NineteenthCenturyThe Magazine of the Victorian Society in AmericaVolume 38 Number 2

EditorialWhen I was one of Richard Guy Wilson’s students at The Victorian Society’s Newport Summer School about tenyears ago I fell in love with a woman. Her name was Marie. I met her at one of the grand houses that crowd Richard’sitinerary. It is called Clouds Hill, located north of Newport in Warwick, Rhode Island.Since my wife, Susan, is my first reader and editor let me say right away that Marie died in 1863.Clouds Hill is a big, broad house on top of a steep rocky incline. It is built of local granite and features dramaticwood eaves and extravagant barge boards. Its deep, three-sided porch overlooks an inlet off Narragansett Bay. It isa grey and brooding house, one that epitomizes what we think of as Victorian. Crossing the threshold, I felt an oddfrisson, wondering who had called this looming dwelling “home”–a question soon answered by Anne Holst, itscurrent owner and resident. She gave us an intimate tour of the house that had been in her family since constructionwas completed in 1872. It was built by textile magnate William Smith Slater, of Slatersville, Rhode Island, for hisdaughter, Elizabeth Ives Slater, upon the occasion of her marriage to one Alfred Augustus Reed, Jr.It has passed down the matrilineal line to Ms. Holst and contains 150 years’ accumulation of thefamily’s furnishings and fixtures. She runs the beautifully maintained house as a museum.Concerts, tours and events are regularly scheduled there.Well do I remember the moment of my coup-de-foudre. We were touring the groundfloor. We had just seen the Egyptian Revival Reception Room dominated by twosensuously carved mahogany caryatids in the Egyptian style who supported a massivemantlepiece. Our group entered the parlor and I found myself face to face with apainting of a lively young woman in a bustled green silk dress leaning against agarden wall. I was completely smitten and asked Anne Holst who it was. “Oh, that isMarie, the sister of the original owner of the house.” Ms. Holst went on to explainthat the broken stem of the red rose Marie held in her hand was the key to theportrait. In Victorian shorthand, a broken stem signified that the person portrayedhad died. She noted that anyone in the nineteenth century, viewing this strikingtableau, would immediately understand that this was a posthumous portrait. Andyet the young woman in the painting looked quite alive and quite ready to step awayfrom her garden wall and take a turn around the grounds with me (chaperoned, ofcourse).Aside from being in love, I was astonished. I had never encountered even the idea ofa painted posthumous portrait. Anne Holst said they were not unusual at the time. I knewof photographs of the dead, and of death masks, but a painting? A painting takes time tocreate. Did you have to go engage the painter even before you called on the mortician? Did theportraitist have to prop the body up to prepare a good likeness? Did he lay my beloved on the stonefloor and gaze down at her, painting swiftly before she started to–well, you know.This was clarified when I called Anne for details. She told me the full name of the subject was Marie AmbrosineReed and that she was 19 years of age when she died. Based on a clear signature and date, Anne knows the last nameof the painter was Schwartze, and the work was done in 1864, a year after Marie died. All that is known about howshe died comes from Miss Reed’s diary, which is in Anne’s possession. The diary describes a journey by steamboatto Europe with her family for an extended vacation. While in Lausanne, Switzerland, the last entries in the diarydescribe two weeks of not feeling well. She died a week after the final entry, of unknown causes, and is buried inLausanne. As access to the body was impossible, the commission of the portrait was not rushed. For a likeness, thepainter was able to hew closely to an existing portrait of Miss Reed fortuitously painted shortly before her demise.At that moment, in the dim, filtered light of the Clouds Hill parlor, I remember feeling tragic love and loss forthis stranger. I can describe it no other way. And though today I have a little trouble calling to mind the face of myhigh school girlfriend, Marie Ambrosine Reed’s image–and her broken-stemmed rose–remain vivid in my mind’seye. Such is the power of the posthumous portrait.And so, we at Nineteenth Century bring you our issue on the theme of death wherein many of these mysteriesare explored and explained. We hope you enjoy your sojourn among the shades.Warren Ashworth

