IOSR Journal of Research & Method in Education (IOSR-JRME)e-ISSN: 2320–7388,p-ISSN: 2320–737X Volume 6, Issue 2 Ver. II (Mar. - Apr. 2016), PP 70-75www.iosrjournals.orgImportance of CAD/CAM Training For Fashion Design Studentsin KenyaOmondi, E. O.1, Imo, B. E.2AndOtina, M. A.31Department OfFamily And Consumer Sciences, UniversityOf Eldoret, KenyaDepartment OfFamily And Consumer Sciences, University Of Eldoret, Kenya3Department OfFamily And Consumer Sciences, University Of Eldoret, Kenya2Abstract: Many tertiary colleges and institutions of higher learning in Kenya offer Computer Aided Design andComputer Aided Manufacture (CAD/CAM) in their training of fashion design courses. This is because theapplication of CAD/CAM technology is considered a major step in coping with dynamic changes apparent inthe textile and fashion industry. The use of CAD/CAM technology in the fashion industry enhances speed andefficiency in garment production and designing through increased precision, productivity and organizedinformation flow. This leads to shorter lead time in the product development process, thus reducing costs ofgarments. However, studies conducted in public universities and fashion industries in Kenya indicate there isminimal adoption of CAD/CAM technology in training of fashion students. This is attributed to limitedappropriate CAD/CAM hardware and software as teaching resources due to the high costs of thesetechnologies. This paper focuses on the importance of CAD/CAM technology used in fashion design trainingamong tertiary colleges and institutions of higher learning in Kenya. This will help produce skill manpower, inadopting workable systems to help cope with the fashion industry demands. Data was obtained throughdocument analysis, questionnaires, interview and observation. The study findings indicated that the training ofCAD/CAM technology to the current students does not adequately meet the labour requirement in the apparelindustry. The paper thus recommends that institutions need to update the system of teaching CAD/CAM in orderto input the practical skills needed for the apparel industry.Keywords: Computer Aided Design and Computer Aided Manufacture (CAD/CAM), Fashion Design, HigherLearning, Apparel Industry, Textile and Fashion, Lead TimeI.Introduction1.1 BackgroundModern CAD/CAM (Computer Aided Design & Computer Aided Manufacture) software providesfaster and more efficient working systems through increased precision, productivity and organized informationflow . Garment designing systems eliminate the tedious work involved in manual pattern drafting andgrading, creation of layouts and relocation of written information. The computerization of different processes inthe fashion industry is necessary to reduce the costs of a product and increase competitiveness. Computerizeddesigning systems employ the use of software specifically designed for the development of industry specificobjects, input/output of graphics, scanners and other remote devices . CAD is becoming popular due to itssimplicity and accuracy in drawing opines . With CAD, the designs can be produced at a faster rate withmore accuracy in drawings. Moreover, special drafting techniques can be employed and the design calculationsare quick and superior .The introduction of CAD/CAM technology in the textile and fashion industry in the early 1980sresulted to improved efficiency of the design process due to automation of routine design tasks, increasedproductivity and shortened lead time in the product development process. This has led to the production ofcheaper and better garments . However, successful use of CAD/CAM technology involves providing the righttechnology to suit the needs of the industry, to avoid inadequate or irrelevant training, or harmful attitudesamong students towards these technologies . Some researchers argue that CAD/CAM technology requires adifferent kind of expertise than is needed for manual design . Thus, weaknesses of management skills in theuse of technology seem to be a major barrier to a successful implementation of CAD/CAM. This includes theinability to estimate the learning needs of students in the current market. This is because considerableinvestments in training are required for effective CAD/CAM implementation .Clearly in today's global market, manufacturers must rely on new technologies to capitalize on currentmarket trends. Thus, many institutions in the country have turned to educate their students on CAD/CAMsystems to help develop and produce complex parts quickly and efficiently needed in the external market. InKenya, this is true of Maseno University, University of Nairobi and University of Eldoret.DOI: 10.9790/7388-0602027075www.iosrjournals.org70 Page
