PDS-360ULTRASONICOPEN-CHANNELFLOWMETERINSTRUCTION MANUALShip To:Via UPSCONTROL ELECTRONICS, INC.148 Brandamore Rd.Brandamore, PA 19316Tel: (610) 942-3190http://www.controlelectronics.comMail To:CONTROL ELECTRONICS,INC.P.O. Box 330Brandamore, PA 19316Fax: (610) 942-3672e-mail: [email protected]
INDEXSPECIFICATIONS . III.REPAIR / RETURN POLICY . IV.PRODUCT PERFORMANCE STATEMENT . V.WARRANTY . VI. Please read first before installing flow meter.INTRODUCTION . 1.INSTALLATION . 2.1. Enclosure Location . 2.2. Sensor Location . 3.a] Parshall Flumeb] Palmer/Bowlus Flumec] V-Notch Weird] Rectangular Weirse] Stilling Wells3. Enclosure Mounting . 5.4. Sensor Mounting . 6.5. Electrical Connections . 7.Sensor Cable . 7.4-20mA. Output . 8.Sampler/Counter Relay Output . 8.Setpoint Relay Outputs . 8.0-10 VDC Output . 9.120VAC Input . 9.AC Output . 9.Heater . 9.DC Volt Outputs . 9.Battery Operation . 9.Shut OFF . 9.ADJUSTMENTS AND CONTROLS . 10.1. Transmitter / Receiver Card . 10.GAIN adjust . 10.J1 / J2 Threshold Jumpers . 10.Xmit / L2 Tuning Coil . 10.2. Main Circuit Board . 11.4-20mA. adjustments . 11.0-10VDC adjustment . 11.DAMP Adjustment . 11.ON/OFF switch . 11.120/220VAC Select . 11.FRONT PANEL .11.Pass Code . 11.LCD DISPLAY . 12.Indicator Type . 12.GPM, MGD . 12.Totalizer . 12.I.
INDEX ( CONT’D)FLOW % . 13.Temperature Reading . 13.DEPTH . 12.LF (Low Flow) . 12.* Asterisk . 13.CLAIBRATION .CHANGING CALIBRATION REFERENCE .SETTING THE ANALOG OUTPUTS .SETTING SAMPLER / COUNT OUTPUTS .SETTING ALARM CONTROLS .3 Volt Battery .188.8.131.52.15.15.Programming The FlowmeterUSING THE PROGRAM FLOWCHART .Operating Instructions .Resetting The Flowmeter .If Flowmeter Should Lock-up .Power Up Flowmeter .RUN MODES .Set PRIMARY DEVICE .Pass Code .Setting FLOW PARAMETERS .SETPOINTS .Sampler / External Counter Pulse .Set CALIBRATION REFERENCE .Set TIME/DATE .Reset TOTALIZER / DATA LOG .Set Communications .Viewing the DATA LOG .Print / Download DATA LOG 2.USING RS-232 COMMUNICATION PORT .Initiate DOWNLOAD from the flowmeter .Initiate DOWNLOAD from a PC or Laptop .RS-232 Wiring .184.108.40.206.ILLUSTRATIONSFlume - Weir Types . 3 & 4.Front Panel Display Samples . 12 & 13.FIGURE 1. Enclosure Mounting / Dimensions . 5.FIGURE 2. Sensor Mounting . 6.FIGURE 3. PDS-360 Wiring Diagram . 8.FIGURE 4. Ultrasonic Xmit / Receive Card . 10.FIGURE 5. PVC Sensor Mounting Bracket . 23.RS-232 Wiring Diagram . 26.II .