NineteenthCentury hhhTHE MAGAZINE OF THEVICTORIAN SOCIETY IN AMERICAVOLuMe 38 NuMBer 2FALL 2018EditorWarren AshworthContentsConsulting EditorDecorating the DeadBook Review EditorMelissa Cole and Laura SuchanWilliam AyresKaren ZukowskiManaging Editor /Graphic DesignerFunny EpitaphsGuest EditorElbridge H. Thompson and Warren AshworthWendy MidgettSara DurkacsPrinted by Official Offset Corp.Amityville, New YorkCommittee on PublicationsChairWarren AshworthDennis AndersenWilliam AyresAnne-Taylor CahillChristopher ForbesSally Buchanan KinseyMichael J. LewisBarbara J. MitnickJaclyn SpainhourKaren ZukowskiFor information on The VictorianSociety in America, contact thenational office:1636 Sansom StreetPhiladelphia, PA 19103(215) 636-9872Fax (215) ety.org8A CENTURY-OLD LOOK AT SOME pOIGNANT AND AMUSING CARVINGSDeath MasksINTIMATE MEMORIAL TRIBUTES14Remembering the Life in Death18Eve M. KahnTHE ROLE OF pORTRAITURE AND pHOTOGRApHY IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURYMarie CarterBruce Price and the “Purely Greek” TombstoneMichael J. Lewis24Departments30 ReprisesBEATING THE BODYSNATCHERSAllison C. MeierA TALE OF TWO GRAVESBridget M. Marshall36 Preservation DiaryMAKING A MUSEUM: EUSTIS HOUSEKarla Rosenstein41 The BibliophilistCover: edwin romanzo elmer, MourningPicture, (detail) 1890. Courtesy SmithCollege Museum of Art, Northampton,Massachusetts.2COFFIN HARDWARE AND THE FAREWELL CEMETERYAnne-Taylor CahillJaclyn SpainhourRobert WojtowiczKaren Zukowski47 MilestonesDR. SNOW AND THEBLUE DEATHAnne-Taylor CahillAbout the Guest EditorSara Durkacs is the membershipsecretary for the Alumni Associationof the VSA and corporate secretary forThe Green-Wood Cemetery. Hung onevery inch of Durkacs’ office walls areVictorian paintings—a smattering ofThe Green-Wood Historic Fund’scollection of works of art by the morethan 400 artists interred at theCemetery. Durkacs collects vintagelinen postcards and takes long walksamong the dead at Green-Wood toavoid the living.

Advertisement for W. M. Raymond & Co., featuring the funeral procession of president Abraham Lincoln after leaving New York’s City Hall, c. 1866.published by Hatch & Co., New York.

Decorating the DeadCOFFIN HARDWARE AND THE FAREWELL CEMETERYMelissa Cole and Laura SuchanVictorian attitudes towards death involved elaborate burialcustoms and rituals that were clearly defined and strictlyadhered to as much as finances and circumstances allowed.Magazines of the day, such as the Ladies Home Journal, oftencarried advice on the customs of mourning and what wasconsidered to be both acceptable choices in clothing andbehavior during the mourning period. Think of the reactionwhen the recently widowed Scarlet O’Hara in Gone with theWind accepted Rhett Butler’s offer to dance and you get someindication of how rigid and deeply entrenched the mourningculture was in the nineteenth century. This culture alsoextended to the graveyard where a visit to any nineteenthcentury example will reveal a variety of gravestone carvingsranging from willow trees to urns and cherubs. This visibledisplay of commemoration was a deeply personal choice andwas influenced to some extent by economic status and theperiod in which the stone was carved. What is not as visiblenow are the ways in which the Victorians ornamented andpersonalized the coffins of the deceased.In the early days of settlement, the local cabinet andfurniture makers were tasked with the production and sellingof coffins. Already supplied with the necessary materials,furniture makers most likely found the coffin trade to be agood way to supplement their business in times when thefurniture business was slow. Luke & Brother of Oshawa,Ontario was one such company offering simple wooden coffinsin addition to the more mainstream furniture side of theirbusiness. This furniture and undertaking business was startedby members of the Luke family in 1853. The Luke brothers hada booming business in the furniture trade as more and morenew homes were built in Oshawa. The undertakingdepartment at Luke & Brother advertised professionalqualified staff, caskets and all requisites were carried.1 Coffinswere for the most part unadorned until the middle of thenineteenth century. After that it became the norm to decoratecoffins to create a totally unique look. As coffin decorationbecame more elaborate, it became less desirable to replicatethe exact look of another coffin. Soon furniture makers werebeing asked to undertake many of the funeral arrangements,including managing the funeral cortege and furnishing ahearse equipped with horses to carry the deceased. Luke &Brother advertisements in local newspapers offer the servicesof “undertaking” and funerals complete with hearse andhorses–alongside their furniture, engravings and frames. Astime went by many furniture makers began to dedicate part oftheir own business to laying out the deceased and providing asetting for the family to receive friends. For some, the funeralbusiness began to increasingly dominate the furniture trade.Luke Brothers storefront, Oshawa, Ontario, c. 1900.Advertisement for Luke & Brother, Oshawa, April 1870.3