Importance Of CAD/CAM Training For Fashion Design Students In Kenya1.2 Problem StatementCAD/CAM is one of the technologies being used in the fashion industry for mass customization andproduction, making work easier through efficient and better quality of products. This need has created trainingopportunities for aspiring professionals in fashion design. To explore whether the training offered by variousinstitutions to fashion design students is adequate, this study examines the importance of CAD/CAM knowledgeto fashion design students in Kenya and whether it is conflicting with the training offered to graphic designstudents.1.3 Specific Objectives1. To determine CAD/CAM training courses offered to fashion design students in Kenya.2. To determine the importance of CAD/CAM in fashion design industry.3. To investigate the implications of graphic design software to the fashion industry4. To establish the relationship between the CAD/CAM training and its application to fashion design bystudents.1.4 Theoretical FrameworkThis study applies a theoretical framework derived from the systems theory. Systems theory wasadvanced in the 1940s by Ludwig Von Bertalanffy. The system approach theory integrates the system into parts;it simply checks on each part of the system and how it contributes to the whole function of the system toperform at optimum level. The relation between the systems will help to understand the whole function of thesystem. This can be applied such that the different packages being used in the course to educate can adequatelyequip and enrich the students with the skills in CAD/CAM for fashion design as well as graphic design.This will help to integrate the way the various packages being taught and how they contribute to thewhole system of fashion and design even through some of the software’s are usually not for fashion and designstudents area of specialization. Figure 1 is a diagrammatic representation of the various factors that contribute tothe understanding of CAD/CAM programs with their functions.Figure 1: Factors that Contribute to the Understanding of CAD/CAM Programs with their FunctionsSource: Heylighten1.5 Review of Related Literature1.5.1 OverviewIn simple terms, when one is assisted with a computer in manipulation of graphics and mathematicalrepresentation of designs within the computer using a particular software and hardware, this is referred to asComputer Aided Design (CAD). Kazlacheva states that CAD systems help in designing, constructing andmodelling of garments faster and with high accuracy. The fashion design industry is very specific with itsvarious drawing tools and tools for modification in CAD systems. CAD involves the intersection of three sets,geometric modelling, computer graphics and design tools, based on their constituents . Groover andZimmers observe that computer aided designing involves any type of designing activity which makes use ofthe computer system to develop, analyze or modify any engineering designs.Gould  observes that the latest fashion computer technology is used not only to design fabrics andtextile products, but also create prototypes using a digital design laboratory featuring digital textile printing, 3Dbody scanning and garment knitting; fashion design studios with draping, CAD for 2D and 3D design. All theserequire expertise which a student can venture into with relevant training.Popular CAD Software available for Fashion Design include VSticher, a 3D garment design andapplication software from Browzwear distributed in the Asia-pacific region by Pragma solutions, in India .Lectra, Fashion PLM, TUKA CAD and many more push back the limits of product lifecycle management bycovering all the necessary steps for creation of collection and bringing together role-based applications forproduct-design, pattern making and physical and 3D virtual prototyping with tools for the planning andDOI: 10.9790/7388-0602027075www.iosrjournals.org71 Page
Importance Of CAD/CAM Training For Fashion Design Students In Kenyamanagement of collection. Optitex specializes in the development of innovative, easy-to-operate 3D CAD/CADsolutions for cut fabrics. It creates a virtual world when testing manufacturing designs . Gerber Accumarktechnology and Lectra are two of the most widely used CAD systems for fashion apparel, while AdobePhotoshop and Adobe Illustrator programs serve as excellent digital interpreters of the drawing skills of adesigner . Maya software application is widely used for 3D modelling, animation and effects. This issuitable for film and television production, video games development, web design and print production .Assyst software is in widespread use in all aspects of the fashion industry worldwide including children’s wear,men’s wear, ladies wear, couture, lingerie and outerwear. Assyst software is used for creating