PDS-360 SpecificationsElectronicsPower :Span Range:Dead Band (blanking):Resolution:Accuracy*:Memory:Flow Equations:Data Log:Sensor w/temp probe120/220 VAC, 15%, 50/60 Hz12-24 VDC @ 15W max.30 F to 120 F (-5 F with opt. heater)2 line x 20 character, Alphanumeric,LCD with LED backlighting8 digit accumulative with programmablemultiplier. x1, x10, x100, x100031 daily, 8 digit totalizers0-10 VDC adjustable, 4-20 mA isolatedinto 1000 ohm, RS-232, RS-485 opt,4 relay outputs - 2 Setpoints and2 programmable pulse, SPDT 7A/250 VAC0-1.00” to 0-150.00” full scaleAutomatic/Dynamic 10” to 150”0.01”, 0.01 GAL/MIN 0.5% of Range or bettercalculated error less than 0.04%Flash and non-volatile RAMParshall, Palmer-Bowlus, Leopold-Lagco,Rectangular Weirs with and without endcontractions, V-Notch Weirs, User Defined31 day flow summary: min, max, avg, GPMTotal gallonsTime Stamped avg. GPM flow rate withprogrammable log rate of 00-99 minutesin 1 minute increments*Note: field conditions, such as turbulance, etc., may affectthe apparent accuracy.Material:Beam Pattern:Temperature:Cable:PVC Housing, Epoxy, Aluminum5 Conical Max (2.5 from centerline)-40 F to 160 F5 foot corrosion-resistant, 1500 ft. max.RG/58A/U coax and 2 conductor shielded3.0” dia. x 2.5” len3/4” mensions:Fiberglass with clear hinged Polycarbonatecover. Polystyrene enclosure opt.NEMA 4X, IP65, Water-Tight, Dust-TightCorrosion-Resistant: CSA, UL listed7.2”x11.8”x6.8”: mounting 4.92”x12.3”with stainless steel mounting feetOptionsCircular Recorders, Heater/Thermostat, PVC Sensor Bracket,Sensor Cable, Serial printer, External Temperature Probe .Warranty: The PDS-360 system is pre-tested and qualitycontrol inspected before shipping. Warranty is againstdefects in parts and workmanship for a period of 1(one) year.Specifications and design subject to change without notice.Made in USADIMENSIONS5 feet3/4” NPT2.5”3.0”SensorEnclosureI I I.
Repair Policy:Repair Cost:All repairs are performed on our premises. Repairs must be sent to ControlElectronics by UPS prepaid. Customer must enclose a description of problem,who to contact, phone number, return ship-to address and purchase order numberto cover repairs. Delay of repair may occur if information is not provided. NoARM number is required.Most repairs are processed within 48 hours unless major repair is required.Minimal repair charge is 150.00 plus shipping. This covers most repairs. Ifrepair exceeds 150.00, we will notify the customer before we proceed.Payment is COD or Credit Card only unless other arrangements are made.MasterCardVisaAMERICAN EXPRESSWarranty repairs are made at our discretion and returned UPS GROUND at ourexpense.Return Policy:(within 6 months)(after 6 months)Control Electronics will accept ‘return of product’ for credit within 6 monthsof shipping date if it is determined that the product is not performing tospecification as described in Product Performance statement in this manual(provided application is not the cause of problem). We do not accept returns forcredit when the application is the source of the problem (i.e. poorly installedflumes, poor piping arrangements, interference from other equipment etc.) ,product is misapplied or not used properly and/or if product is out of warranty(12 months from ship date).A 35% restocking charge will be applied if product is returned for credit after 6months from ship date. ( 7 to 12th month from shipping date).Control Electronics does not accept returns of options such as circular recordersand other products not manufactured by Control electronics, Inc.Control Electronics will not accept returns of used Sensors, cables, or spare partsunless shown to be defective under warranty or not performing as specified.Any credit issued will be at the discretion of Control Electronics, Inc. Warrantyof product is limited only to the repair or replacement (with same model) ofdefective product.Any product or part of product returned damaged will not be considered for anycredit.Customer must call for authorization before returning product for credit.Products returned for credit will not be considered without prior authorization.A description of how it was determined that the product was not performing tospecification must accompany the return of the product for our evaluation beforeControl Electronics will consider any credit. The name of who to contact alongwith phone number should also be included with the return.Ship To Adress:All repairs or returns must be shipped prepaid via UPS or equal to:Control Electronics, Inc., 148 Brandamore Rd., Brandamore, PA 19316I V.
