ProgramOverviewWhole-House Approach BenefitsBuilders, Buyers, and the EnvironmentThe Program02774501mBuilding America Performance GoalThe U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE)(Energy Savings)Building America Program is reengineering0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80%the American home for energy efficiencyMORE EFFICIENTand affordability. Building America workswith the residential building industry todevelop and implement innovative buildingprocesses and technologies — innovationsthat save builders and homeowners millionsTypical LocalBuildingof dollars in construction and energy costs.ConstructionAmerica GoalThis industry-led, cost-shared partnershipA multi-year goal of Building America is to reduce energy use byprogram aims to:an average of 50% compared to typical local construction.Reduce energy use by 50% andreduce construction time and wasteImprove indoor air quality and comfortEncourage a systems engineering approach for design and construction of new homesPrefabricated wall panelsawait assembly at the MeadowView community inLongmont, Colorado.McStain Enterprises is thebuilder partner.OFFICE OF BUILDING TECHNOLOGY, STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMSENERGY EFFICIENCY AND RENEWABLE ENERGY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGYWarren Gretz, NREL/PIX08742Warren Gretz, NREL/PIX08743Accelerate the development and adoption of high performance in production housing.

The Whole-House ApproachExamples of Building AmericaFraming and Air Tightness Improvementsin a Cold ClimateThe teams design houses from the ground up, consideringthe interaction between the building envelope, mechanical systems, landscaping, neighboring houses, orientation, climate, andother factors. This approach enables the teams to incorporateenergy-saving strategies at little or no extra cost. Examples ofinnovative design improvements that result from this systemsengineering approach include:Standard Wall ConstructionPossibleairleakageat jointStandardsheathing(R-1)SidingContinuous air barrierAdvanced framing systems. By using 2x6 studs on24-inch spacing instead of the more common 2x4 studson 16-inch spacing, the builder greatly improves theinsulating value of the walls and reduces labor andlumber required to assemble the framing. StructuralInsulated Panels (SIPs) and other innovative wallsystems may also be used to create an airtight, highlyinsulating wall construction.16" on-center spacingDrywallR-11 insulationIntegrated envelope sealing package. Combinations oftaped sheathing systems, air-tight caulking of drywall,and better workmanship lead to lower air infiltrationrates and reduce heating and cooling loads on mechanical systems. Mechanical ventilation is often added toensure adequate fresh air for building occupants.2" x 4" wall studsAdvanced Wall ConstructionEnergy-efficient windows. Low-emissivity coatingsand vinyl frames provide much higher levels of thermalinsulation than standard windows with clear glass andaluminum frames. In hot climates, an additional spectrally selective coating may be added to reduce theamount of solar heat entering the house. Exterior shading and house orientation can also be used to controlsolar gains.TapedexteriorR-4insulatingsheathing(first airbarrier)Drywallclips24" on-center spacingUsing a wholehouse approach,Building Americaconsidersperformance andinteractions of allbuilding systems.02774505mAir-tight caulkingDrywall (second air barrier)SidingR-19 insulationLocalClimateBuildingStructure2" x 6" wall studsThe whole-house approach often usesadvanced framing and a double airbarrier to improve insulation and airtightness in cold ystems02774502mBuildings for the 21st Century