designs in 2D and3D forms, body measurement, pattern cutting, style development, grading, ratings and costing, marker makingand cut order planning.1.5.2 Benefits of Using CAD/CAMComputer Aided Design is a joining of human and machine, working together to optimize design andmanufacture of products . Computers allow designers to graphically test ideas in real time without having tocreate real prototypes. This reduces engineering costs for an Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM); is wherea company whose products are used as components in another company's product, in this case the use ofCAD/CAM hardware technology greatly in the Fashion and design industry by the designers is the use ofproducts and services from other companies with the aim of improving products in the industry and also resultsin products getting to market faster. Non-technical team members from management to marketing can workwith engineers to view, discuss, change and document a design in progress before building a prototype. This isan effective attribute of innovative designing that aids in identifying design flaws and reinforces group "brainstorming”, resulting in fewer misinterpretations and better product flow .CAD/CAM analytical tools permit design improvements through an inexpensive and time-savingprocess. New integrated software tools that are commercially available, have been developed to allow designengineers to perform finite element analysis directly, during the early stages of design, thereby ensuring that thebest design intent is achieved . This in turn reduces final prototype numbers, lowers design costs, anddecreases time to market . Today's systems are much more user friendly and can utilize current trend inWindows operating system computing. With Operating Systems such as Windows 7, 8, and 10, Mac andAndroid systems, CAD/CAM softwares operate efficiently with expansion of the graphic memory allocationwithin these systems since its introduction to the Market.1.5.3 CAD/CAM Training in Learning Institutions in KenyaSome of the CAM/CAM technologies that fashion design students are expected to be knowledgeable ininclude 3D anthropometry systems, Lectra, Gerber and Tuka CAD. However, due to lack of facilities, studentsare only expected to conduct research on the latest CAD/CAM software for fashion and design. Thus studentsoften rely on the internet to conduct their research therefore lacking in practical exposure to the software. This inturn enables the students to be only skilled in documentation and not the actual production of the technology.This is in contrast with students pursuing other courses such as Education Technology, Engineering orArchitecture. TVET report of 2011 states clearly that CAD/CAM used in higher education is mainly used forstudents in the fields of Engineering and Architecture. These students are exposed to the CAD/CAM softwaresuch as ARCHICAD, AUTOCAD and CAXA software that help in the designing processes as these are themost renowned CAD/CAM softwares used in the Education industry. This makes the students to gain practicaland theory experiences.II.Materials And Methods2.1 Study Area and Sample SelectionThis study used a descriptive survey research design.The study was designed to depict the participantsin an accurate way which is simply about describing people who take part in the study. The University ofEldoret is located approximately ten kilometres from Eldoret town and this is where the study was carried out.The university has several courses it offers but the study limited itself to the courses that have modules or partsthat have CAD/CAM in their curriculum of study.This is referred to as purposive sampling since the sample wasselected specifically due to the course structure that they do hence purposively done.2.2 Data Collection and AnalysisThe required data was collected during the second semester period in the University of Eldoret duringthe first two weeks after the school reopens that is during January. A structured questionnaire was issued toobtain data from the respondents who gave their responses to questions in the study. The questionnaire wasstructured in a way that it had both open ended and closed question where the respondent only had to give amark on the designated box to show response. Chi-Square analysis was done in order to establish the influenceDOI: 10.9790/7388-0602027075www.iosrjournals.org72 Page
