NOR NANDFlash GuideSelecting a Flash Memory Solution for Embedded ApplicationsWhen looking for flash memory for your embedded applications, Micron has the right solution: Our many years of embedded industryexperience and our broad portfolio of NOR and NAND flash memory products — from serial and parallel NOR flash, to raw and managedNAND flash, to solid state drives (SSDs) — provide you with ideal code and data storage solutions. Selecting the right solution requires anunderstanding of each technology, including attributes related to I/O performance, pin count, data integrity, and manufacturing longevityrequirements. This guide describes the various flash technologies and provides a systematic way for an embedded system designer toselect the optimal nonvolatile memory solution based on key design considerations. The application requirements will ultimately dictatethe right solution.Getting to Know NOR FlashNOR flash devices, available in densities up to 2Gb, are primarily used for reliable code storage (boot, application, OS, and executein-place [XIP] code in an embedded system) and frequently changing small data storage. NOR flash provides systems with the fastestbootable memory solution, is easy to implement, and requires minimal ongoing management due to the underlying cell structure.Because of the cell structure, NOR flash is inherently more reliable than other solutions.There are two general categories of NOR flash—serial and parallel—that differ primarily with respect to their memory interfaces. SerialNOR flash, with its high-speed continuous read capabilities throughout the entire memory array and its small erase block sizes, is tailoredfor applications that shadow program code and/or store granular data. Serial NOR’s low pin counts and small package solutions make it agood fit for applications like PCs, ultrathins, servers, set-top boxes (STBs), printers, Blu-ray drives/players, modems/routers, wearables, andhard disk drives (HDDs). Parallel NOR flash delivers fast system boot times, making it ideal for applications like digital still cameras (DSC andDSLR) that need performance, as well as other process-intensive applications like networking routers/switches, home gateways, and STBs.Micron has created a new category of NOR flash, called Xccela flash memory, which leverages the best of serial NOR flash and parallelNOR flash so that system designers do not have to choose between high performance and low pin counts.Parallel NOR FlashXccela Flash andSerial NOR FlashASICorµCASICorµCXccela flash uses 16-pin package1

NOR NAND Flash GuideGetting to Know NAND FlashNAND flash devices, available in 128Mb to 2Tb densities, are used to store data and code. Low-density NAND flash is ideal for applications likeSTBs, digital televisions (DTVs), and DSCs while high-density NAND flash is most commonly used in data-heavy applications like SSDs, tablets,and USB drives. There is a continuous effort to reduce the cost/GB of NAND devices, so device life cycles tend to be shorter with more frequentprocess lithography shrinks than NOR flash. NAND requires a controller, either internal or external, and specific firmware for error code correction(ECC), bad block management, and wear leveling.There are two primary types of NAND: raw and managed. Raw NAND comes in different flavors, including single-level cell (SLC), multilevel cell(MLC), triple-level cell (TLC) and quad-level cell (QLC) in the future. Additionally, NAND technology is migrating from planar to 3D for higherdensity applications. 3D NAND has an inherently larger cell with better reliability, so TLC based on 3D (3D-TLC) is expected to become mainstream in the next 1-2 years. Raw NAND requires external management but is the lowest cost/GB NAND flash available. Managed NANDincorporates memory management into the package, simplifying the design-in process.Raw NANDFully Managed NANDNAND ControllerNAND ControllerWear LevelingLow-Level DriverCommand/BlockManagemente.MMC orSDCardBusECCe.MMC or SSDDriverControllerWear LevelingONFI NANDBusCMD/Block MgmtNAND Error MgmtNANDNANDNOR and NAND Features ComparisonXccela NOR Flash Serial NOR Parallel NORSLC/MLC/TLC/SPI NAND Managed NAND Lower density, low pin count (serial)Ease-of-useReliable code and data storageFast read and random access timesHigher endurance and data retentionHigher density, low pin countRequires controller management (SLC, MLC)Mostly data-focusedFast writes and erasesFocused on highest reliability and performance (SLC),optimum reliability and lower cost (MLC and 3D TLC), costfocused applications (2D TLC, QLC), and reduced time-tomarket/ease of design-in with managed NANDNote: Other design considerations include controller type, voltage requirements, individual parameter and feature specifications, security*, and software.2

