Published by theEstate Planningand AdministrationSection of theOregon State BarForeclosures of Reverse Mortgages:Inadvertent Tax Liability To Estate BeneficiariesGinger SkinnerSkinner Law, PCPortland, ORPeople with debt-free homes will occasionally obtain a reverse mortgage ontheir homes. The reverse mortgage allows the homeowners to continue living intheir own home, while increasing their cash flow due to the payments receivedfrom the mortgage company. However, complications arise if the person dieswith a reverse mortgage on a home, especially if the balance due on the reversemortgage is higher than the fair market value of the home at the time of deathor, in current slang, underwater.The general rule is that debt, including tax debt, is the responsibility ofthe decedent’s estate. Children or other heirs of the decedent are not liablefor any of the decedent’s debt. However, it is possible for estate beneficiariesto inadvertently become liable for additional taxes if a decedent’s residenceis subject to an underwater reverse mortgage that is then foreclosed and themortgage company discharges the remaining debt. This is a result of the uniqueconduit taxation nature of an estate. As a reminder, from a tax perspective, anestate is sometimes referred to as a “pass-through” entity. Each beneficiary, notthe decedent’s estate, pays income tax on his or her distributed share of income.If a taxpayer, including an estate, is relieved of a nonrecourse liability inconnection with the disposition of encumbered property, the debt relief isincluded in the taxpayer’s amount realized for the purpose of computing gainor loss realized in the property transaction. See Treas. Reg. § 1.1001-2. If thetaxpayer was instead relieved of a recourse liability, the amount of the forgivendebt is included in the taxpayer’s gross income. See IRC § 61(a)(12); IRC § 108(a).Reverse mortgages are generally nonrecourse debt. This is because theFederal Housing Administration (FHA) as part of its Home Equity ConversionMortgage program insures most reverse mortgages. Therefore, if a reversemortgage is obtained when the real estate market is high and the marketsubsequently crashes after most of the equity has been stripped from the home,the borrower (or the borrower’s estate) will not be personally liable for thedeficiency, if the mortgage was through the FHA program.Oregon Estate Planningand AdministrationSection NewsletterVolume XXXII, No. 3September 2015Applying this general rule to a reverse mortgage situation might look like thisexample. Imagine a situation where the decedent’s home sells for 200,000 at aforeclosure auction. The outstanding loan balance was 300,000. The amountrealized includes the sale proceeds ( 200,000) and the amount of the dischargeof liability ( 100,000). Therefore, the amount realized by the borrower’s estateis 300,000.In This Issue1 Foreclosures of ReverseMortgages: Inadvertent TaxLiability To Estate Beneficiaries2 529 Plans: Beware Transfer TaxConsequences on Change ofBeneficiary4 Federal and Oregon Income TaxPlanning for Trusts8 Events

Estate Planning and Administration SectionSeptember 2015The same home was appraised at 200,000 as of the dateof the decedent’s death. Therefore, the basis of the home is 200,000 because the basis of the home is adjusted to the fairmarket value of the home at the date of the decedent’s death.IRC § 1014(a)(1).owner changes the beneficiary of a 529 plan to one in alower generation.A) Transfer Tax and Income TaxConsequences of 529 Plans1) Gift Tax: Contributions to 529 plans are consideredcompleted, present interest gifts to the beneficiary.1Therefore, contributions are eligible for the annualgift tax exclusion under IRC Section 2503(b) andthe generation-skipping transfer tax exclusion underIRC Section 2642(c). Donors may make a lump-sumcontribution to a 529 plan in an amount equal to fivetimes the federal annual exclusion ( 70,000 single or 140,000 if married) per recipient, provided that thedonor files a gift tax return and makes the appropriateelection.2 The contribution is treated as being maderatably over five years, which exhausts the donor’seligibility to make additional annual exclusion giftsto the same beneficiary over that time period. In otherwords, a donor may contribute 70,000 (or 140,000 ifmarried and electing to gift-split) to a 529 account fora beneficiary, but the donor may not make additionalgifts to the same beneficiary over the next five years(whether through additional