A STUDY OF STUDENT USE OF CLOUD COMPUTING APPLICATIONSJournal of Information Technology ManagementISSN #1042-1319A Publication of the Association of ManagementA STUDY OF STUDENT USE OF CLOUD COMPUTINGAPPLICATIONSCHRISTOPHER W. TAYLORAPPALACHIAN STATE [email protected]. SCOTT HUNSINGERAPPALACHIAN STATE [email protected] computing is a general term for delivering hosted services over the Internet. Google provides aservice called Google Docs, a widely used example of cloud computing. Even though many studies have examined theoverall concept of cloud computing, no previous research has analyzed students' usage and acceptance of Google Docs in auniversity setting.The Theory of Planned Behavior was used to guide our research in examining what factors influence students to useGoogle Docs. We conducted both interviews (n 15) and surveys (n 316) to gain a better understanding of this phenomenon.By using hierarchical regression analysis and a correlation matrix to analyze the data, it was discovered that all threeconstructs of the Theory of Planned Behavior (Attitude, Subjective Norm, and Perceived Behavioral Control) aresignificantly and positively correlated with intention to use Google Docs. It was also found that Affect, which measures aperson's emotional responses, is also a significant predictor of Behavioral Intention. Our findings can be used by multiplestakeholder groups to better understand the factors influencing the usage of Google Docs.Keywords: Cloud Computing, Google Docs, Theory of Planned BehaviorINTRODUCTIONThe term “cloud computing” is one of the hottestbuzzwords in the realm of Information Technology.Although it has been used in many contexts and has beendefined in several different ways, cloud computingenables users and developers to utilize services withoutknowledge of, expertise with, or control over thetechnology infrastructure that supports them. It is, almostliterally, operating the service in a cloud.Since cloud computing is so loosely defined,many studies have been done to explain conceptuallywhat it is, but few have looked at how it is being used.None to date have looked at its usage and acceptance in auniversity setting. The purpose of this paper is to examinethe factors influencing students in a university setting toadopt Google Docs, an example of cloud computing.From this point the paper is organized intoseveral sections, starting with the Literature Review,which covers relevant research dealing with cloudcomputing, including a definition and an overview ofGoogle Docs. This section also includes the theory behindour paper, followed by the hypotheses that extend fromthe theory. Methodology is the next section, whichexplains our approach in collecting both qualitative andJournal of Information Technology Management, Volume XXII, Number 3, 201136

A STUDY OF STUDENT USE OF CLOUD COMPUTING APPLICATIONSquantitative data. The Findings section provides theresults from the hierarchical regression and correlationanalysis. We discuss the implications of these findings inthe next to last section, which is followed by theConclusion section.LITERATURE REVIEWCloud ComputingAccording to the National Institute of Standardsand Technology (NIST), cloud computing is a model forenabling convenient, on-demand network access to ashared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g.,networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) thatcan be rapidly provisioned and released with minimalmanagement effort or service provider interaction [10].Availability is promoted in the cloud model. However, itshould be noted that cloud computing is still an evolvingparadigm. Since the purpose of this paper is to examinewhat factors significantly influence students' usage ofGoogle Docs, an overview of the characteristics, servicemodels, and deployment models is provided in thefollowing subsection.Characteristics, Service, and DeploymentModelsA characteristic of cloud computing is its abilityto be accessed anywhere there is a reliable Internetconnection. The ability to promote on-demand self serviceallows a consumer to have computing capabilities withoutthe need of human interaction with a service's provider.This provides the user the flexibility to access data in realtime without having to wait for the service to "boot up"[10]. Another interesting characteristic is the ability toaccess the data on any network, regardless of the clientplatform (mobile phone, laptop, etc.) that is used. Havingaccess to the data anywhere means valuable resources arenot tied up elsewhere. This leads into the finalcharacteristic of location-independent resource pooling.By freeing up valuable resources, cloud computing canreassign the unused resources and move them to whereconsumer demand is at its highest [10].Cloud computing has been categorized into threeunique service models. They are: Infrastructure as aService (IaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS), andSoftware as a Service (SaaS). IaaS is the capabilityprovided to the consumer to provision processing,storage, networks, and other fundamental computingresources, which can include operating systems andapplications [16]. An example of IaaS is Amazon's ElasticCompute Cloud (EC2). EC2 is a web service that providesresizable compute capacity in the cloud. It is designed tomake web-scale computing easier for developers [1].PaaS is the capability provided to the user todeploy consumer-created or acquired applications ontothe cloud infrastructure. The consumer does not manageor control the underlying cloud infrastructure, includingthe network, servers, operating systems, or storage, buthas control over the deployed applications and possiblyapplication hosting environment configurations [8].Google Applications Engine, also known as Google AppEngine, is an example of PaaS. Google App Engineenables the user to build and host web apps on the samesystems that power Google applications. Basically,Google provides the developer kit that allows the user tocreate custom apps. The user is not required to haveexpensive machinery to run it because Google providesthe "platform" to run the application.SaaS is the capability provided to the consumerto use the provider's applications running on a cloudinfrastructure. The applications are accessible fromvarious clients such as a web browser (e.g., web-basedemail) [16]. Google Docs is an example of SaaS. The useronly needs to have a web browser like Mozilla Firefox orInternet Explorer to access Google Docs. Googlepossesses control over the customization with GoogleDocs. The user is only allowed to use what is there. Tofurther illustrate, Figure 1 provides a diagram of the threeservice models.Cloud computing utilities are delivered to usersin a number of ways. They can be private, public,community based, or a hybrid of the three. The privatecloud remains on the inside of the organization while thepublic cloud is made available to the general public [10].Journal of Information Technology Management, Volume XXII, Number 3, 201137