CONTROL ELECTRONICS, INC.PDS-360 Product PerformanceControl Electronics PDS-360 Flowmeter will perform as specified when tested under known,simulated conditions. All PDS-360’s are tested for full functionality and performance beforeshipping.The accuracy of the product is determined by inputting a known, stable target distance intothe system and monitoring its ability to process the return ECHO delay accurately andconversion of the calculated DEPTH indication to GPM and Total flow as related to the built-inequations. Specifications for the product are determined by this method.The accuracy of the product is not determined by any other method. Other tests methodsindicate the accuracy of the over-all application/installation, not just that of the product. Suchtests are not acceptable as an indication of product(s) accuracy. However, other test methodscan be used to determine if the calibration of the product should be changed in attempt tocompensate for application/installation conditions. This should only be done if no otherapplication/installation corrections can be initiated to correct the problem.Some examples of application/installation problems are:1]2]3]4]5]6]Flume/Weir not sized properlyStrong vapours from liquid or severe air density changestoo much turbulance or foaming on the liquid surfaceFlow moving too fast through the flume/WeirFlow approach to flume/weir incorrectSensor not installed properly etc.Some equipment such as variable speed drives, nearby radio transmitters (i.e.: radio dispatchor hand held transmitters) etc. located next to the product or even at times in adjacent roomsmay possibly interfere with the products performance. The worst of these is the variable speeddrive controllers. This type of equipment generates large amounts of electrical and RF (radiofrequency) noise that can interfere with the products ability to interpret the return ECHOsignal. Some adjustment to the product , relocation of the product or different electricalgrounding attempts may minimize or eliminate the interference. Ultimately, it is up to the userto make the corrections necessary and require that the source that is causing the interference becorrected.If you have any questions in regards to product performance, please contact Control Electronicsat (610) 942-3190 or fax us with application conditions and questions at (610) 942-3672.You may also E-mail us at: [email protected] .V.
CONTROL ELECTRONICS, INC.PRODUCT WARRANTYWARRANTY:Control Electronics, Inc. warrants to the buyer that its products are free from defects inmaterials and workmanship at the time of shipment and during the WARRANTY PERIOD. ControlElectronics, Inc. obligation under this warranty is limited to the replacement of the product(s)by same product(s) manufactured by Control Electronics, Inc. or repair of the product(s) at theControl Electronics, Inc. facility. Control Electronics, Inc. products are sold with theunderstanding that the buyer has determined the applicability of the product(s) to its intendeduse. It is the responsibility of the buyer to verify acceptability of performance to the actualconditions of use. Performance may vary depending upon these actual conditions.This Warranty is in lieu of any other warranty, expressed or implied. This includes, but is notlimited to, any implied warranty of fitness for a particular purpose, or other obligations orliabilities on the part of Control Electronics, Inc. Under no circumstances will ControlElectronics, Inc. be liable for any loss, damage, expense, or consequential damages of any kindarising in connection with the use, or inability for use, of Control Electronics, Inc. products.WARRANTY PERIOD:This warranty is in effect for twelve (12) months from the date of shipment from ControlElectronics, Inc. place of business. Any extension of warranty period must be requested at timeof purchase and made part of purchase order.LIMITATIONS:Control Electronics, Inc. products must be installed and maintained in accordance with ControlElectronics, Inc. published instructions. Users are responsible for the suitability of theproduct(s) to their application. There is no warranty against damage resulting from corrosion,misapplication, improper specification, improper installation or any conditions beyond thecontrol of Control Electronics, Inc. Claims against carriers for damage in transit must be filedby the buyer. Control Electronics, Inc. is not liable for labor costs incurred in removal,reinstallation, or unauthorized repair of its product(s). Control Electronics, Inc. warrantydoes not cover travel time or expenses for job site service. Requests for field service must beaccompanied by a signed purchase order. Travel time and expenses will be charged to thispurchase order, along with service time if the cause of the failure is not covered by thewarranty. No service will be performed on any product(s) unless full payment has been madefor product(s).WARRANTY CLAIM:If Control Electronics, Inc. products are found