contributions to the 529plan or otherwise) without transfer tax consequences.Advisors should caution plan owners that the five-yearelection is not automatic, and the donor must file a gifttax return. If a married couple elects to gift-split andratably spread the maximum 140,000 contributionover five years, each spouse must file a separate gifttax return.The gain realized is the amount realized ( 300,000), lessthe basis in the home ( 200,000). As a result, the gain realizedis 100,000. The capital gain is either taxed to the borrower’sestate or passed through to the beneficiaries, depending onwhether distributions are made to the beneficiaries during thetax year in which the estate realizes the capital gain.If the estate terminates and is fully distributed to thebeneficiaries during the tax year in which the gain wasrealized, then each beneficiary’s share of the capital gain isreported on that beneficiary’s personal income tax returnwithout any corresponding distributed assets to pay theresulting increase in personal income taxes.If the estate does not make any distributions to thebeneficiaries during the tax year in which the gain wasrealized, then the capital gain is taxed directly to the estate. Ifthe estate is unable to pay taxes on the capital gain, then theexecutor may be able to approach the IRS and ask to settlethe outstanding debt. If this approach is contemplated, thebeneficiaries should be advised to disclaim their interests inthe home to avoid any distribution of the capital gain to thebeneficiaries.In conclusion, any time your client is dealing with an estatethat has a reverse mortgage, you should exercise an abundanceof caution and make sure you have all of the informationprior to advising that client. Be sure you are the first to knowwhether an estate is insolvent and if a mortgage company willdischarge nonrecourse debt as a result of a foreclosure.2) Estate Tax: Contributions to 529 plans are generally notincluded in the donor’s gross estate for federal estate taxpurposes.3 Since contributions are treated as completedgifts, the plan value is included in the beneficiary’s grossestate.4 An exception occurs where the donor, prior todeath, elected to spread a lump-sum contribution overfive years pursuant to Prop Treas Reg § 1.529-5(b)(i). Insuch event, the portion of the contribution allocated tothe years after the donor’s death is included in his or hergross estate.529 Plans: Beware Transfer TaxConsequences on Change ofBeneficiaryBrent BerselliHolland & Knight LLPPortland, OregonEducation savings plans under Section 529 (“529 plans”)of the Internal Revenue Code (“IRC”) are well-knownvehicles for funding qualified higher education expenses. 529plans offer a unique combination of gift, estate, and incometax benefits to the account owner and beneficiary, which arediscussed briefly below. This article addresses the potentialunintended transfer tax consequences when an accountCheckout out the Section’s New Websiteestateplanning.osbar.org3) Income Tax: Investments within 529 plans grow taxfree until distribution.5 Plan earnings avoid income taxupon distribution provided the funds distributed pay“qualified higher education expenses”6 to an “eligible1 IRC § 529(c)(2)(A)(i).2 Prop Treas Reg § 1.529-5(b)(i).3 See IRC § 529(c)(4)(A); Prop Treas Reg § 1.529-5(d)(1).4 See IRC § 529(c)(4)(A); Prop Treas Reg § 1.529-5(d)(1).5 See IRC § 529(a).6 “Qualified higher education expenses” include tuition, fees,room and board, books, supplies, computer technology andequipment, education software, and internet access.Page 2

Estate Planning and Administration SectionSeptember 2015educational institution.”7 Nonqualified distributionsare (1) subject to a 10% penalty, and (2) taxed at thebeneficiary’s marginal income tax rate.8B) Transfer Tax Consequences on Change of Beneficiary1) Transfers to Same or Higher Generation: 529 accountowners maintain control of the plan by determiningwhen distributions are made and retaining the abilityto change the beneficiary or rollover the accountbalance to a new account. Beneficiary changes canoften occur with no adverse transfer tax consequences.Changing to a new beneficiary who: (1) is a memberof the same family9 as the previous beneficiary, and(2) is assigned to the same or higher generation forgeneration-skipping transfer tax purposes as the oldbeneficiary is not treated as a new taxable gift.102) Transfers to a Lower Generation: Plan owners andtheir advisors must exercise caution in