One Example of Building AmericaCost Trade-offs in Hot-Dry ClimateStandard PracticeBuilding AmericaCost Impact*Roof ventsUnvented roof- 250Uninsulated roof deckInsulated roof deck 7002x4 framing,16-inch spacing2x6 advanced framing,24-inch spacing- 250Clear glasswindowsLow-e, spectrallyselective windows 5004-ton air conditioner2-ton air conditioner- 1000Natural ventilationControlled ventilation 100Total cost of upgrades- 200* Estimated costs for production builders. Actual costs vary depending onspecific features and supplier discounts. (Negative indicates cost savings,positive indicates additional costs.)Examples of Building America Window andDuctwork Improvements in a Cold ClimateInefficient Windows and High-Loss DuctworkHeatlossClear glass,aluminumframewindowsSupply airOptimally sized mechanical systems. Significantreductions in heating and cooling loads allow theinstallation of smaller, more efficient heating andcooling systems. Mechanical systems with capacities more closely matched to actual loads alsoprovide greater comfort.Supply airBasement orcrawl spaceAir/heatleakageAir handlerSupply register near windowsto compensate for heat lossEnergy-Efficient Windows and DuctworkFactory construction. Factory-made modules mayreduce construction time and costs, and may alsoimprove energy and resource efficiency. Betterquality assurance and higher productivity mayoccur under factory conditions with a controlledenvironment, leading to tighter building envelopesand less wasted material.MuchsmallerheatlossLow-Evinyl framewindowsSupply airSupply airConditionedbasement orcrawl spaceAir handlerLess duct heat loss because oftighter seal and shorter runsWindows and air ducts are frequentlymajor contributors to heat loss in a home.Energy-efficient windows allow the use ofshorter ducts that are easier to seal and lessexpensive to install.Buildings for the 21st Century02774504mDuctwork improvements. Heating and cooling ductscan be moved into conditioned space from the atticor basement, which reduces heat loss to or fromthe outside environment. Better duct sealing helpsprevent the loss of conditioned air. Centrally locatedheating and cooling systems also lead to shortersupply and return duct runs, lowering constructioncost and further reducing air leakage. The additionof return air transfers enhance comfort and minimizenegative pressures that can cause moisture problems in humid climates.

Building America Industry TeamsThe ParticipantsBuilding America’s systems engineering approach unites segments of the buildingindustry that have traditionally worked independently of one another. It forms teamsof architects, engineers, builders, equipment manufacturers, material suppliers,community planners, mortgage lenders, and contractor trades. There are five teamscomprising more than 150 different companies.Building Science Consortium (BSC)Team Leader: Building Science CorporationKey Industry Partners:Artistic HomesAshland ConstructionCentex HomesDEC Therma-StorDel WebbDow ChemicalGreenbuilt HomesHabitat for HumanityHans Hagen HomesIdeal HomesInvestecJohn Laing HomesKaufman and BroadThe Lee GroupPPGPulte HomesRPM HomesSouthface Energy InstituteSturbridge ConstructionTown & Country HomesU.S. Green FiberHickory ConsortiumTeam Leader: Hickory CorporationKey Industry Partners:Acorn LaboratoriesBuilding Science EngineeringCardinal HomesCenter for Maximum Potential BuildingSystemsCoachman Industries/All American HomesEpochExcel Homes/Avis AmericaHampton ArchitectOaktree DevelopmentPella WindowsTamarack TechnologiesUniversity of Central FloridaConsortium for Advanced ResidentialBuildings (CARB)Team Leaders: Steven Winter AssociatesKey Industry Partners:Andersen WindowsBeazer HomesCambridge HomesChampion Home BuildersCrosswinds CommunitiesDel WebbHoneywellITWMcStain EnterprisesMercedes HomesMitchell HomesOwens CorningRyan HomesSimpson Strong-TieUS SteelWeyerhaeuserWhirlpoolYorkIntegrated Building andConstruction Solutions (IBACOS)Team Leader: IBACOS, Inc.Key Industry Partners:Burt Hill Kosar RittelmannCarrierCivano Development CorporationThe Estridge CompaniesFarm HomesFortis HomesGE AppliancesGE PlasticsHedgewood PropertiesJohn Wieland HomesKohlerMedallion HomesMontgomery & RustMorrison HomesNew EraOwens CorningPlaya VistaPulte HomesUS GypsumU.S. ArmyVenture HomesIndustrialized Housing PartnershipTeam Leader: Florida Solar Energy CenterProject Co-Funders: Florida Energy Office and Northwest Energy Efficiency AllianceKey Partners:American Energy Efficient Homes ofLaSalle Air SystemsCentral FloridaNomaco, Inc.American Lung AssociationNorth Carolina A&T State UniversityAtlantic Design & ConstructionOregon Office of EnergyBeck BuildersPacific Northwest National LaboratoryCavalier HomesPalm Harbor HomesCentex HomesSouthern Energy HomesChampion EnterprisesTown & Country Homes of TexasD.R. Wastchek, LLCTyvek Weatherization SystemsEnergy Rated Homes of NevadaUniversity of Central FloridaFleetwood HomesValley Manufactured HousingFlorida H.E.R.O.Washington State University EnergyFlorida Power CorporationProgramFriedrich Air Conditioning CompanyYork International, ManufacturedHousing DivisionHabitat for HumanityBuildings for the 21st Century