to be defective in materials or workmanshipwithin twelve (12) months of the date of shipment, they will be repaired or replaced with sameproduct at the discretion of Control Electronics, Inc. at its place of business at no charge to thebuyer. The defective product(s) must be sent, freight prepaid, to the ship-to address on thefront page of this manual for warranty claim. All claims must be made in writing. Enclose abrief description of problem, person to contact, phone number and return ship-to address.Product(s) received without this information may not be processed on a timely basis.If warranty and/or product(s) is not acceptable to buyer, please contactControl Electronics, Inc. and/or return product(s) unused for credit. Thisaction must be made within 60 days from ship date from Control Electronics,Inc. Installation of product(s) or non-response within 60 day periodindicates the buyers acceptance of product(s) and above warranty.Control Electronics, Inc., P.O. Box 330, Brandamore, PA 19316VI .Tel: (610) 942-3190
INTRODUCTIONControl Electronics model PDS-360 Ultrasonic Open Channel flowmeteris a microprocessor controlled, non-contacting flowmetering systemdesigned to accurately measure liquid flow through any standard primaryflow device. The PDS-360 flowmeter has been designed with the user inmind, allowing for simple, intuitive set-up through a menu drivenprogramming interface. Control Electronics has been designing andmanufacturing Ultrasonic type flowmeters since 1980. The PDS-360flowmeter represents the latest in microprocessor technology andultrasonic echo-ranging techniques.In theory, the PDS-360 system transmits high-frequency sound pulsesfrom the sensor to the liquid flow surface and calculates the elapsed timeof echo return. The elapsed time is directly related to distance and isused, along with a temperature measurement, to calculate an accurateDepth-of-Flow measurement. The system makes these measurementscontinuously and without contact to the flow. Depth-of-Flow is thenconverted to flow rate indication and totalization through the built-inmathematical conversion equations for the Primary Flow Deviceselected by the operator.All PDS-360 circuits are protected in a NEMA 4X corrosion resistantfiberglass enclosure with a clear polycarbonate hinged cover for easyviewing of the flow indications.The Sensing element is a non-contacting probe capable of transmitting andreceiving high-frequency sound waves. The Sensor requires lesstransmit power than most other systems. Approximately 24 volts peakto-peak is required as opposed to other manufacturers that use from 400to 1700 volts to pulse their Sensors. The higher voltages are hazardousto personnel and explosive atmospheres. Additionally, the PDS-360Sensors unique design reduces both the dead-band (minimum range) andthe signals beam spread. Two important considerations when monitoringflows in a flume with a narrow throat and approach section or manholeswith low ceilings.After installing the flowmeter and Sensor, the operator will find thePDS-360 Flowchart in the back of this manual extremely helpful innavigating through the many options and features of the flowmeter.With proper understanding of open-channel flowmetering and thesuccessful installation of the flowmeter, the PDS-360 system willprovide the user with many years of continuous, reliable operation.- 1 -
INSTALLATIONThe PDS-360 Flowmetering system is easy to install. Adherence to allinstallation instructions will result in successful operation of yoursystem. If any deviation must be made from the prescribed installationprocedures, please call our service department for change approval.Failure to install your system properly could lead to operationalproblems and become costly if a service technician is required on site toremedy. We suggest you read the entire manual to familiarize yourselfwith the equipment before installing.1. Enclosure LocationThe PDS-360 electronics controller is housed in a NEMA 4X fiberglassenclosure. This enclosure is UL listed and rated as being water-tight,dust-tight and corrosion resistant. However, care should be taken inselecting a location that will offer protection from rain, chemicalspills, extreme temperatures etc.120 32 ImportantThe electronics enclosure is suitable for outdoor installation, but it isrecommended that the enclosure be mounted indoors or in a fiberglassshed located next to the measuring site. If the instrument has to belocated outdoors, provisions must be made to maintain a temperaturerange between 35 F and 120 F within the enclosure. For cold locations,our optional Heater and Thermostat should be purchased. This optioncan be installed at any time by the user. In warmer climates theenclosure should be mounted away from direct sunlight or a sun shadeshould be erected.On a hot day, direct sun light could damage the LCD displayand raise the internal temperature of the enclosure wellabove ambient temperature causing malfunction and/orpossible damage to the unit. A Sun Shade should be provided.The PDS-360 Electronics requires a 120 VAC power source. Thoughthe PDS-360 flowmeter is designed to minimize electrical noiseinterference you should avoid installation in locations near equipmentthat may be electrically noisy or instruments that generate R.F.