selecting anew beneficiary who is one generation or more belowthe current beneficiary. If the new beneficiary is in alower generation (i.e., changing the beneficiary froma child to grandchild), the transfer is treated as a newtaxable gift. The IRC does not specify the donor of thenew gift. The Service has not issued final TreasuryRegulations on point, but Section 1.529-5(b)(3) of the1998 Treasury Proposed Regulations states that thechange in beneficiary is considered a taxable gift fromthe previous beneficiary to the new beneficiary.11 If thenew beneficiary is more than a generation below thecurrent beneficiary, the transfer will also be subject togeneration-skipping transfer tax.The five-year election is available to the currentbeneficiary, and he or she may qualify up to 70,000(or 140,000 if married) of the deemed gift for annualexclusion treatment. However, if the current plan balance7Nearly all colleges, universities, community colleges, and law,medical, or business schools qualify as “eligible educationalinstitutions.”8 See Prop Treas Reg § 1.529-2(e).9 A member of the family of a beneficiary is a defined termunder IRC § 529(e)(2) and Prop Treas Reg § 1.529-1(c). IRSPublication 970 lists the following as “members of the family”of the beneficiary: son, daughter, stepchild, foster child,adopted child, or a descendant of any of them; brother, sister,stepbrother, or stepsister; father or mother or ancestor ofeither; stepfather or stepmother; son or daughter of a brotheror sister; brother or sister of father or mother; son-in-law,daughter-in-law, father-in-law, mother-in-law, brother-in-law,or sister-in-law; the spouse of any individual listed above;or first cousin. Available at US 2014 publink1000178578.10 See Prop Treas Reg § 1.529-5(b)(3)(i).11 See IRC § 529(c)(5)(B); Prop Treas Reg § 1-529-5(b)(3)(ii).exceeds five times the applicable annual exclusionamount, the excess amount may be subject to gift tax.The Service’s rationale for treating the currentbeneficiary as the donor of the new gift stems from thefact that 529 plan contributions are considered completedgifts. Therefore, the current beneficiary is deemed to bethe owner of the funds in the account, and the currentbeneficiary is the donor with respect to the transfer tothe new beneficiary. This is true notwithstanding the factthat the current beneficiary has no authority to change thebeneficiary or distribute funds. The current beneficiarymay not even be aware of the existence of the 529 plan.Commentators have periodically raised concerns aboutthis approach, but the Service has yet to issue finalRegulations. In Announcement 2008-17, issued on March3, 2008, the Service requested public comment on thetransfer tax consequences of such a change of beneficiaryto a lower generation. As stated in Announcement 2008-17:In order to assign the tax liability to the party whohas control over the account and is responsible for thechange of any beneficiary, the forthcoming notice ofproposed rulemaking will provide that a change of[Designated Beneficiary] that results in the impositionof any tax will be treated as a deemed distributionto the [Account Owner] followed by a new gift.Therefore, the [Account Owner] will be liable forany gift or GST tax imposed on the change of the[Designated Beneficiary], and the [Account Owner]must file gift and GST tax returns if required.Announcement 2008-17 has not resulted in new ProposedRegulations, and the current treatment under Section 1.5295(b)(3) of the 1998 Treasury Proposed Regulations remainsa concern.C) ConclusionBecause the Service has not issued final TreasuryRegulations, the transfer tax consequences of a changein beneficiary to a lower generation are not entirely clear.However, the plan owner and his or her advisors mustcarefully consider the possibility that the Service couldassess a gift tax liability against the current beneficiary.For this reason, practitioners should exercise caution andmay wish to prospectively file a gift tax return in the yearfollowing the transfer to qualify up to 70,000 (or 140,000if married) of the deemed gift from the current beneficiaryto the new beneficiary for annual exclusion treatment.Page 3Welcome BackMichele Wasson of Stoel Rives LLP has returnedto serve once again as an editor for the Estate Planningand Administration Section Newsletter. Michele has manyvolunteer positions and we are honored that she is willing torejoin us. We look forward to Michele’s insight and clarityas an editor.

