finance had theirs—everybody was moving in kind of the same direction, but you would find conflictsand discrepancies. So people weren’t driving strategies from the same platform. Now, there is a single version of the future that driveseverything.”—Sharon Hormby, Marriott InternationalSeasonality at Shangri-La. “F&B still forecasts their F&B outlets but they look at them [the forecasts] in a very different way. We [now]look more at seasonality. We are trying to split [the data] down into more detail then they are used to doing. And [they are now] looking atthings differently than they used to because they were used to doing a financial forecast and forecasting for staff scheduling.” —SivForlie, Shangri-La International Hotel Management Ltd.Function space RM at Hyatt. “When you start to record the demand for, and the use of, those rooms you discover that different oneshave different values based on location—perhaps noise or an outside window with a view—different attributes which might not impressyou right up off the bat but give you an opportunity to price them more variably.” —Greg Cross, Hyatt Hotels CorporationAvero and a suite of internally developed tools, restaurantswithin FRHI properties have the capability to visualize keydata (e.g., RevPASH by day of week, arrival patterns, menuitem performance), and to use those data to forecast andmake informed demand management and menu-based decisions. Most important, learning RM concepts and havingaccess to data on restaurant performance has helped thefood and beverage team devise strategies and innovationsto lift revenue.A focus on non-room revenue streams has shifted theway that these hotel companies are developing and usingdemand forecasts. Sharon Hormby, senior director of totalyield systems, global revenue management, for Marriott International, described the significant progress that Marriotthas made in terms of forecasting, by shifting from individual functional area forecasts to a single hotel forecast. Thistransition has enabled the development of RM strategiesacross functional areas that are driven from the same platform. Many of the other interviewees indicated that eachfunctional area remains largely responsible for generatingits own forecast, dictated primarily by hotel size and complexity of operations. However, two participants spoke to ashifting focus in how forecasts are being developed, awayfrom the level of detail required for financial forecasts andlabor scheduling, and towards the level of granularityand detail that is required for RM decisions.FRHI’s Jeanette Ho spoke to the importance ofdeveloping deep drill forecasts that enable personnel toproactively build demand, and reveal opportunities toapply differentiated pricing. She noted that, while manyof the group’s hotels had a broad understanding of peakand off-peak demand patterns, the introduction of moregranular forecasts has provided a more nuanced pictureof demand (e.g., this Friday is really super peak for themain ballroom, but next Friday is just an ordinary peak).This, in turn, has provided the company an opportunityto move from fixed pricing within seasons to more rigorous price differentiation.The opportunity to apply differential pricing in thefunction space arena was highlighted by Greg Cross,senior vice president of revenue management for HyattHotels, who explained that, while public space inventory pricing formerly tended to be based on flat fees, thecharacteristics of different units, for example, their location or view, provide the opportunity to apply variablepricing. Hyatt Hotels Corporation has implemented acomplete suite of tools to enable catering managers tobetter quote and understand the pricing differential forpublic space rooms (see Exhibit 3).Cornell Hospitality Report March 2017 Vol. 17, No. 87

Exhibit 4Customer lifetime valueAssessing customers based on total spending. “For us, it is understanding and yielding our customers, today in segments [with theexception of high end customers] one day hopefully it’s by customer, based on the totality of their spend. For us, it’s really aboutunderstanding each guest’s contribution, revenue contribution through the different revenue channels that we have within our property.Not only do we want to look at the rate that they pay, but also the F&B that they are generating through the banquet operations, and wewant to look at the room rental that they might pay. And we want to also try to define the propensity to gamble from each segment. Sowhat we can do is we can develop a pretty well rounded understanding of the profitability of each segment.”—Mark Molinari, Las VegasSands Corp.Problems of traditional segmentation. “The lines of segmentation have become so blurry that it’s really hard to say that, if a customeris a corporate customer, they typically stay Monday, Tuesday, or Wednesday nights, they typically book through a global distributionsystem (GDS), and they typically spend “x” amount. Today, it’s very difficult to be able to assign a value based on segment type becauseyou know that corporate customers are not only booking differently—you know they used to book through a GDS but now they like tobook on an online travel agent, or perhaps they like to book on the hotel website. All three of those, GDS, OTA, and hotel website, have avery different cost; therefore it affects the value of that individual customer significantly. And because of the way human nature is kind ofblurring work with personal life, many times you know you get customers who stay over the weekend now, where they never used to doso. So it’s no longer safe to say that business customers book this way and they stay on these nights. Their value has changed.”—Kathleen Cullen, Commune Hotels ResortsCustomer loyalty score at FHRI. “We’re now developing the predictive model for a loyalty score per customer. It’s exciting and theapplication could be very wide. For example, this loyalty score can be fed into our RM system to actually drive decisions. So someonewho is anticipated to give us lower revenue for this one stay, but who has a high loyalty score and therefore high lifetime value, would getpreference for a particular reservation.”—Jeannette Ho, FHRI Hotels and ResortsClosed rates at Hyatt. “We are also in the early stages of seeing what it potentially cannibalizes, what relationship damage it mightcause with large corporate accounts we work with if, for any reason, they are not keen on their employees having their own rate inaddition to the company’s negotiated rate.”—Greg Cross, Hyatt Hotels and ResortsCorporate effort at Marriott. “It isn’t just the RM function at the hotels or the clusters or the markets trying to figure out how to capturemore loyalty or more share of wallet, there’s a corporate effort around this as well, because they’ve got so much data they can see trendsbetter than someone in a smaller space with less data. We’re still evolving that relationship [RM and consumer insight] and how they tiein. So that’s a very exciting area because as they [consumer insight] develop insights, how can those insights be turned into money?”—Sharon Hormby, Marriott InternationalCustomer Lifetime ValueParticipants generally agreed that a focus on customers’true value to the firm is critical, particularly in light of therising costs of customer acquisition (see Exhibit 4). SivForlie pointed to “business mix optimi

Cornell University. As a revenue management consultant, she has served such clients as US Foodservice, The Dorchester Collection, and the Irish National Tourism Development Authority. She has taught executive education courses in revenue management at the Dublin Institute of Technology and at the Co