NOR NAND Flash GuideDensities Offered by Device TypeThe chart below shows various NOR and NAND density ranges to help identify the best solution for your application requirements.Low Density512Kb32Mb128MbMid Density256Mb512Mb1Gb2Gb4Gb8Gb 16GbHigh Density32Gb 124Gb2GB4GB 16GB32GB 128GB 240GB 1TbSerial NOR128Mb–2GbParallel NOR128Mb–2GbXccela NOR Flash256Mb–2GbSLC NANDStandard 128Mb–64GbSerial 1Gb–4GbMLC NANDStandard 2GB–1TbEmbedded MLC NAND 4GB–16GBTLC NAND16GB–32GBManaged NANDe.MMC 2GB–128GBSSD 60GB–240GBNOR and NAND Read PerformanceAs shown in the figure below, read performance is mostly governed by bus width and clock speed (e.g., x16 and 133 MHz).Random Read Access Performance vs. Large Data Size600x8 200 MHz DDR Octal NOR (MT35X)x16 133 MHz Burst Parallel NOR (G18)500x8 166 MHz SDR Twin-Quad Serial NOR (MT25T)Transfer Rate (MB/sec)x16 Pagemode Access NOR (MT28EW)x4 133 MHz SDR/66 MHz DDR Serial NOR (MT25Q)400x8 NAND ONFI 1.0x8 NAND ONFI 3.0300x8 NAND ONFI 4.0x8 e.MMC 4.5x8 e.MMC 5.0200M500 SSD10001416642561K4K16K64K256KBytes per Fetch31M4M16M64M256M1G

NOR NAND Flash GuideMicron NOR Flash PortfolioSerial NORDue to it’s interface and low pin count, Micron’s serial NOR flash is easy to use and is a simple solution for applications that code shadow; simplyprovide a starting address in the memory to read and then continuously clock data out from the device throughout the entire memory array.Features such as advanced security and memory protection provide peace of mind for securing vital program code and sensitive user data*.Whatever the application, Micron has the right serial NOR flash solution. Our twin-quad serial NOR flash combines two quad I/O devices into asingle package to create an 8-bit, bidirectional I/O structure. Coupled with an operating frequency of 166 MHz, Micron’s twin-quad serial NORdoubles our last-generation serial NOR maximum bandwidth rate from 83 MB/s to 166 MB/s.Parallel NORParallel NOR flash devices operate in page mode for use where code runs directly from the device to minimize system boot time, makingit ideal for applications that need performance as well as other applications that are process-intensive. These devices enriched with manyfeatures also provide data security options* and are ideal for long-term use in industrial applications. Parallel NOR is offered in standardproduct types available from Micron.Xccela NOR FlashMicron’s Xccela flash memory uses our Xccela bus interface to offer significant improvement in performance, reduction in pin count (only11 active signal pins) and energy consumption compared to other NOR flash solutions in the market. Xccela flash memory is ideal for nextgeneration applications that require fast boots, instant-on access and data rendering while minimizing system cost and energy.NOR Features ComparisonSerial (SPI)Xccela FlashExtreme performance, low pin count,low energyLow pin count, security*,granular erase architecturesMT35X (x8 Monolithic SPI Multi I/O):MT25T (x8 SPI Multi I/O): x1–x8 (twin-quad I/O) 1.8V or 3V 4KB subsector erase 256Mb–1Gb Up to 166 MHz reads (166 MB/s) Octal DDR protocol x1, x8 (SPI-compatible serial bus) 1.8V or 3V 28 pJ/bit 4KB subsector erase 256Mb–2GbMT25Q (x4 SPI Multi I/O): Up to 200 MHz reads (400 MB/s) x1–x4 (quad I/O) 86ns latency (2 bytes) 1.8V or 3V 4KB subsector eraseParallel 128Mb–2GbFast boot, low-latency reads, fast random access 166 MHz SDR/90 Mhz DDR reads (90 MB/s)MT28EW: 3V 128Mb–2Gb4