(radio frequency) noise such as SCR controlled equipment (i.e.variable speed controllers). This will minimize any potentialproblems.The enclosure may be located up to 1500 feet from the measuringsite. It is recommended that you keep the distance as short as possible.Metal conduit will be required between the measuring site andcontroller electronics for the Sensor co-axial cable to run through. Itis important that no other cables with the exception of thetemperature compensation (TC) cable be run in this conduit. Cablelengths less than 50 feet may be run in PVC conduit if there are noother conduits or signal wires in close vicinity.- 2 -
2. Sensor LocationThe Sensor location over the Primary Flow Device (flume/Weir etc.) isvery important so the PDS-360 can accurately measure the flow. Thelocation of the measuring point over the flow device varies with the type offlow device used. Three most widely used flow devices are:1] PARSHALL FLUME: Mount the Sensor 2/3 of the distance upstreamfrom the start of the throat section and the beginning or edge of flume.2] PALMER-BOWLUS FLUME: Mount the Sensor 1/2 the flumesdiameter (D/2) upstream from the start of the throat section.- 3 -
3] V-NOTCH/RECTANGULAR WEIRS: Mount the Sensorbefore the Weir plate a distance of at least 4x the maximumflow depth to be measured. DO NOT mount the Sensor overthe Weir plate or the waters drawdon.Using A Stilling Wellfoam sensorA stilling well may be used if there is difficulty in measuring theflow level due to turbulence, thick foam etc. The stilling well mustmaintain a smooth inside surface for best results. Eliminate anygasket protrusion if to sections of pipe are joined to form a longerpipe. We recommend PVC pipe, at least 8 inch diameter or greaterfor the stilling well.flumestilling wellIf there is any question about the orientation of the Sensor, contactthe flume/weir manufacturer or contact our service department.- 4 -
3. Enclosure MountingOnce a suitable location has been selected for the controller, carefully screwmount the enclosure as shown in figure1. Be sure to allow room for the conduitentrance to the enclosure as shown.All conduit entrances should be made through the bottom side of the enclosure.Do not enter through the top. This could cause possible water damage fromleaks if the enclosure is rained on or hosed down. Separate conduits should beprovided for 120VAC power source (conduit not required if supplied withoptional AC power cord), output signal wires (4-20 mA., relay outputs etc.)and Sensor cable.Use care to protect the electronics circuit card from damage when punchingholes in the enclosure for conduit entrance. The circuit card may be removedfrom the enclosure by removing the four retaining screw and unplugging theribbon cable. A GREENLEE punch is recommended for punching the holes.Figure 1.- 5 -
4. Sensor MountingCorrect Sensor mounting is important for satisfactory performancefrom your flowmeter. It is necessary that the Sensor be mounted overthe flume or weir as illustrated in figure 2.IMPORTANTDO NOT use any metallic pipe or fittings to mount the Sensor.The Sensor must be mounted to PVC or other plastic type materialfor the sensor to work properly - no exceptions.The Sensors radiating surface must be parallel to the liquid surface inthe flow device or the returning ECHO may be reflected away from theSensor.Figure 2.The Sensor mounting should take into account the 12.0"minimumDEAD BAND as specified. When programming the PDS-360, youshould not allow for less than a 12.0" DEAD BAND.IMPORTANTIf the flow surface comes closer than the specified orprogrammed DEAD BAND to the Sensor, the system may notrespond to further increase of flow and all readings maybe considered invalid.- 6 -
The Sensor is provided with 5 feet of cable (standard). An electricaljunction box should be located near the Sensor to allow splicing of itscable to a longer cable, if required. Use supplied cable (optional) ortype RG174A coaxial (Beldon# 8216 or equal) for the ultrasonicsensor and a shielded twisted pair (Beldon# 8451or equal ) for thetemperature compensation sensor.IMPORTANTIt is Mandatory that the cables be run in a PVC conduitusing PVC water-tight fittings between the Sensor and thejunction box. If the Sensor is mounted to metallic pipe ,fittings or bracket, the flowmeter will not work !!The cable running from the junction box to the electronics must runin a metal conduit for lengths greater than 50 feet. This conduit mustbe committed only to this cable. Running any other cables will verylikely interfere with the instrument's operation.Mount the Sensor over the prescribed measuring point in the flume orWeir (see Sensor Location, page 3) using Control