A STUDY OF STUDENT USE OF CLOUD COMPUTING APPLICATIONSFigure 1: Service Models of Cloud Computing [5]Google DocsIn March 2006, Google acquired the rights toWritely, an online word processing application. Thisbecame a foundation for Google Docs. Meanwhile,Google developed Google Spreadsheets using thetechnology it had acquired from 2Web Technologies in2005 and launched Google Labs Spreadsheets on June 6,2006 as the first public component of what wouldeventually become Google Docs. It was initially madeavailable to only a limited number of users on a firstcome, first-served basis. The limited test was laterreplaced with a beta version available to all GoogleAccount holders, around the same time that a pressrelease was issued. In July 2009, Google officiallyintroduced Google Docs, their online office and webstorage suite. The Google Docs "office" suite includesapplications such as word processing, spreadsheet and apresentation editor. Users have the ability to create newdocuments and store them securely online, as GoogleDocs does not need to be installed on a physical device.This is what makes Google Docs an example of SaaS.Google Docs can be accessed from anywhere that has anactive Internet connection. This makes it possible to sharefiles around the globe. Google Docs allows for variousoffice file types to be uploaded, which makes this apowerful online collaboration tool. Users can modifydocuments in real time which makes Google Docs highlydesirable when teamwork occurs on the Internet [7].Current Usage of Cloud ComputingAmbrose and Chiravuri [2] examined the role ofthree factors in the personal use of Cloud Computing.Using Partial Least Squares analysis, they discovered thattwo factors (age and experience) have a significant role ina person's intention to use cloud computing.Community colleges have become early adoptersof the cloud computing technology. Researchers used theTechnology Acceptance Model to examine whethercommunity college students would adopt cloudcomputing technology. Observations were done in a smallvirtual lab in a community college setting. Their researchfound that students are more likely to adopt cloudcomputing technology if it is easy to use and requireslittle training [4].Journal of Information Technology Management, Volume XXII, Number 3, 201138