Building America Partners by State02774506mThe ProjectsAs of October 2000, theBuilding Americaapproach has been usedin the design of more than2,000 houses in 24 states.This success is due to theefforts of more than 60builders implementingprojects in 48 differentcities across the UnitedStates.Represents communitieswith Building Americaprojects as of October 2000StateCityBuilder PartnerStateArizonaGrand hern CaliforniaSimi ValleySylmarClear Creek CountyDenverDenverLongmontPuebloPuebloFt. t CityAtlantaAtlantaCobb CountyFairburnBoiseBoiseNational Park ServiceVIP HomesPulte HomesDel Webb Corp.Palm Harbor HomesPulte HomesCivanoRGCBeazer HomesLee HomesVan GeetWonderland BuildersHabitat for HumanityMcStain HomesDomega HomesTierra Concrete HomesPulte HomesFlorida H.E.R.O.Pulte HomesMercedes HomesMitchell HomesPalm Harbor HomesHedgewood PropertiesVenture HomesHabitat for HumanityAshland HomesHidden SpringsSuper Good Cents/NaturalChoiceSturbridgeTown & CountryEstridgeRyan HomesMassachusetts BostonCambridgeMichiganDetroitGrand nneapolisNevadaLas VegasLas VegasNew MexicoAlbuquerqueNew YorkRochesterNorth Carolina aIdahoIllinoisIndianaMarylandGrayslakeVernon burghPittsburghPittsburghSouth Carolina CharlestonTexasAustinAustinGeorgetownHoustonSan AntonioVirginiaFairfaxWashingtonOlympiaBuilder PartnerCWC/Thomas ConstructionEpoch CorporationCrosswindsPulte HomesCentex HomesHans Hagen HomesPulte HomesTown & CountryPulte HomesWatt HomesArtistic HomesRyan HomesPulte HomesCarolina Country BuildersGreenbuiltTesco BuildersRandal HomesIdeal HomesSuper Good Cents/NaturalChoiceNew Era Building SystemsKacin BuildersMontgomery & RustMcIntireCMPBSDoyle WilsonDel Webb Corp.Beazer HomesMedallion HomesPulte HomesSuper Good Cents/NaturalChoiceBuildings for the 21st Century

The ResultsCooling Energy Savings for Houston Prototype HouseBaseCase(33 kWh)Each Building America team is constructing testhomes and developing community-scale projectsthat incorporate its systems innovations. DOE’sNational Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)provides feedback on the systems-level benefitsof energy technologies and design strategiesimplemented by the teams. Results to datedemonstrate that Building America homes use30% to 70% less energy than conventionalhomes and are more comfortable. These resultsare documented in Building America projectsummaries, case studies, and on the BuildingAmerica Web site at america/.58% SavingsAverageDaily Energyfor Cooling(April 1999)Prototype(14 kWh)02774503mResults of side-by-side testing of a BuildingAmerica prototype house in Houston, Texas,and a base-case house constructed using thebuilder’s standard practice. Beazer Homes is thebuilder partner. Testing was conducted by theNational Renewable Energy Laboratory.Benefits for BuildersBuilding America helps builders to develop acompetitive advantage by reducing constructioncosts and improving the quality of the housesthey build:Reduced callbacks and warranty claimsA worker installs high efficiency,argon-filled windows with lowemissivity glass on this BuildingAmerican home in the PrairieCrossing community in Grayslake,Illinois. Sturbridge Construction isthe builder partner.Warren Gretz, NREL/PIX04670Lower material and labor costs duringconstructionReduced purchase cost of mechanicalequipmentLess construction wasteMore options for the same sales priceNew product opportunities for manufacturers and suppliersLearning from other buildersProminence in the marketplaceWarren Gretz, NREL/PIX04671Advanced energy system integration,including photovoltaics and solar hotwater.Buildings for the 21st Century