Electronics PVCSensor Mounting Bracket (optional) or a Sensor mounting bracket ofyour own construction (see figure 2). Be sure the Sensor mountingbracket is made from PVC, not metal , and is secure, not just danglingover the flume. Make certain that the elevation of the Sensor allows forat least a 12.0" DEAD BAND.5. ELECTRICAL CONNECTIONSSENSOR CABLEIMPORTANTWhen running the Sensor's interconnecting cable, be sure to keep it asshort as possible (maximum 1500 feet) using only specified cable orsupplied cable (optional). Avoid close proximity to AC power lines andother frequency carrying lines. Run the Sensor cable through its owncommitted conduit. No other cables should be allowed to run in the sameconduit other than the Temperature Probe cable. The Sensor cable shouldenter through the bottom side of the controller enclosure.Be certain to make a good water tight entrance with theconduit to maintain the NEMA 4X rating. The conduit shouldalso be plugged to prevent moisture migrating from theSensor to the enclosure and vice versa. This will help toprevent condensation forming in the conduit and enclosure.Connect the Sensors coaxial and Temperature Compensation cables to thefive (5) pin terminal barrier strip on PC-547 Open-Channel flowcard marked SENSOR and Temp Probe. The coax shield to SHIELD and itscenter lead to CENTER. The Temperature cables red wire to RED ( 5V),bare wire to BARE (ground) and black wire to BLACK (signal). Refer tofigure 3, page 8.Cable types: Beldon #8216 coaxial or equal and Beldon #8451 twistedpair shielded or equal.- 7 -
4-20mA outputThe 4-20mA. output is used to control Samplers, setpoint controls,recorders, chlorinators etc. This analog output signal is aFLOATING output (both the ‘ ’ and ‘-’ terminals have theirpotential above system ground) and is DC isolated from electricalground. The signal output is connected as shown in figure 3.Polarity must be observed through the entire control loop forproper operation. Maximum loop resistance is 700 ohms. 1000ohms with J8 jumper moved toward terminal barrier.Rx Tx Grd RS-232 OutputCOAX CablexmitGAINSensorCNTShieldRedBareTemp CableBlackJumper or other4-20mA device.PC-547 Input CardDamp AdjMake Splice using wire nutsand electrical tape. Coverwith Liquid tape if available.Ribbon Cable Socket 4-20 mA output 3 volt battery4mA20mA0-100-10VDC output 12 18#2LED Relay Output J8Indicators0.5 amp fuse 5mmDC volt outputs#4#3Processor Card#1Relay Outputs(7 amp, 250VACcontacts )NHNHNO (normally open)C (common)NC (normally closed)Optional 25 wattHeater/ThermostatGNHON120VAC 220 VACSelection Jumpers4-20mAReceiverPower Switch120 VAC InputGroundNeutralHotFigure 3.PDS-360 Wiring DiagramRELAY #1, 2(Setpoints)Relay #1 and #2 are two independently programmed setpointoutputs used for alarming and control. They are 7 amp, 250 VACcontacts with associated LED status indicators on board.RELAY #3, 4(Sampler Pulse)#3 and #4 relays are used for pulsing a remote totalizer/counteror for Sampler control. The outputs are dry contacts rated at7 amp, 250VAC. Closure duration is 250 ms. (milli-seconds).#3 relay is considered COUNTER output and #4 as SAMPLER pulseoutput. Both circuits are identical and are interchangable.- 8 -
0-10VDC OUTPUT The 0-10VDC output is used to control setpoint controls, telemetryequipment and other devices that require a voltage input. Thevoltage output may be scaled for 0-5VDC output or other scale byadjusting the 0-10 Potentiometer adjustment on the main circuitboard. Remote connections should be made first before making thisadjustment.120 VAC INPUT120 VAC power should enter through the bottom side of theenclosure in its own committed conduit (not required if suppliedwith optional AC power cord). Connect AC power to the terminalbarrier strip marked AC INPUT. DO NOT allow the AC wires to layall about in the enclosure. Keep as short as possible to avoid ACinterference. 16/18 gauge wire is prefered over a heavier wirethat may put unnecessary stress on the terminal barrier strip.AC OUTThis provides a switched 120 VAC power to control an externalrecorder or other device that operates in conjunction with theflowmeter.NOTE:HEATER 12,, UNREG DCBattery Operationswitchfuse12V Gel Cellshown with optional3 amp fuse and switchSHUT OFFThe flowmeter uses a .5 amp 5mm fuse. It may benecessary to increase the fuse rating to accomodateexternal devices. Max rating should not exceed 3 amps.This output provides a switched 120 VAC power to the optional 25watt Heater/Thermostat for cold climates.These inputs/outputs provide DC power for optional accessories orallow for battery operation of the flowmeter.BATTERY ONLYIf system is going to operate from a battery only (no ACpower), a standard 12 volt gel cell battery (maximum 24 volt)may be co
Flow Equations: Parshall, Palmer-Bowlus, Leopold-Lagco, Rectangular Weirs with and without end contractions, V-Notch Weirs, User Defined Data Log: 31 day flow summary: min, max, avg, GPM Total gallons Time Stamped avg. GPM flow rate with prog