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1/29/2008Chapter 7MemoryAcquisition, Storage, Retrieval Any act of memory requires success at threeaspects: Input, or the acquisition of knowledgeCreation of a memory trace, or the storage ofknowledgeAbility to use the knowledge, or retrievalPsychology 7th ed. Gleitman, Reisberg & GrossCh. 72Acquisition Includes any instance of deliberate orincidental learningAttention and engagement with to-beremembered material is crucial; acquisition isnot passive or “camera-like”Raw input: translated first into a form that canbe “acquired” by the brain This is a complex process itself!Psychology 7th ed. Gleitman, Reisberg & GrossCh. 731

1/29/2008Psychology 7th ed. Gleitman, Reisberg & GrossCh. 74Psychology 7th ed. Gleitman, Reisberg & GrossCh. 75Psychology 7th ed. Gleitman, Reisberg & GrossCh. 762

1/29/2008Psychology 7th ed. Gleitman, Reisberg & GrossCh. 77The Stage Theory of Memory Different types of memory, each withdifferent properties Working memory Long-term memory Instantly accessible informationLess instantly accessiblePsychology 7th ed. Gleitman, Reisberg & GrossCh. 78Storage Capacity ofWorking and Long-term memory Long term capacity: hugeWorking capacity: more modestMemory span: way of measuring workingmemory capacity Random, unrelated information: we can storeabout 7, plus or minus 2, items (5 – 9 items)‟Referred to as “the magic number 7”Psychology 7th ed. Gleitman, Reisberg & GrossCh. 793

1/29/2008Working Memory “Loading platform” analogyLong term memory must be “loaded” or “passthrough” WMHow does it move? How is it transformed intoLong term memory? RehearsedChunkedPsychology 7th ed. Gleitman, Reisberg & GrossCh. 710Psychology 7th ed. Gleitman, Reisberg & GrossCh. 711Psychology 7th ed. Gleitman, Reisberg & GrossCh. 7124

1/29/2008Active memory and organization:A changed emphasis “Architecture” of memory: Storage labels(long term, short term) and analogies ofloading docsBUT: Learner‟s activities must be consideredwhen examining memory Maintenance rehearsalProcessing and organizing information: the“Royal Road into Memory”Psychology 7th ed. Gleitman, Reisberg & GrossCh. 713Depth of processing Deep processing: Meaning-based attentionAnything that connects new information toalready-learned materialMaterial that “makes sense” will be encodedmore efficientlyResults in superior recallPsychology 7th ed. Gleitman, Reisberg & GrossCh. 714Other instances of deep processing Memory connections: Links among ideasAbstract similaritiesMnemonics “Method of loci”Based on rhythm/rhyme/melody/visualization “Thirty days hath September, April, June, andNovember”Alphabet songPsychology 7th ed. Gleitman, Reisberg & GrossCh. 7155

1/29/2008Psychology 7th ed. Gleitman, Reisberg & GrossCh. 716Storage Once encoded, must be stored until neededRecord: memory trace or the engramStorage process difficult to research: longterm potentiation is no doubt involved But: a memory is NOT stored in a singlelocation: different aspects of a memory can bestored in different brain structuresPsychology 7th ed. Gleitman, Reisberg & GrossCh. 717Consolidation Consolidation: the engram is created over time(several hours usually) Achieved through some aspect of protein synthesis andneural reorganizationEvidence for consolidation? Retrograde amnesia: a blow to the head can interrupt theprocess of consolidation for events that happened 1-2hours before the accident occurredMemory for events during that time period is lostPsychology 7th ed. Gleitman, Reisberg & GrossCh. 7186

1/29/2008Retrieval Storage is not enough; we must be able toaccess the memory when neededInadequate coding failure to retrieveWith an adequate retrieval cue, sometimes werealize that encoding wasn‟t the problem afterallPsychology 7th ed. Gleitman, Reisberg & GrossCh. 719Psychology 7th ed. Gleitman, Reisberg & GrossCh. 720Retrieval cues Links between engrams are activatedContext reinstatement Re-creating or re-minding oneself of the context in whichone originally learned something increases likelihood ofbeing able to retrieve it laterExamples: Studying for an exam in the same room youwill take the test; returning to your hometown andremembering things you had “forgotten”Psychology 7th ed. Gleitman, Reisberg & GrossCh. 7217