Benefits for HomeownersBuilding America’s partnership with builders alsoprovides important benefits to homeowners byimproving the quality and affordability of theproduct they buy:Lower utility billsGreater comfortCivano/PIX08777Better indoor air qualityEnergy-efficient mortgagesHigher resale prices.Benefits for the NationLess reliance on fossil fuelsReduced greenhouse gas emissionsCivano/PIX08776The energy-efficient, healthy, and environmentallyfriendly houses created under Building Americacontribute to a better quality of life for all citizens:Heating and coolingducts are routed throughopen-web floor joists in asealed crawl spacefor this Building Americahouse in the CivanoCommunity in Tucson,Arizona.More affordable homes for first-timehomebuyersLower medical costsresulting from unhealthy orunsafe living conditionsThe research conducted by BuildingAmerica teams improves the quality and performance of today’shomes and provides valuable information for homes of the future.By supporting the development ofinnovative building methods andtechnologies that achieve significant energy and cost savings, theBuilding America Program is helping to shape the future of Americanhomes.A third-story module is lifted into placeon a prototype Building America duplexin a Cambridge, Masschussettsinfill project. Epoch Corporation is themodular builder partner.Buildings for the 21st CenturyEcoDynamic Homes TM/PIX04672Homes of the FutureBuilding America Program/PIX04673Job creation in the energyefficient building materialsand equipment industry

Florida Solar Energy Center/PIX09688David Beal, FSEC/PIX09705Two showcase manufactured homes being monitoredside-by-side on the North Carolina A&T State Universitycampus. A section of another manufactured home (below) isproduced by Palm Harbor Homes in Plant City, Florida.BUILDINGS FOR THE2 1 S T C E N T U RYBuildings that are more energyefficient, comfortable, andaffordable . that’s the goal ofDOE’s Office of Building Technology,State and Community Programs(BTS). To accelerate the development and wide application of energy efficiency measures, BTS: Conducts R&D on technologiesand concepts for energyefficiency, working closely withthe building industry and withmanufacturers of materials,equipment, and appliances Promotes energy- and moneysaving opportunities to bothbuilders and buyers of homesand commercial buildings Works with state and localregulatory groups to improvebuilding codes, appliancestandards, and guidelines forefficient energy use Provides support and grants tostates and communities fordeployment of energy-efficienttechnologies and practices.Visit our Web sites Building America ProgramGeorge James * Building America Program Office of Building Systems, EE-41 * U.S. Department of Energy1000 Independence Avenue, S.W. Washington, DC 20585-0121 (202) 586-9472 fax: (202) 586-8134e-mail: [email protected] americaBuilding Science ConsortiumBetsy Pettit Building Science Consortium 70 Main Street Westford, MA 01886 (978) 589-5100 fax: (978) 589-5103e-mail: [email protected] america/bsc.shtmlConsortium for Advanced Residential BuildingsSteven Winter Steven Winter Associates, Inc. 50 Washington Street Norwalk, CT 06854(203) 857-0200 fax: (203) 852-0741 e-mail: [email protected] www.carb-swa.comHickory ConsortiumMark Kelley Hickory Consortium 85 Depot Road Harvard, MA 01451 (617) 491-1888 fax: (617) 491-6004e-mail: [email protected] america/hickory.shtmlIBACOS ConsortiumBrad Oberg IBACOS Consortium 2214 Liberty Avenue Pittsburgh, PA 15222 (412) 765-3664 fax: (412) 765-3738e-mail: [email protected] america/ibacos.shtmlIndustrialized Housing PartnershipSubrato Chandra Florida Solar Energy Center 1679 Clearlake Road Cocoa, FL 32922 (321) 638-1412 fax: (321) 638-1439e-mail: [email protected] www.baihp.orgNational Renewable Energy LaboratoryRen Anderson 1617 Cole Boulevard, MS4111 Golden, Colorado 80401 (303) 384-6191 fax: (303) 384-6226e-mail: ren [email protected] www.nrel.govPrinted with a renewable-source ink on paper containing atleast 50% wastepaper, including 20% postconsumer wasteBuildings for the 21st CenturyMay 2001NREL/BR-550-27745

American home in the Prairie Crossing community in Grayslake, Illinois. Sturbridge Construction is the builder partner. W arren Gretz, NREL/PIX04671 W arren Gretz, NREL/PIX04670 02774503m Average Daily Energy for Cooling (April 1999) Base Case (33 kWh) Prototype (14 kWh) Cooli