A STUDY OF STUDENT USE OF CLOUD COMPUTING APPLICATIONSInstitutional Influences on Real WorldOptionsA real option refers to the right but not anobligation to make a managerial decision to takeownership of a real asset or embark on a project at afuture point in time [15], [17]. One study examined howinstitutional influences may affect organizations’perceptions about the technological characteristics ofcloud computing and recognition of real options. UsingPartial Least Squares analysis, Saya et al. [12] found thatcloud computing characteristics of scalability, costeffectiveness, accessibility and lack of security aremotivational factors in growth, abandonment, anddeferral.Theory of Planned BehaviorThe Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) statesthat the combination of three constructs: “Attitude towardthe Behavior,” “Subjective Norm,” and “PerceivedBehavioral Control,” lead to the formation of a“Behavioral Intention.” Attitude is defined as anindividual's positive or negative evaluation of selfperformance of the particular behavior. Subjective Normis defined as an individual's perception of socialnormative pressures, or relevant others' (parents, friends,etc.) beliefs that he or she should or should not perform aparticular behavior. Perceived Behavioral Control refersto an individual's perceived ease or difficulty ofperforming a particular behavior [3]. The Theory ofPlanned Behavior is illustrated in Figure 2.AffectAlthough each of the constructs in the Theory ofPlanned Behavior (TPB) is important to consider, someresearchers believe there are other factors that should beincluded to measure the direct linkage between one’sintentions and their behavioral outcomes [13]. Eventhough Attitude is often a significant indicator, it does notmeasure one’s emotional state. TPB gives minimalattention to the role of Affect or emotions in theprediction of intention.Several researchers have demonstrated thatAffect may be an important predictor. Hunsinger andSmith [9] used TPB along with an Affect construct topredict hiring managers' intentions to use IT certificationswhen hiring new candidates. Another study [6] looked athealth related behaviors and how Affect influencesdecisions when health related issues appear. We includedthe Affect construct to our hypotheses to examine whetheremotions significantly influence usage of Google Docs.HYPOTHESESHypothesis 1: Attitude toward the Behavior issignificantly and positively correlated with the intent touse Google Docs.Hypothesis 2: Subjective Norm is significantly andpositively correlated with the intent to use Google Docs.Hypothesis 3: Perceived Behavioral Control issignificantly and positively correlated with the intent touse Google Docs.Hypothesis 4: Affect is significantly and positivelycorrelated with the intent to use Google Docs.METHODOLOGYFigure 2: Theory of Planned Behavior Model[3]We used both an interview instrument and asurvey to collect data. The interview questions rangedfrom basic demographics to statements that measuredAjzen’s Theory of Planned Behavior. Many previousstudies have been done using questionnaires based on theTheory of Planned Behavior, so we felt it would beappropriate to use this as a measuring tool.First, we randomly selected and interviewed 15students in the College of Business at our university. Webased the interview questions on measures from theTheory of Planned Behavior and the Affect construct.Upon completing interviews with students, we used theresults to create a survey hosted through the online siteSurveyMonkey. We sent a request to approximatelyJournal of Information Technology Management, Volume XXII, Number 3, 201139

A STUDY OF STUDENT USE OF CLOUD COMPUTING APPLICATIONS2,000 students in the College of Business at our universityto complete the survey. About 100 of these students areenrolled in a graduate program while the rest are enrolledin an undergraduate curriculum. A total of 343 studentsstarted the survey. However, only 316 responses could beused, as 27 of the students did not complete the survey.MeasuresAttitudeA direct measure of Attitude toward usingGoogle Docs was measured with three statements.(ATT1) Using Google Docs is a good idea, (ATT2) UsingGoogle Docs is a positive idea, and (ATT3) Using GoogleDocs is a helpful idea.Subjective NormTo measure the construct of Subjective Norm,we used three unique statements: (SN1) My professorsinfluence me in my decision whether to use Google Docs,(SN2) My friends influence me in my decision whether touse Google Docs, and (SN3) Other people important tome influence me in my decision whether to use GoogleDocs.Perceived Behavioral ControlFour statements were used to measure PerceivedBehavioral Control: (PBC1) I have the ability to useGoogle Docs, (PBC2) I possess enough knowledge to useGoogle Docs, (PBC3) I have the resources to use GoogleDocs, and (PBC4) I have the time to use Google Docs.AffectAffect was measured using four statements thathave been validated in previous studies [6], [9].Participants responded to survey questions using a fivepoint Likert scale. The four statements used were: (AFF1)I would love/hate to use Google Docs, (AFF2) I would beexcited about/be bored using Google Docs, (AFF3) Iwould be happy/unhappy using Google Docs, and (AFF4)I would be relaxed/stressed using Google Docs.Table 1: Computed Cronbach Alpha for EachConstructConstructAttitude.924*Subjective Norm.771*Perceived Behavioral.864*ControlAffect.823*Behavioral Intention.977** acceptable .70FINDINGSHierarchical regression is used in this study sinceit allows for specification of the order of entry of thevariables based upon theory and previous studies. Inaddition, hierarchical regression allowed us to observe thechange in R2 as each independent variable is entered intothe model. This allowed us to determine whetheradditional variables are significant when entered into theequation.The data were entered into an Excel 2010spreadsheet and then imported into SPSS 17.0 forhierarchical regression analysis and correlation analysis.The results of the correlation analysis and hierarchicalregression analysis are shown below in Tables 2 and 3.Table 2: Correlation MatrixBehavioral IntentionTo measure Behavioral Intention, we used threestatements: (BI1) I intend to use Google Docs in the nextthree months, (BI2) I plan to use Google Docs in the nextthree months, and (BI3) I anticipate I will use GoogleDocs in the next three months. Respondents replied usinga seven-point bi-polar scale ranging from Strongly Agreeto Strongly Disagree.Listed below in Table 1 are the results forCronbach Alpha for each construct. Each construct isacceptable as the Cronbach Alpha is greater than .70 foreach [11].ValueAttitudeBehavioral .640*IntentionAttitudeSubjective Perceived ioralControl* Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed)Journal of Information Technology Management, Volume XXII, Number 3, 201140