Estate Planning and Administration SectionSeptember 2015Federal and Oregon Income TaxPlanning for TrustsEd Morrow, J.D., LL.M., CFP 1Senior Wealth Specialist,Key Private Bank Family Wealth Advisory ServicesMost Americans are patriotic and proud to pay taxesas a necessary price of living in such a great country.Oregonians are equally proud of their state. But mostwould feel just as proud paying half as much. This articlewill focus on how higher income Oregon residents canlegitimately avoid or lower the federal and/or Oregonincome tax burden using both incomplete and completedgift trusts. These techniques are most useful to those whoanticipate being in the highest income tax brackets and,due to sharply increased applicable exclusion amounts anddozens of recent private letter rulings from the IRS, aremore appealing than ever.2 Some of these techniques havethe side effect of avoiding Oregon estate tax as well, thoughthat is not the focus of this article.3At 9.9%, Oregon has one of the highest state income taxrates in the country – behind only California, Hawaii, orresidents of New York City, which has both a state and cityincome tax.4 For long-term capital gains tax rates, this stateburden may be over a third of the overall tax and placesOregon residents among the highest payers of capital gainstax on the planet. The savings can be tremendous – nearly 99,000 for every million dollars of capital gains avoided.5First, we’ll very briefly summarize how trusts are taxedat the federal level. Then we’ll explain Oregon’s trust1 The author is a member of the Ohio rather than Oregon bar, butis an alumnus of Lewis and Clark Law School.2 Federal tax rules for trusts are primarily found in Subchapter Jof the Internal Revenue Code, IRC §§ 641-692. The top federalincome tax bracket of 39.6% (20% for long-term capital gainsand qualified dividends) as of 2013 starts at 400,000 taxableincome for singles and 450,000 for married filing jointly,which annually adjust upwards for inflation; in 2015 thesestart at 413,201 and 464,851 respectively. The additionalMedicare surtax on net investment income of 3.8%, whichacts in many ways like an income tax, starts at 200,000and 250,000 modified AGI respectively, not adjusted forinflation.3 Which, to generalize, starts at 10% on taxable estates over the 1 million exemption and increases to 16%, also one of thehighest rates in the nation. See Oregon Tax Form OR706 andinstructions at 104-001 2013.pdf.4 ORS 316.037 (reaching the 9.9% at only 125,000 of income,lower than most state’s top brackets; California tops out at13.3%, Hawaii is 11%, and New York state and New YorkCity are 8.82% and 3.4% respectively). See state income taxmap and charts updated at Savings may be slightly less due to itemized deductions of taxpaid, exemptions, etc.income tax scheme and the importance of being classifiedas a “resident” or “non-resident” trust. Then, we’ll address“source income” and situations involving real estate,income, and businesses with Oregon situs, when Oregonmay tax even non-residents and non-resident trusts. Moreimportantly, we’ll discuss how this may often be avoided.Next, we’ll revisit the two federal tax options available anddistinguish between completed gift and incomplete gifttrusts. Lastly, we’ll explore when these same trusts mayactually save federal income tax in many situations as well,despite the common wisdom that trusts pay higher rates ofincome tax.Federal Trust Income Tax SchemeMany trusts, including all revocable trusts and evenmany irrevocable ones, are “grantor trusts” for incometax purposes, meaning they are not considered separatetaxpayers and all gains, income, losses, and deductions ofthe trust are attributable to the grantor.6This article will assume a familiarity with basic federalfiduciary income tax principles and for the remainder ofthis article “trusts” will refer to standard non-charitable,irrevocable non-grantor trusts unless specified otherwise– thereby excluding grantor trusts, charitable remaindertrusts, and trusteed qualified plans and IRAs.7Trusts and estates have similarities to pass-throughentities, but are taxed quite differently from entities taxedas S corporations and partnerships – usually, capital gainsare trapped and taxed to the trust and other income is taxedto the beneficiaries to the extent distributed and to the trustto the extent not distributed. That is a highly simplifiedsumming up of a complex subject.8Federal trust income tax rates hit the higher income taxbrackets at much lower levels to the extent that income istrapped in trust and not passed out to beneficiaries on a K-1.The top 39.6% federal income tax bracket is reached at only 12,300 for tax year 2015. There is no 35% bracket.9 The3.8% net investment income tax is triggered by investmentincome over this same low threshold.10Oregon’s Trust Income Tax Scheme – DifferentiatingOregon Resident and Non-Resident TrustsThe Oregon fiduciary income tax has the same top taxrate as the individual income tax: 9.9%.11 Avoiding Oregon6 See IRC §§ 671-679, especially § 671, for general rules.7 Hence subject to the remainder of IRC Subchapter J, §§ 641692, not IRC §§ 671-679 subpart E grantor trust rules.8 If you want the gory detail, see A Fiduciary Income Tax Primerby Philip N. Jones in the Oregon Bar’s Estate PlanningNewsletter, October 2014 special issue report.9 IRC § 1; for inflation-adjusted brackets see Rev Proc 2014-61at IRC § 1411(a)(2).11 ORS 316.037; ORS 316.282; OAR 150-316.282(3), (4).Page 4