Importance Of CAD/CAM Training For Fashion Design Students In Kenyathat CAD/CAM training has on the skills and perceptions of fashion and design students towards embracingtechnology in fashion and design industry.III.Results And Discussion3.1 Respondent’s Awareness of CAD/CAM ExistenceThe study revealed that 87.5% of the respondents were aware of the existence of Computer AidedDesign/Manufacture (CAD/CAM) packages while 12.5% were not familiar with these packages. Further, 37.5%of the respondents that were familiar with CAD/ CAM packages, said they were familiar with ArchiCAD,AutoCAD and CAXA packages. This was influenced by the fact that these are commonly used packages bystudents taking Education Technology, Architecture, Interior design of Graphics courses. Also, 31.25% of thestudents reported that Graphic design packages like Photoshop, Corel Draw and Adobe Illustrator as the MainCAD/CAM packages are the ones they commonly used.Figure 2: Known CAD/CAM applications known to responseThis can be attributed to the influence and interest of Graphic Design making students to look for thesesoftwares and get to know how they work even before they are taught in class. There are also several clubs inthe University that offer similar packages thus making more students to be aware of the Graphic Designpackages. 25% of the students recorded to have actually known Fashion CAD packages such as Lectra, TukaCAD and AssystBullmer. These are packages that the Fashion Design Students are actually taught in class butwith minimal experience and practise, only few of them were able to remember them as compared to otherGraphic packages that they interact with very often. Figure 2 shows the graphical representation of the findingson this matter.3.2 Importance of CAD/CAM in the Fashion and Design IndustryCAD/CAM has been proven to be used in the international institutions such as University of HongKong, University of Johannesburg and Insituto De Moda in Italy. This actually means that the softwares areactually important in the Fashion Design Industry, since top fashion schools internationally are embracingtechnology in their studies, these eases the procedures of mass production and accuracy which are very criticalin fashion design.CAD/CAM is used in various institutions and technology is advancing thus making it viable in theindustry. Eighty-eight percent (88%) of the students agreed that CAD/CADM was important thus there is needfor them to understand how to use these softwares (Figure 3). Thirteen percent (13%) of the respondentsreported that CAD/CAM had no importance to the fashion industry.Figure 3: Respondents’ Opinion on the Importance of CAD/CAM to Fashion and Design CompaniesDOI: 10.9790/7388-0602027075www.iosrjournals.org73 Page
Importance Of CAD/CAM Training For Fashion Design Students In KenyaMany students had interacted with CAD/CAM in other places other than the university premises.Places of interaction with CAD/CAM software included industrial field attachment industries e.g. Bedi inNakuru and places that the students have actually visited during their educational trips at the Export andProcessing Zones in Ruaraka, Nairobi. This shows that CAD/CAM is actually being used in the fashionindustry. This should motivate universities to invest in this technology so as to effectively train their students sothat they can compete effectively in the job market.3.3 Relationship between the Packages Taught and Application of the Knowledge Acquired by theStudents3.3.1 Effects of Practical Skills on the Ease of Use of CAD/CAMAs with all skills, practice makes perfect. From the study, 25% of the respondents agreed that exposureto CAD/CAM packages enhances one’s capability and capacity in designing as well as interaction with clients.This is evident with features such as Quick Response (QR) which helps designers to respond fast to clients’needs thus enhancing productivity. However, 9% of the students responded that CAD/CAM had no influence ontheir practical skills while that it had actually had an effect, top schools international such as Intituto De Modain Italy, National Polytechnic in Korea do use CAD/CAM in the study and thus students are highly accuratesince human error is lowered due to use of computers. This therefore shows that the students need hands-onexposure to understand the effects that CAD/CAM has on their area of specialization.3.3.2 Theory and Practical Coverage of CAD/CAM ContentFurther, 59% of the students reported that most CAD/CAM courses were mostly taught theoreticallythan practically.Figure 4: Pie Chart on Computer Aided Design/Manufacturer Lessons CoverageTherefore the students were not well equipped with the skills needed for the industry and job market,lowering their acceptance of the change in technology when in the job market. Most of the students observedthat they are actually taught more of theory than practical lessons. This actually lowers the interaction betweenthe students and the packages. This in turn affected the frequency at which they can recall on how to practisewhat they have learned in class.3.4 Influence of CAD/CAM Packages Taught to Apparel