A STUDY OF STUDENT USE OF CLOUD COMPUTING APPLICATIONSTable 3: Hierarchical Regression Analysis usingAttitude, SN, PBC, and AFFPredictorsRR2Sig. FDurbin(Constants)ChangeWatsonATT.639.408.000ATT, SN.665.442.000ATT, SN,.682.465.000PBCATT, SN,.706.498.0002.087PBC, AFF(Dependent Variable Behavioral Intention)ATT - Attitude; SN - Subjective Norm; PBC - PerceivedBehavioral Control; AFF - AffectThe Durbin-Watson statistic is a method forchecking serial dependence. Results of the DurbinWatson test (d 2.087) for autocorrelation fall within theappropriate range 1.5 – 2.5 [14].Hypothesis 1 is supported. The correlationbetween Attitude and Behavioral Intention is .640.Attitude was entered first into the hierarchical regressionequation and explained 40.8% of the variance inBehavioral Intention. It is therefore concluded thatAttitude is significantly and positively correlated withthe intent of students to use Google Docs.Hypothesis 2 is supported. The correlationbetween Subjective Norm and Behavioral Intention .332. Subjective Norm was entered second into thehierarchical regression equation and the total variance inintentions explained increased to 44.2%. Therefore, weconclude that Subjective Norm is significantly andpositively correlated with the intent of students to useGoogle Docs.Hypothesis 3 is supported. The correlationbetween Perceived Behavioral Control and BehavioralIntention .417. Perceived Behavioral Control wasentered third into the hierarchical regression equation andthe total variance in intentions explained increased to46.5%. Therefore, we conclude that Perceived BehavioralControl is significantly and positively correlated with theintent of students to use Google Docs.Hypothesis 4 is supported. The correlationbetween Affect and Behavioral Intention is .589. Affectwas entered in last into the hierarchical regressionequation and the total variance in Behavioral Intentionexplained increased to 49.8%. Therefore, we concludethat Affect is significantly and positively correlated withthe intent of students to use Google Docs.DISCUSSIONThrough the use of interviews and resultsgathered from the survey, we have gained a betterunderstanding of what factors influence students to useGoogle Docs. This is important for a number of reasons.First, this study indicates that Google Docs has a numberof benefits for students. One of the interviewees stated,“.it (Google Docs) makes it easier geographically towork on projects.” Another stated, “Google Docs is agreat tool for collaboration ” and then goes on further tostate that it is “ very useful for group(s) working on anydata that constantly needs updates.”This research could be extended to includeworking professionals in a university setting such ascollege instructors or lecturers. For instance, severalrespondents implied that they were required to use GoogleDocs for several courses. Most of the time, it was theprofessor of the class who told them to use Google Docsto keep track of their collaborative projects.Google could eventually look at aiming at otherpossible target markets. For instance, one question fromthe interview and the survey asked respondents if theywould be willing to pay for a service like Google Docs.This question was then followed up by how much theywould be willing to pay for it. During one interview, wefound out that “ as a student, I could not afford to payfor Google Docs.” Another interview yielded the result of“ if Google Docs had more features, I would considerpaying for it.” These statements together imply thatGoogle Docs could potentially seek more markets if morefeatures were available from it.Affect’s significant influence on attitude isillustrated by respondents’ emotional comments, positiveand negative, about the overall use of Google Docs.Several quotes from our interviews and open-endedsurvey questions are provided below. “I like using Google Docs just fine “Dislike (using Google Docs)” “I like it for group papers ” “I do not prefer to use it ” “I like it, it’s simple.” “I hate using it ”Figure 3 shows how the Theory of PlannedBehavior can be extended to include the construct ofAffect.Journal of Information Technology Management, Volume XXII, Number 3, 201141