Estate Planning and Administration SectionSeptember 2015trust income tax is essentially a two-step process: avoidbeing a resident trust, and avoid source income. Let’stake the first step. Oregon tax law differentiates betweenresident trusts and non-resident trusts.12 The same tax formis used for both.13 Oregon’s definition of a resident trust isextremely taxpayer-friendly and much narrower than manystates’:“[A] ‘resident trust’ means a trust, other than a qualifiedfuneral trust, of which the fiduciary is a resident of Oregonor the administration of which is carried on in Oregon. Inthe case of a fiduciary that is a corporate fiduciary engagedin interstate trust administration, the residence and place ofadministration of a trust both refer to the place where themajority of fiduciary decisions are made in administeringthe trust.”14Thus, unlike many states, the “residency” of an Oregontrust is not triggered by the in-state residency of the settlorand/or beneficiaries, but rather by where it is administered.Oregon has rather liberal (compared with, e.g., California)allowances for corporate trustees who may have officesand administration in several states. Thus, if the primaryadministration of a trust is done out of state but onlyincidental functions are performed in Oregon, the trustis still not a resident trust. Permitted functions include“preparing tax returns, executing investment trades asdirected by account officers and portfolio managers,preparing and mailing trust accountings, and issuingdisbursements from trust accounts as directed by accountofficers.”15Non-resident trusts are simply defined as those that arenot resident trusts.16 Thus, to form a non-resident trust,Oregon residents merely have to find a trustee or trustees outof state that will not administer the trust beyond performingincidental functions in Oregon. This precludes naming anOregon resident as co-trustee.17 Trustees with offices inmultiple states have an edge because there can still be localcontact and incidental functions and meetings in Oregonwhile the primary administration is done elsewhere. Thisscheme creates a significant disincentive, to both Oregonresidents and non-residents alike, against using Oregonfiduciaries.Dividing the traditional functions of the trustee, such asnaming an out-of-state trustee yet appointing a distributionor investment advisor or committee to direct the trustee12 OAR 150-316.282(1).13 The fiduciary income tax return and instructions are iaryincome 101-041 2014.pdf.14 ORS 316.282(1)(d) (also mirrored and reinforced in OAR 150316.282(3)).15 OAR 150-316.282(5) (including several examples).16 ORS 316.302.17 OAR 150-316.282(5), example make distributions or investments, is becoming morecommon, and muddies the waters of this analysis. Theadministrative code and statute refers only to “trustee,” notto the broader term “fiduciary.” The Oregon Departmentof Revenue’s examples do not cover such innovative trustdesigns. Because such advisors may be fiduciaries as well,it is unclear whether Oregon would treat them in the samemanner as a co-trustee if any are Oregon residents, orwhether their actions would merely factor into the analysisin determining the extent of significant fiduciary decisionsin Oregon.18 Advisors are by default fiduciaries unlessthe document provides otherwise.19 Presumably the taxdepartment and court would follow any declaration underthe document that an advisor is not a fiduciary even whenthey outwardly appear to be.Powers of appointment, however, are typically nonfiduciary in nature and such powers should not be consideredfiduciary or administrative regardless of the state lawpresumption, though it may be prudent to reaffirm that suchpower holders are not fiduciaries in the trust document.The importance of these distinctions and the pitfalls andopportunities they open up are discussed later.The taxable income of an Oregon resident trust issimply its federal taxable income, modified by certainfiduciary adjustments.20 The federal taxable income for atrust excludes many important deductions that differ fromindividuals’, which will be important in the latter part ofthis article.Although this article primarily discusses inter vivosplanning, the concepts herein also apply to the administrationof the trust after the death of the first spouse. This provides asignificant tax incentive for Oregonians to name out-of-statetrustees for trusts, including garden-variety “AB” trusts.This does not mean just any trust company or out-ofstate trustee should be used. You don’t want to name aCalifornia resident as trustee to simply exchange a 9.9%tax for a 13.3% tax. However, many states have no incometax, most notably our neighbor to the north, Washington,18 OAR 150-316.282(5).19 ORS 130.735(1) (“An adviser shall exercise all authoritygranted under the trust instrument as a fiduciary unless thetrust instrument provides otherwise.”). Restatement (Third)of Trusts § 64(2) (2003) also incorporates this presumption:“The terms of a trust may grant a third party a power withrespect to termination or modification of the trust; sucha third-party power is presumed to be held in a fiduciarycapacity.” Of course, in many situations, practitioners aregoing to use Delaware, Ohio, Nevada, or other state DAPTlaw rather than Oregon law, but these states have similarprovisions. See Ohio Rev Code §§ 5815.25, 5808.08; Delawaretit 12, § 3313(a).20 ORS 316.282(2) (also mirrored and reinforced in OAR 150316.282(6)).Page 5

