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Maryland Hops TeamHopsAlternativeworkshopSpecialty CropMarch 12th, Workshop2018WYEREC, December 8, 2015Nate RichardsKent CountyR.ExtensionDavid [email protected] Agent, AgriculturePresentation adapted from Andrew Ristvey – [email protected] CropsSpecialist

Maryland Hops Production-Production variables- Northwest Produces most hops in the U.S.- More summer sunlight (15 hours)- Better climate – less pesticide use- Lower cost of production

Maryland Hops Production-Why hops in Maryland?- Maryland is within latitudinal range thathops can be grown- Direct sales to local breweries- Premium for local hops- Access to fresh hops

HopsHumulus lupulus- Cannabinaceae- Hardy perennial vine (bine)- Lone lived - 25 yrs- Established bines canproduce 1.5-2 lb/yr (dry) ormore depending on variety,cultural conditions, andclimate

Hops-Hops have male and female flowers onseparate plants- We grow the female plant from clones- Clones are started from the hopsrhizomes

2014 Hops install at Upper Marlboro CMREC

University of MarylandWye Research and Education Center

Wye Research and Education Center Trial Hops YardObjectives Response to the local interest in hops productionTrial varieties for the Eastern ShoreTrial growing systemsDevelop extension programs for hops management

Hops ProductionTrellisingLayout Full sunlight Wind Prevailing wind direction Many different trellising options

Trellis Polesat Wye

22 ft poles18 ft out4 ft in

Wye Research TrialHops YardCaNpNuMgTmChCascade - Aroma bitteringNewport - BitteringNugget -Aroma BitteringMagnum - BitteringTeamaker - AromaChinook - Aroma Bittering

Hops ProductionTrellisingWyeRec Layout Single Horizontal cabling 30 feet between poles 3.5ft in row plant spacing 14ft between rows (for equipment andairflow) Use Coir twine Plastic ground cover (for establishment) Trickle irrigation

Hops EstablishmentSoil Prep Hops need well drained soilsIncrease organic content to 3-4%Adjust pH to 6-6.2Manage other nutrients P, K, Ca based onSoil Tests

Hops EstablishmentFertility Management- Establishment - 75 lb N / acre- May require three split applications- Liquid feed fertilizers or syntheticallyproduced are more readily availablenutrients- Granular organic - maybe less applications

Hops EstablishmentFertility Management- Require between 150 and 200 lb N / acre- Nutrient Management plans available fromExtension office- Liquid feed fertilizers or synthetic produced- readily available nutrients- May require three to four split applications- Granular organic - maybe less- Start in early April- Stop mid-June

Hops ProductionChoosing Varieties--Several hundred varietiesEach variety has its own characteristicsBred for levels of Alpha/Beta acids andoils and for growing in different climatesChoose variety based on site/climate andwhat is in demandBittering – High alpha acids/low oilAroma – low alpha acids high oilNobel – High oil moderate alpha acid

Hops Varieties atWyeRec-4 varieties planted in June 2016- Nugget – Aroma/Bittering- Cascade – Aroma/Bittering- Newport – Bittering- Willamette - Bittering

Hops Varieties atWyeRec-3 varieties planted in October 2017- Magnum – Bittering- Chinook – Aroma/Bittering- Teamaker – Aroma-*Willamette - was a failed crop and wasremoved after year 1

Hops ProductionGrowthStarting- Rooted cuttings or rhizomes- Certified clean plants- Plant April-May- First year after planting willgrow 6 to 8 feet duringestablishment

Hops ProductionGrowthSecond Season Growth- Plants begin coming out ofdormancy around lateMarch/early April dependingon soil temps

Hops ProductionGrowthSecond Season Growth- Second year will grow up to 1 ft per day- In June vertical growth slowsJune 20th

Hops ProductionGrowth-Plants flower late June/ early Julydepending on variety and climate

Hops ProductionGrowth-Plants fill-out over summer andflowers/cones matureAug 30th

