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FINALOPERATIONAL RANGE ASSESSMENT PROGRAMPHASE I QUALITATIVE ASSESSMENT REPORTWACO TRAINING AREAWACO, MONTANAAPRIL 2008Prepared for:UNITED STATES ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS, BALTIMORE DISTRICTP.O. Box 1715Baltimore, Maryland 21203andUNITED STATES ARMY ENVIRONMENTAL COMMANDAberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland 21010Prepared by:MALCOLM PIRNIE, INC.2000 Powell StSuite 1180Emeryville, California 94608

Operational Range Assessment Program, Phase I Qualitative AssessmentWaco Training Area, MontanaApril 2008EXECUTIVE SUMMARYThe United States (U.S.) Army is conducting qualitative assessments at operational ranges to meet therequirements of Department of Defense policy and to support the U.S. Army Sustainable RangeProgram. The operational range qualitative assessment (hereinafter referred to as Phase IAssessment) is the first phase of the U.S. Army Operational Range Assessment Program. This PhaseI Assessment evaluates the operational range area at the Waco Training Area to assess whetherfurther investigation is needed to determine if potential munitions constituents of concern (MCOC)are or could be migrating off-range at levels that may pose an unacceptable risk to human health orthe environment. In conducting the Phase I Assessment, MCOC sources, potential off-rangemigration pathways, and potential off-range human and ecological receptors are evaluated asappropriate.The Waco Training Area occupies 4,763 acres in Yellowstone County in south-central Montana. It islocated 35 miles east of Billings, Montana’s largest city. The northern boundary of the installation isdirectly south of Interstate 94 and one mile south from the Yellowstone River.The Waco Training Area has been leased from a private party by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineerssince 1984. The installation is used eight to 10 weekends per year for Army National Guard training.According to the Army Range Inventory Database-Geodatabase (ARID-GEO [2007]), there are fouroperational ranges on the Waco Training Area, including one training and maneuver area and threesmall arms ranges. Information from ARID-GEO (2007) shows that all three of the small armsranges share a 10-acre footprint. This footprint also overlaps with the training and maneuver area,which occupies the entire 4,763-acre installation.The Waco Training Area is used for training activities, including M16, pistol, and machine gunqualification and convoy training. M119 artillery simulators, improvised explosive device simulators,and pyrotechnics also are used periodically on the installation; however, pyrotechnics use isinfrequent due to high fire danger during much of the year. Live-fire occurs only at the three smallarms ranges and is prohibited on the rest of the installation.The four operational ranges at the Waco Training Area are categorized as Unlikely.Unlikely – Five-Year ReviewThe four operational ranges at the Waco Training Area are categorized as Unlikely, totaling 4,763acres. These ranges consist of a training and maneuver area and three small arms ranges. Rangeswhere, based upon a review of readily available information, there is sufficient evidence to show thatthere are no known releases or source-receptor interactions off-range that could present anunacceptable risk to human health or the environment are categorized as Unlikely. Rangescategorized as Unlikely are required to be re-evaluated at least every five years. Re-evaluation mayoccur sooner if significant changes (e.g., change in range operations or site conditions, regulatorychanges) occur that affect determinations made during this Phase I Assessment.Table ES-1 summarizes the Phase I Assessment findings.Malcolm Pirnie, Inc.ES - 1

Operational Range Assessment Program, Phase I Qualitative AssessmentWaco Training Area, MontanaApril 2008Table ES-1: Summary of Findings and Conclusions for Waco Training AreaCategoryUnlikelyTotal Number ofRanges andAcreageThree operationalranges; 10 acresOne operationalrange; 4,753 acresMalcolm Pirnie, Inc.Source(s)Pathway(s)Soil at small armsfiring points andnatural bermsNo source—limitedor no militarymunitions useNoneHumanReceptorsEcologicalReceptorsNot evaluated (no pathway identified)Not evaluated (no source identified)Conclusions andRationaleRe-evaluate during thefive-year review. Nopathway was identified.Re-evaluate during thefive-year review. Nosource was identified.ES - 2

Operational Range Assessment Program, Phase I Qualitative Assessment ReportWaco Training Area, MontanaApril HPPMUSAECUSEPAUSFWS FMalcolm Pirnie, Inc.Above Mean Sea LevelArmy Range Inventory Database-GeodatabaseConceptual Site ModelDepartment of DefenseDepartment of Defense InstructionEcological receptors identified. (This refers to range grouping; pathwaydesignation always precedes E designation.)Geographic Information SystemGroundwater pathway identified. (This refers to range grouping; Mdesignation always precedes GW designation.)Human receptors identified. (This refers to range grouping; pathwaydesignation always precedes H designation.)InterstateImprovised Explosive DeviceLimited SourceMunitions used. (This refers to range grouping; M designation alwaysprecedes applicable pathway.)Munitions Constituents of ConcernMontana Army National GuardNitroglycerinOperational Range Assessment ProgramPathway unlikely or incomplete. (This refers to range grouping; Mdesignation always precedes PU designation.)Range Facility Management Support SystemSurface water pathway identified. (This refers to range grouping; Mdesignation always precedes SW designation.)United StatesUnited States Army Corps of EngineersUnited States Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive MedicineUnited States Army Environmental CommandUnited States Environmental Protection AgencyUnited States Fish and Wildlife ServiceDegrees Fahrenheitiv

Operational Range Assessment ProgramPhase I Qualitative AssessmentWaco Training Area, MTFigure 1-1General Waco Training Area LocationBuf³Ye l l o w s t o n ellYeow§ 94VU312S:\Projects\ARMY\Installations\Waco Training Area\ORAP\MXDs\Figures\Figure 1-1.mxd eFly CrestoRneivefaloCreekrWACO TRAINING AREAkBig HornVU4701MilesInstallationInstallation BoundaryOperational AreaHydrologyRiver/Stream (Perennial)Stream (Intermittent)Canal/DitchWater BodyTransportationInterstateMajor RoadLocal RoadRailroadAdministrativeCounty BoundaryData Sources:AEC, ARID-GEO, 2007ESRI, StreetMap USA, 2005Date: . April 2008Prepared By: . Malcolm Pirnie, Inc.Prepared For: . U.S. ArmyContract: . W912DR-05-D-0004

The Waco Training Area occupies 4,763 acres in Yellowstone County in south-central Montana. It is located 35 miles east of Billings, Montana’s largest city. The northern boundary of the installation is directly south of Int