A STUDY OF STUDENT USE OF CLOUD COMPUTING APPLICATIONSsignificant when measuring students’ intentions to useGoogle Docs. Future research using the Theory ofPlanned Behavior should consider the role of Affect, as itplays a significant role in this study in predictingintentions.REFERENCES[1]Figure 3: Theory of Planned Behavior withAffect constructSince both Attitude (which measures what aperson believes / thinks) and Affect (which measures howa person feels) were significant in our study, this issomething that should be examined further in futureresearch. Future research could integrate other theoriessuch as the Technology Acceptance Model to examinewhether perceived usefulness and/or ease of use play asignificant role in predicting students' intentions to useGoogle Docs. Another potential prospect for researchcould be accomplished by using Structural EquationModeling (SEM) to analyze the data we collected.We could also collect data from groups otherthan university students to see if the significantrelationships hold in other domains. With a larger samplesize, we could compare findings between graduatestudents and undergraduate students to see if significantdifferences occur between the two groups.CONCLUSIONThe results derived from this research show thatat the university level, students’ intentions to use GoogleDocs are positively and significantly correlated with theconstructs from the Theory of Planned Behavior. All threeconstructs from the TPB (Attitude, Subjective Norm,Perceived Behavioral Control), as well as Affect, areAmazon Web Services "Amazon Elastic ComputeCloud",, February 2011.[2] Ambrose, P. and Chiravuri, A. "An EmpiricalInvestigation of Cloud Computing for PersonalUse." MWAIS 2010 Proceedings. Paper 24., May 2010.[3] Ajzen, I. “The Theory of Planned Behavior.“Organizational Behavior and Human DecisionProcesses, Volume 50, 1991, pp.179-211.[4] Behrend, T., Wiebe, E., London, J. and Johnson, E.“Cloud Computing Adoption and Usage inCommunity Colleges”, Behaviour & InformationTechnology, Volume 30, Issue 2, 2011, pp.231-240.[5] Czernicki, B. "IaaS, PaaS, and SaaS Terms ClearlyExplained and d.aspx, February 27, 2011.[6] Dutta-Bergman, M. J. “Developing a Profile ofConsumer Intention to Seek OutAdditionalInformation Beyond a Doctor: The Role ofCommunicative and Motivation Variables.” HealthCommunication, Volume 17, 2005, pp.1-16.[7] Google "Getting to know Google y?hl en&answer 49008&topic 15152, February 2011.[8] Gray, M. “Cloud Computing: Demystifying IaaS,PaaS and demystifying-iaas-paas-and-saas/477238, October2010.[9] Hunsinger, D. and Smith M. “Predicting HiringManagers' Intentions to Use IT Certification in theSelection Process.” Journal of InformationTechnology Management, Volume 16, Issue 4,2005.[10] Mell, P. and Grance, T. "NIST Definition of CloudComputing g/index.html, May 2009.[11] Santos, J. R., “Cronbach's Alpha: A Tool forAssessing the Reliability of Scales.” JournalofExtension, Volume 37, Issue 2, 1999.Journal of Information Technology Management, Volume XXII, Number 3, 201142

A STUDY OF STUDENT USE OF CLOUD COMPUTING APPLICATIONS[12] Saya, S., Pee, L. G. and Kankanhalli, A., “TheImpact Of Institutional Influences On PerceivedTechnology Characteristics And Real Options InCloud Computing Adoption” ICIS is2010 submissions/24,August 2010.[13] Sniehotta, F. F., “An Experimental Test of theTheory of Planned Behavior.” Applied Psychology:Health and Well-Being, Volume 1, 2009, pp.257270.[14] Tabachnick, B. G. and Fidell, L. S., UsingMultivariate Statistics (4th ed.), Allyn andBacon, Needham Heights, MA, 2000.[15] Tallon, P. P., Kauffman, R. J., Lucas, H. C.,Whinston, A. B. and Zhu, K. “Using Real OptionsAnalysis for Evaluating Uncertain Investments inInformation Technology: Insights from the ICIS2001 Debate.” Communications of Association forInformation Systems Volume 9, 2002, pp. 136-167.[16] Williams, A. “The Feds, not Forrester, AreDeveloping Better Definitions for rprise/2009/10/forrrester-says-we-need-better.php, October 2009.[17] Wu, Le., Wu, Li. and Wen, Y. “InterdisciplinaryResearch of Options Theory and ManagementInformation Systems: Review, Research Issues, andSuggestions for Future Research.” IndustrialManagement & Data Systems, Volume 110, Issue 3,2010, pp.433-452.Christopher W. Taylor is a Lecturer ofComputer Information Systems in the Walker College ofBusiness at Appalachian State University. He obtained hisMaster of Business Administration and Bachelor ofScience in Business Administration from AppalachianState University. He holds the Certified Ethical HackerCertification. He is also the manager for the SecurityOperations Center for Quadrant Information Security, afirm with a focus on Information Security. His workshave been published in the Southeast Decision SciencesInstitute Conference Proceedings as well as theAppalachian State University archives.AUTHOR BIOGRAPHIESD. Scott Hunsinger is an Associate Professor ofComputer Information Systems in the Walker College ofBusiness and Co-Director of the Center for AppliedResearch in Emerging Technologies at Appalachian StateUniversity. He holds a Ph.D. in Information Technology,MBA, and BSBA from The University of North Carolinaat Charlotte. His research interests include IT certificationand factors influencing students to major in informationsystems. Scott has published in journals such as the DataBase for Advances in Information Systems, Journal ofComputer Information Systems, Journal of InformationTechnology Management, Journal of Information SystemsApplied Research, and Journal of Organizational and EndUser Computing. Scott is Editor of the Journal ofInformation Systems Applied Research and AssociateEditor of the Information Systems Education Journal andJournal of Social & Organizational Dynamics inInformation Technology.Journal of Information Technology Management, Volume XXII, Number 3, 201143