Hops Major PestsPotato Leaf Hopper Scout two or three times weekly Economic threshold – 2-3 per leaf Control Options Pyrethroids Neonicotinoids Spinosyns Soaps

Hops Major PestsPotato Leaf Hopper Scout two or three times weekly Economic threshold – 2-3 per leaf Control Options Pyrethroids Neonicotinoids Spinosyns Soaps

Hops Major PestsPotato Leaf Hopper Scout two or three times weekly Economic threshold – 2-3 per leaf Control Options Pyrethroids Neonicotinoids Spinosyns Soaps

Hops Major PestsSpider Mites Scout in May Thrive in hot conditions Pyrethroid use kills beneficials, promotes population Control Options Miticides Biologicals Soaps – discontinue at Burr phase

Hops Major Pests Spider MitesScout in MayThrive in hot conditionsPyrethroid use kills beneficials, promotespopulationControl Options Sulfur Azadirachtin

Hops Major PestsJapanese Beetles Scout after mid-June Economic threshold - as soon as you seenthem! Control Options Pyrethroids Neonicotinoids Azadirachtin

DiseasesDowny Mildew Plant resistantvarieties Manage early in theseason Spring pruning ofnew growth Cleanliness Timely fungicideapplications areneeded with wetweather Weekly oil and soapapplications

DiseasesPowdery Mildew Plant resistantvarieties Usuallysusceptible toPM Manage early inthe season likePM

DiseasesFusarium Canker Reducing freemoisture near thecrown Increase pH near thecrown Avoiding use ofacidifying fertilizers Minimizing injury tobines gain entry intothe plant No fungicides areregistered for controlof Fusarium canker

Hops ProductionCultural ManagementPruning- Match growth with flowering- Typically prune crowns in early spring- Goal is to have the bines reach the top atsummer solstice (most sunlight for flowering)June 20th

Hops ProductionCultural Management Maintaining understory

Hops ProductionCultural Management Maintaining understory

Hops ProductionCultural Management Maintaining understory

Hops ProductionHarvests- Determined by cone ripening- Bracts begin to dry – papery feel- Lupulin resin turn from bright yellow to golden- Some bracts edges turn brown

WyeRec year 2 Harvestdates-Cascade – August 8th/Sept 1stNewport – Sept 1stNugget – Sept 15th

Hops ProductionHarvests- After Harvest thehops must be driedto between 8 and12% moisture- Dry at a temp of lessthan 135F with activeair flow- Dry in an insulatedroom with lowhumidity- The quicker, thebetter

Hops ProductionHarvests

-Hops ProductionYield1st year hops will have a negligible yield2nd year hops will yield 50%3rd year hops will yield 75%4th year (and beyond) will yield 100%

WyeRec Yield fornd2 year Cascade-Close to 0.5lbs per plant(dried to 10% moisture)Target yield for 2nd yearCascade in PacificNorthwest is 0.75lbs perplant (1.5lbs at fullmaturity)

Wye Chemical Testing fornd2 year CascadeCascade 2017 (1st Harvest)Alpha Acids (%)4.98Cohumulone (%)1.30Humulone (%)3.68Beta Acids (%)7.32Colupulone (%)2.96Lupulone(%)4.36Cascade 2017 (2nd Harvest)Alpha Acids (%)4.58Cohumulone (%)1.29Humulone (%)3.29Beta Acids (%)5.77Colupulone (%)2.48Lupulone(%)3.28

Questions?The University of Maryland Extension programs are open to any person and will not discriminate against anyone because of race, age,sex, color, sexual orientation, physical or mental disability, religion, ancestry, national origin, marital status, genetic information,political affiliation, and gender identity or expression.Nate RichardsKent County Extension [email protected]

Hops Production Choosing Varieties -Several hundred varieties-Each variety has its own characteristics-Bred for levels of Alpha/Beta acids and oils and for growing in different climates-Choose variety based on site/climate and what is in demand -Bittering–High alpha acids/low oil-Aroma –low