1/29/2008When memory fails “Drawing a blank”: no memory at all isrecoveredMistaken memory: we think we remember,but we make a mistake in what we recall insubtle or significant waysPsychology 7th ed. Gleitman, Reisberg & GrossCh. 722Memory failures Inadequate encoding: Forgetting can often betraced to poor or missing strategies forencodingForgetting: we knew it once, but no longer Passage of timeCan be graphed with a “forgetting curve” – theopposite of a “learning curve” Ebbinghaus: Memory declines with time, moresharply at first, then more graduallyPsychology 7th ed. Gleitman, Reisberg & GrossCh. 723Psychology 7th ed. Gleitman, Reisberg & GrossCh. 7248

1/29/2008Decay and interference Decay: a process that occurs on a cellularlevel by normal metabolic “wear and tear” oncells involved with memoryInterference: New learning interferes –independent of the passage of time Passage of time not a powerful factor inexplaining forgettingNumber of intervening events a more usefulvariable to examine to explain forgettingPsychology 7th ed. Gleitman, Reisberg & GrossCh. 725Psychology 7th ed. Gleitman, Reisberg & GrossCh. 726Other retrieval errorsRetrieval failure:One type: the “tip of the tongue” phenomenaWhat is that technique used to carve whalebone?What is the name of that Russian sled drawn by threehorses?Intrusion: MisinformationProvision of misinformation creates the “memory” forthat informationPsychology 7th ed. Gleitman, Reisberg & GrossCh. 7279

1/29/2008More (!) retrieval errors Intrusions from general knowledgeMisplaced familiarity Difference between recollection memory andfamiliarityBig problem for us: No reliable way to tell“good” memories (accurate) from “bad”memories (those that are false or containmisinformation or inaccuracy)Psychology 7th ed. Gleitman, Reisberg & GrossCh. 728Psychology 7th ed. Gleitman, Reisberg & GrossCh. 729Psychology 7th ed. Gleitman, Reisberg & GrossCh. 73010

1/29/2008Techniques for improving memory How to help us create better memories? Techniques for improving “eyewitnessidentifications” that are more reliable: Re-create mind-setMinimize distractions/distractorsUnhelpful techniques: Hypnosis: may improve motivation, but also createseagerness to “please” the hypnotistPsychology 7th ed. Gleitman, Reisberg & GrossCh. 731To Remember is an Action “Videorecorder theory” highly inaccurate: We create our memories; choose what to encode,how to encode, and how/when to retrieveWe link what we know; we trace connections; weeven “fill in” gaps in our own knowledge and“remember” that knowledge later“Videorecorders” do none of that!Overall, despite problems noted, memory is ahighly effective systemPsychology 7th ed. Gleitman, Reisberg & GrossCh. 732Varieties of Memory Episodic Memory for specific eventsGenericAlso called “semantic” memoryRefers to knowledge „about” things, with noparticular “episode:” you know this is the colorblue, but you have no memory of how or whenyou acquired that piece of informationExplicitPsychology 7th ed. Gleitman, Reisberg & GrossCh. 73311

1/29/2008Varieties of memory, cont. Implicit Memory for something without any awarenessthat we know itRepetition priming: subliminal exposure affectslater information processing – even withoutawarenessImplicit memory can be quite specific – doesn‟tgeneralize broadly with respect to our subsequentbehavior, as does explicit memoryPsychology 7th ed. Gleitman, Reisberg & GrossCh. 734Anterograde Amnesia Different brain tissue supports implicit memories ascompared to explicit memoriesEvident when studying anterograde amnesiaLesions in hippocampus and temporal cortex: createanterograde amnesia Lesions from other types of brain injury: createretrograde amnesiaSupports the theory that different brain structures/regions“handle” different types of memory Psychology 7th ed. Gleitman, Reisberg & GrossCh. 735Psychology 7th ed. Gleitman, Reisberg & GrossCh. 73612