NOR NAND Flash GuideNOR DensitiesSee Micron’s NOR products by type and density as well as the key products recommended for new designs in the chart below.Micron Embedded NOR SolutionsDevice Type512Kb–4Mb8Mb16Mb32MbM25PM25PE, M45PEM25PXSerial erial 1.8VMT25TMT35XXccela Flash 3VXccela Flash 1.8VMT35XRecommended for new designsSupported per PLP commitmentsSelecting a Serial NOR DeviceIf the key features of serial NOR match your design requirements, use the following tables to help select the right serial NOR device for yourdesign. For more details, see the full serial NOR part catalog and find a sales representative at Flash Memory and Serial NOR – Quick Features ComparisonMAX Clock/MAX DataTransfer RateProgram/EraseCyclingPackageOptions200 MHz (400 MB/s)100,000SOIC, BGA256Mb–1Gb166 MHz (166 MB/s)100,000SOIC, BGAx1, x2, x4256Mb–2Gb166 MHz (83 MB/s)100,000DFN, SOIC, BGAx1, x2, x416Mb–1Gb108 MHz (54 MB/s)100,000DFN, SOIC, tyRangeMT35X(Xccela NOR Flash)2.7–3.6V1.7–2.0V4KB, 32KB,128KB uniformx1, x8256Mb–2GbMT25T2.7–3.6V1.7–2.0V4KB, 32KB,64KB uniformx1, x2, x4, x8MT25Q2.7–3.6V1.7–2.0V4KB, 32KB,64KBN25Q2.7–3.6V1.7–2.0V4KB,64KB uniformNote: This table only includes devices recommended for new designs. Not all densities available in all package and voltage combinations.5

NOR NAND Flash GuideSerial NORApplicationRequirementsby ProductFamily by Product FamilyXccelaFlash Memoryand Serial NOR ApplicationRequirementsApplication Requirements512Kb1Mb2Mb4Mb8Mb16Mb32Mb64MbStandard TMT25Q/MT25TMT25QMT35XMT35XMT35XMT35XOctal SPI (extreme performancewith low pin counts)Dual-I/O usageMT25QMT25QMT25QMT25QMT25QHigh-performance SPI,quad I/O, T25TMT25Q/MT25TMT25Q/MT25THigh-performance SPI, x8 I/0, XIP1.8V (low-power consumption)MT25QMT25QSelecting a Parallel NOR DeviceIf the key features of parallel NOR match your design requirements, use the following table to help select the right device. For more details,see our full parallel NOR part catalog and find a sales representative at NOR – Quick Features 3.6V 1.65–3.6VBusWidthDensityRangeSync BurstReadMulti-Bank(Read-WhileWrite, ReadWhile-Erase)A/D, PackageOptionsx8, x16128Mb–2GbNoNoNoYes100,00056-pin TSOP64-ball FBGANote: This table only includes devices recommended for new designs.6

NOR NAND Flash GuideMicron NAND Flash PortfolioSelect from one of the industry’s broadest portfolio of raw and managed NAND flash. To meet the high reliability and temperaturerequirements of embedded applications like automotive and industrial, many of Micron’s NAND flash solutions are ISO/TS 16949-certifiedand have extended temperature ranges as well as long product life cycles.Raw NANDRaw NAND provides the lowest cost per bit but requires an external host controller (not contained within the package) to perform allmanagement functions (e.g., ECC, FTL).Single-level cell (SLC)One bit per cell; high performance and write endurance and lowest cost/bit for 1GB densities; low density SLC is used for code storage in embedded applications while high-density SLC is used in mission-critical systems where high performance and best-in-classreliability are required.Serial SLC NANDLow-density SLC devices with a NOR-like serial interface to simplify system designMultilevel cell (MLC)Two bits per cell; a good balanced of performance and write endurance for a wide range of cost-sensitive, high-density applicationsEnterprise MLC NANDUses special programming algorithms to extend write endurance; typically used in high-write workloads like time shifting (pausing live TV)Triple-level cell (TLC)Three bits per cell; high cell density, but lower performance and endurance specifications; most often used in mass storage consumerapplications (e.g., client SSDs, USB drives or SD cards) with very high cost sensitivity; however, with 3D TLC NAND, reliability is adequate for applications that have used planar MLC.Managed NANDManaged NAND provides simpler solutions and accelerates time-to-market because the controller is embedded within the package tohandle wear leveling, bad block management and ECC.e .MMC MemoryHigh-capacity NAND flash device combined with a high-speed MultiMediaCard (MMC) controller in a single BGA package; suitablefor designers looking for a fully managed device and ease of design for MMC-like, application-to-application interoperability for awide range of networking, industrial, and automotive applicationsOn-die ECC NANDHybrid between raw and fully managed NAND; ECC is integrated while wear leveling and bad block management are handled bythe host controllerSolid State Drives (SSDs)NAND-based drives that enhance reliability, reduce power, and provide faster performance compared to hard disk drives (HDDs)7