Fashion & Design Students ProfessionallyChi-square analysis showed that the CAD/CAM curriculum taught to fashion design students had noinfluence on the CAD/CAM they used during their internships and therefore later in their prospective jobs (p 0.05). This could be attributed to the fact that very few students actually had experience with the relevant CAD/CAM packages and for the few who had the experience most of them probably had the experience during theirfield attachment and not in the class course.Most of the students noted that CAD/CAM is actually important to the Fashion and Design indutry.This may be due to experience and observation made during academic trips and internship as well as industrialfield attachment where students saw the various programs in use.IV.Conclusion And Recommendation4.1 Conclusions1. Lack of practical experiences in CAD/CAM during the lesson does not fortify the theory learnt.2. Availability of CAD/CAM packages facilities ease the communication between clients and designers.3. Practice & Exposure to CAD/CAM packages in the work environment increases competence of thedesigners’ skills and efficiency.4. Students need to be exposed to both the practical and theory content in order for them to be comepetitive inthe fashion industry.DOI: 10.9790/7388-0602027075www.iosrjournals.org74 Page
Importance Of CAD/CAM Training For Fashion Design Students In Kenya4.2 RecommendationsBased on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are made:1. Institutions offering fashion design programmes should equip their laboratories with computer hardwareand relevant software facilities to equip the students with CAD/CAM practical skills in order to make themcompetent.2. Hiring of at least one lecturer and technician that are competent in the field of CAD/CAM in fashion anddesign3. Have two field attachment sessions during the programme for students to get more exposure during theirindustrial ]...Dāboliņa, I., &Viļumsone, A. (2012). The Role of the Latest Clothing CAD/CAM System Applications in the Educational Process.Material Science. Textile and Clothing Technology, 7,63-68.Jeyapoovan, T. (2005). Engineering Drawing and Graphics Using AUTOCAD. India: Vikas Publishing House Pvt Ltd.Chockalingam, P. (1999). Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing - CAD/CAM. Delhi: Paramount Publications.Alcorta, L. (1992). The Impact of New Technologies on Scale in Manufacturing Industry: Issues and Evidence. UNU/INTECHWorking Paper No. 5.5]Eckert, C., & Stacey, M. (1994). CAD Systems and the Division of Labour in Knitwear Design. In A. Adam, J. Emms, E. Green& J. Owen (Eds.). Women, Work and Computerization: Breaking Old Boundaries - Building New Forms (409-422). Amsterdam,The Netherlands: North-Holland.Bertolotti, F., Macrì, D. M., &Tagliaventi, M. R. (2004). Social and Organizational Implications of CAD Usage: A GroundedTheory in a Fashion Company. New Technology, Work and Employment, 19(2), 10-127.Chinien, C. (Ed.) (2003). The Use of ICTs in TYET. Moscow: UNESCO Press.Heylighten, F. (1998). Basic Concepts of the Systems Approach. Principia Cybernetica. http://pespmc1.vub.ac.be/SYSAPPR.htmlKazlacheva, Z. (2005). Optimum Use of Drawing Tools in CAD System in Automated Apparel Design. Trakia Journal of Sciences,3(7), 20-2Zeid, I. (1991). CAD / CAM: Theory and Practice. New Delhi: Tata McGraw Hill Company.Groover, M. P., &Zimmers, E. W. (1999). CAD/CAM: Computer Aided Designing and Manufacturing. New Delhi: Prentice Hall ofIndia.Gould, P. (2003). Textiles gain intelligence. Materialstoday, 6(10), 38-43.Chandra, P. (2006). The Textile and Apparel Industry in India. Ahmedabad, India: IIM-A.Bedi, J. S. (2003). Production Productivity and Technological Change in Indian Spinning Sector. Indian Economic Review,XXXVIII(2), 205–233.Calderin, J. (2009). Form, Fit and Fashion. USA: Rockport Publishers Inc.Meade,&Arima. (2006). Maya 6: The Complete Reference. New Delhi: Tata McGraw Hill Company.Mantyla, S. (1995). Parametric and Feature-Based CAD/CAM. NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.Dwivedi, A. (2013). Role of Computer and Automation in Design and Manufacturing for Mechanical and Textile Industries:CAD/CAM. International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering (IJITEE), 3(3), 174-181.Computers in Manufacturing. (June, 1999). Machine Design, 1-45.McGuffie, S. (2000). A Little Time Can Save The Design. Time-Compression Technologies, 42-45.DOI: 10.9790/7388-0602027075www.iosrjournals.org75 Page
Computer Aided Design (CAD). Kazlacheva states that CAD systems help in designing, constructing and modelling of garments faster and with high accuracy. The fashion design industry is very specific with its various drawing tools and tools for modification in CAD systems.