Estate Planning and Administration SectionSeptember 2015but also Alaska, Texas, Nevada, Florida, and others. Manyother trust-friendly states, such as Ohio or Delaware, havean income tax for their own residents, but would not imposea state income tax unless there is a current beneficiaryresiding in the state.21Understanding Oregon Source Income – When It Canand Cannot Be AvoidedOnce we have successfully created a non-resident trustfor Oregon income tax purposes, we next need to resolvewhen and how non-residents and non-resident trusts maystill be taxed. This brings us to the third part of this articlediscussing “source” income. Taxpayers selling an assetor block of assets for a large gain are often dealing withdepreciated real estate and business entities in state. Thesepresent special issues. The best overview defining Oregonsource income can be quoted right from the Department ofRevenue’s own instructions:“Examples of Oregon source income are: wages or othercompensation for services performed in Oregon; income orloss from business activities in Oregon, including rents, Scorporations, and partnerships; gain or loss from the salesof real or tangible personal property located in Oregon;income from intangible personal property if the propertyhas acquired Oregon business situs.”22Even an out-of-state resident will typically pay Oregonincome tax on Oregon source income, not just a non-residenttrust. Thus, a non-resident beneficiary of a trust (even anon-resident trust) is taxed by Oregon in the same manneras if the beneficiary had received the income directly ifthe income resulted from the ownership or disposition oftangible property (real or personal) in Oregon, or from theoperation of a trade or business in Oregon.23This article will ignore wages and compensation andfocus on sales of intangible personal property, which isthe most likely corpus of a trust, the most likely candidatefor large capital gain triggering events, and often themost desirable candidate for tax avoidance. It is also thepart of the source income concept that is most difficult tounderstand.sold, or pay Oregon income tax on dividends received, butany C corporation has its own separate taxes to deal with.However, most closely held businesses (even large ones)prefer to avoid the double tax system of C corporations,which can be much more onerous overall, especially uponsale, distribution, or termination.So, let’s assume for the remainder of this section thatwe are dealing with a pass-through entity: an LLC, apartnership, or an S corporation. The ongoing income ofan Oregon pass-through entity with ongoing operations orreal estate in Oregon is clearly taxed.24 However, the saleof the stock (or membership interest) of such entities is notnecessarily taxed in Oregon if the owners are out of state.Income from the sale of intangibles is traditionally allocatedto the state of the taxpayer’s domicile through the doctrine ofmobilia sequuntur personam.25 This is generally confirmedthrough Oregon’s adoption of the Uniform Division ofIncome for Tax Purposes Act (“UDITPA”):26 “Capital gainsand losses from sales of intangible personal property areallocable to this state if the taxpayer’s commercial domicileis in this state.” More specifically, this is confirmed inOregon’s administrative rules interpreting the statute:“Intangible property. The gain from the sale, exchange, orother disposition of intangible personal property, includingstocks, bonds, and other securities is not taxable unless theintangible personal property has acquired a business situsin Oregon.”27Thus, the sale of S corporation stock, even if thebusiness has real estate or operations in Oregon, is notOregon source income, unless the stock itself has acquireda business situs in the state.28 This might occur if the stockis pledged for indebtedness used in carrying on business inthe state, or if the stock itself is not a mere investment butused to further the business of the owner, or if the owner isin the business of buying and selling such stock.29 There isa history of complex litigation when the stock is a corporatesubsidiary, but for most individuals or non-resident trustsThe article Federal and Oregon Income TaxPlanning for Trusts by Ed Morrow was also published,in nearly identical form, by the Oregon State BarTaxation Section in their Summer 2015 issue. Forthose readers who have already enjoyed this article, weapologize for the duplication.C corporations, for example, are not pass-throughentities, so the more complex pass-through entity tax rulesdo not apply to them. As hinted at by the lack of mention inthe Oregon tax return instructions noted above, a Florida orOhio resident isn’t necessarily going to pay Oregon incometax on Precision Castparts stock (a C corporation) when it is21 For example, see Ohio Department of Taxation InformationRelease TRUST 2003-02 - Trust Residency — February2003, individual/individual/information releases/trust200302.aspx.22 Form 41, Oregon Fiduciary Income Tax Return andInstructions at 6, y-income 101-041 2014.pdf.23 OAR 150-316.282(7); ORS 316.127; OAR 150-316.127-(D)24 OAR 150-316.127-(D)(1).25 “m

their homes. The reverse mortgage allows the homeowners to continue living in their own home, while increasing their cash flow due to the payments received from the mortgage company. However, complications arise if the person dies with a reverse mortgage on a home, especially if the balance due on the reverse mortgage is higher than the fair .