NOR NAND Flash GuideSelecting a NAND DeviceIf the key features of NAND match your design requirements, use the following table to help select the right device. For more details, see ourNAND part catalogs and our Choosing the Right NAND page, and find a sales representative at NAND – Quick Features ComparisonDeviceDensityWidthVoltageSLC NAND128Mb–64Gbx8, x161.8V, 3.3V Up to 100,000 P/E cycle endurance Fastest NAND throughput Compatible with the ONFI-synchronous interfaceSerial (SPI)SLC NAND1Gb–4Gbx1, x2, x41.8V, 3.3V MLC NAND2GB–1Tbx83.3V Solid performance and endurance 2X the density of SLC NAND at a lower cost per bit Compatible with the ONFI-synchronous interface4GB–16GBx83.3V 16GB–32GBx83.3V Higher density in the same footprint but at a lowercost than SLC or MLC NANDEmbedded MLC NANDTLC NANDBenefitsEase-of-use, faster boot upIncreased power efficiencyHigh performance, low powerIncreased bandwidthOptimized performance for intensive applicationsCompatible with ONFI interfaceHigh endurance, high capacity, and high reliabilityFull turnkey solution ensures sophisticated NANDmanagement solutionManaged NAND – Quick Features 128GB4.41, 4.51 and 5.0JEDEC standard3.3VSSD60GB–240GBSATA 6 Gb/s3.3V (mSATA),5V (2.5-inch)8Benefits Single-package solution for designers lookingfor MMC-like application-to-applicationinteroperability Offered in a variety of densities and options Designed for industrial applications High performance and reliability

NOR NAND Flash GuideBenefits of Partnering With an Embedded Memory ExpertAs a leading supplier of memory for 30 years with an in-depth understanding of the embedded industry, you can rely onMicron as a single source for your embedded memory needs. Team up with us, and get:A long-term partner, dedicated to your successGet long-term support for eligible products with our Product Longevity Program (PLP) — select Micron memory productsavailable for the full customer product life cycle, giving peace of mind that the memory you design in today will be available for10 years or more.The tools to enable your next-generation innovationGet the right memory technology — designed for embedded industry requirements — at just the right time thanks to ourever-expanding industry knowledge base and strong relationships with chipset vendors. Coupled with support from ourembedded memory experts and technical resources, you’ll be armed with a total solution that is optimized for yournext-generation embedded applications.Reliability from a world-class supplierRely on products that are manufactured by Micron with a focus on high quality and reliability standards. We test select deviceswith an extended temperature range of –40 C up to 125 C for the highest reliability, and many of our products have also achievedISO/TS certification.As new designs emerge and requirements shift, you can continue to depend on Micron to offer the broadest portfolio of memorysolutions to fuel your embedded innovations.More InformationLearn more about Micron’s flash memory solutions, and find a sales representative or authorized distributor at*No hardware, software or system can provide absolute security under all conditions. Micron assumesno liability for lost, stolen or corrupted data arising from the use of any Micron products, includingthose products that incorporate any of the mentioned security features.Products are warranted only to meet Micron’s production data sheet specifications. Products, programs and specifications are subject to change without notice. Dates are estimates only. 2017 Micron Technology, Inc. All rights reserved. All information is provided on an “AS IS” basis without warranties of any kind. Micron, the Micron logo, Xccela and all other Micron trademarks are theproperty of Micron Technology, Inc. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.Rev. E 12/17 CCMMD-676576390-25679

SLC NAND Standard 128Mb–64Gb Serial 1Gb–4Gb MLC NAND Standard 2GB–1Tb Embedded MLC NAND 4GB–16GB Managed NAND e.MMC 2GB–128GB SSD 60GB–240GB Random Read Access Performance vs. Large Data Size 1Tb TLC NAND 16GB–32GB 32Mb 16GB 128GB 0 100 200 300 400 500 600