A STUDY OF STUDENT USE OF CLOUD COMPUTING APPLICATIONSAPPENDIX A: INTERVIEW INSTRUMENTInterview Questions1) Have you ever heard of Google-Docs?2) Have you used Google-Docs before?3) Has anyone close to you (friends, family) ever used Google-Docs?4) Has a professor or colleague demonstrated the use of Google-Docs?5) What do you know about Google-Docs?6) Do you find using Google-Docs to be easier to share information than having to email it betweenothers?7) How do you feel about using Google-Docs? (Love it, hate it, don’t mind using it)8) Do you trust Google (through the use of Google-Docs) to house your information? (Or how doyou feel about entrusting your data with Google?)9) How do you feel about the company of Google in general?10) If another type of online web storage were available, would you consider using it instead ofGoogle-Docs?11) If Google were to start charging a small fee (less than 5 a month) to use their Google-Docsservice, would you still consider paying for it?12) At what price would you be indifferent for purchasing a service like Google-Docs? ( 0 to 1, 1to 2, 2 to 3, 3 to 4, 4 to 5)13) How did you hear about Google-Docs?14) What would make you consider changing how you are currently sharing your information? (Ifthey aren’t currently using Google-Docs?)15) What made you decide to start using Google-Docs in the first place?16) Do you find Google-Docs easy to use/easy to understand?17) Do you consider Google-Docs to be useful? ExplainJournal of Information Technology Management, Volume XXII, Number 3, 201144

A STUDY OF STUDENT USE OF CLOUD COMPUTING APPLICATIONSAPPENDIX B: SURVEY INSTRUMENT1. What is your gender?MaleFemale2. My current major is .AccountingComputer Information SystemsEconomicsEntrepreneurshipFinance and BankingHealthcare ManagementHospitality & Tourism ManagementInternational BusinessManagementMarketingRisk Management and InsuranceMaster's in Business Administration (MBA)Master's in AccountingOther (please indicate below)UndecidedOther (please specify)3. If you are a double-major, please indicate your second major:Not double-majoringAccountingComputer Information SystemsEconomicsEntrepreneurshipFinance and BankingHealthcare ManagementHospitality & Tourism ManagementJournal of Information Technology Management, Volume XXII, Number 3, 201145

A STUDY OF STUDENT USE OF CLOUD COMPUTING APPLICATIONSInternational BusinessManagementMarketingRisk Management and InsuranceMaster's in Business Administration (MBA)Master's in AccountingOther (please indicate below)UndecidedOther (please specify)4. What is your class?Freshman, Sophomore, Junior, Senior, Graduate Student5. To be entered into the drawing for 1 of 20 25 gift certificates, please enter youremail address:***BE SURE TO ANSWER THE QUESTIONS ON THE NEXT PAGE IN ORDER TO QUALIFYFOR ONE OF THE PRIZES. INCOMPLETE SURVEYS WILL NOT QUALIFY YOU FOR THEDRAWING***6. If a professor told you about the survey in one or more of your classes, please list his/hername(s) below:QuestionsThe following questions refer to us

Current Usage of Cloud Computing Ambrose and Chiravuri [2] examined the role of three factors in the personal use of Cloud Computing. Using Partial Least Squares analysis, they discovered that two factors (age and experience) have a significant role in a person's intention to use cloud computing. Community colleges have become early adopters