1/29/2008Psychology 7th ed. Gleitman, Reisberg & GrossCh. 737Emotional Remembering Does memory for emotional events differ inany systematic way?Emotional events: remembered More vividlyMore completely More accurately than memories for emotion-neutral events Psychology 7th ed. Gleitman, Reisberg & GrossCh. 738“Flashbulb memories” Especially vivid memoriesFocus: immediate and personal detailsSpecial mechanism to produce this type ofmemory?No evidence that these types of memories are in aspecial class with respect to immunity from erroror extreme longevityPsychology 7th ed. Gleitman, Reisberg & GrossCh. 73913

1/29/2008Psychology 7th ed. Gleitman, Reisberg & GrossCh. 740Memory and Trauma Most traumatic events are well-rememberedSome events seem to be “enhanced” or even morevivid than other memoriesExceptions do exist and memory may betroubled/incomplete/absent: Youth / age at time of eventOther confounding factors (sleep deprivation, head injury,medication/drug usage at time of event)Extreme stressPsychology 7th ed. Gleitman, Reisberg & GrossCh. 741Repression? Very controversial issue What is the nature of “recovery” of traumaticmemories, e.g. sexual abuse as a child?Some: accurate, corroboratedSome researchers believe that recoveredmemories are almost always inaccurate orfabricatedVeracity of recollection is almost alwaysproblematicPsychology 7th ed. Gleitman, Reisberg & GrossCh. 74214

1/29/2008Some final thoughts: Different types,but Common Principles Many variables come into play whendiscussing common principles / phenomena ofmemory Many variables need to be examined whenresearching these issuesLink between memory and perception: bothtrying to inform us about “reality”Perceiving, learning, memory and thinking:tied tightly together.Psychology 7th ed. Gleitman, Reisberg & GrossCh. 743Concept Quiz1. According to the stage theory of memory, memoryacquisition is a process of: a. increasing the storage capacity of long-termmemory b. directly encoding experience into long-termmemory c. moving memories from working memory to longterm memory d. maintaining memories in working memoryPsychology 7th ed. Gleitman, Reisberg & GrossCh. 744Concept Quiz2. Which of the following is a strategy you coulduse to keep information in your workingmemory? a. context reinstatement b. maintenance rehearsal c. interference d. declarative processingPsychology 7th ed. Gleitman, Reisberg & GrossCh. 74515

1/29/2008Concept Quiz3. You are trying to remember the name of a person youmet last week. According to the principle of contextreinstatement, it would be most helpful to bring tomind: a. the place and time you originally met this person. b. the reason you want to remember this person‟sname. c. the names of other people you recently met. d. the face of the person whose name you want toremember.Psychology 7th ed. Gleitman, Reisberg & GrossCh. 746Concept Quiz4. In a psychology study, you are asked to memorize alist of words. After a rest period, you are asked tomemorize a second list of words. Your ability toremember the first list of words is likely to decreasebecause of: a. decay b. interference c. retrograde amnesia d. the primacy effectPsychology 7th ed. Gleitman, Reisberg & GrossCh. 747Concept Quiz5. H.M. is a patient made famous for his case ofanterograde amnesia, in which he lost the ability to: a. recall events that occurred just prior to the onset ofamnesia b. recall events that occurred in early childhood c. acquire new procedural knowledge d. acquire new declarative knowledgePsychology 7th ed. Gleitman, Reisberg & GrossCh. 74816

c. moving memories from working memory to long-term memory d. maintaining memories in working memory Psychology 7th ed. Gleitman, Reisberg & Gross Ch. 7 45 Concept Quiz 2. Which of the following is a strategy you could use to keep information in your working memory? a. context reinstatement b. maintenance rehearsal c. interferenceFile Size: 467KB