Casket trimming sets, as seen in a catalog published by Hearne Bros., & Co., Whitakers, North Carolina, c. 1890. Courtesy East Carolina University.Coffin hardware was made from metal castings specificallymanufactured for coffin use. Funeral merchandise catalogueswere produced illustrating coffin and casket hardware andfuneral sundries. An example of one such catalogue comesfrom the Hearne Brothers and Company, of Whitakers, NorthCarolina which showcased an array of coffin hardwaredesigns.2 Companies, like Luke & Brother, would order piecesfrom similar catalogues for purchase through mail order orperhaps during a visit from a traveling salesperson to ensurethey had stock available as need arose. Name plates, coffinornaments, handles, cap lifts, escutcheons and coffin studscould be ordered from the catalogue in various finishes, stylesand colors to provide individuality to coffins. These finishingtouches could be ordered in a variety of designs and in manycases were ordered in complete “casket trimming sets”containing four handles, one name plate, two cap lifts, fourthumb screws, four screw plates and handle screws. Floraldesigns and depictions of animals (particularly sheep)predominate, however geometric flourishes were also popular.Most pieces of ornamentation were available in one’s choice ofsilver, gold, ebony, oxidize, brass and copper depending onpreference and budget.3Coffin nameplates were decorative adornments attached tocoffins and often placed in the center. These plates may havethe name, birth and death date of the deceased inscribed onthem and came in many different shapes and sizes.Nameplates could also be ordered with common inscriptionssuch as “At Rest”, “Father”, “Mother”, “Rest in peace” and4“Our Babe.” Nameplates were made of different metals withlead, brass or tin being most popular. Their choice wouldreflect the status and wealth of the deceased. presidentAbraham Lincoln’s nameplate from 1865 was an elaborateCoffin nameplate belonging to president Abraham Lincoln, 1865.sterling silver shield adorned with a wreath at the top andengraved with his name, birth and death dates as well as thewords “16th president of the United States.” As nameplatesbegan to increase in popularity, they were often removed by

loved ones to be kept as mementos of the deceased. Thispractice peaked in the late nineteenth century.Ornamentation could also be purchased to reflectmemberships in organizations and religious ideals.Membership in fraternal or secret organizations was popularin the nineteenth century. It is estimated that two thousandsuch organizations were in existence at one time or another inNorth America.4 It is no surprise then the Hearne Brotherscatalogue featured coffin emblems representing several of themost popular organizations including Masons, Knights ofpythias, Oddfellows, Woodmen of the World and the JuniorUnited American Mechanics. The embellishments of theseorganizations were quite ornate and cast in great detail torepresent the logos of the organizations. On occasion, portionsof these ornaments were cast separately to render the effect ofbold relief, adding to the striking nature of the pieces.For those not belonging to such organizations there wasstill plenty of ornamentation to choose from. In the nineteenthcentury, floral motifs were particularly popular. Manyand examples of foliage and fruit are suggestive of thelushness of heaven. The grapevine, a popular choice,represents Christ in the vine and followers in the branches.Ivy leaves refer to Christian constancy, laurel leaves to victoryover evil and palm leaves to peace, victory and excellence. Thedaisy symbolized purity and peace, and rosemaryremembrance. In addition religious images such as crossesand Bibles were also popular.5Archaeological excavations of historic cemeteries haverevealed just how prevalent the use of coffin hardware wasduring the nineteenth century. In Oshawa, Ontario anexcavation in 1993 at one of the earliest cemeteries uncoveredseveral examples of coffin hardware which indicated theirstyles and use changed throughout the nineteenth and earlytwentieth century.The Harmony Road (Farewell) pioneer Cemetery inOshawa, Ontario has been in use since the early 1800s.Initially the land for the cemetery was given by Acheus MoodyFarewell Sr., an early settler in the area for use as a familyCoffin ornaments for Knights of pythias, Odd Fellows, Masonic, Woodmen of the World and Junior Order U. A. M., as seen in a catalog published byHearne Bros., & Co., Whitakers, North Carolina, c. 1890. Courtesy East Carolina University.examples are to be found throughout the Hearne Brotherscatalogue. For the Victorians, each type of flower had aparticular symbolism and careful thought was put into makingjust the right choice. Today much of the meaning associatedwith various types of flowers is forgotten but for the Victoriansflowers represented another way to communicate. InChristian iconography, the lily and the rose represent puritycemetery. Farewell gave two of his sons, Acheus and William,a portion of the cemetery for their use as well as members ofthe Brown and Hinkson families. The cemetery was in useuntil 1937 and eventually came under the ownership of themunicipality and was officially closed to burials in 1968. Theold cemetery remained virtually unnoticed until 1993 when aplan to widen the north-south road adjacent to the cemetery5

Clockwise, l to r: Grape leaf ornament, “At Rest” nameplate, thumbscrew and matching escutcheon, swing bail handle. The coffin hardware was foundduring an excavation of the Farewell Cemetery in 1993. Courtesy Oshawa Museum.uncovered 38 grave shafts located in the road allowance.Subsequent investigations revealed the cemetery hadencroached 8.5 meters into the original road allowancesometime during the late nineteenth or early twentiethcentury. An archaeological firm was hired to investigate and asa result the remains of 38 individuals were removed and reinterred within the cemetery bounds.6Much of the coffin hardware uncovered at the FarewellCemetery was similar in style and variety to what wasadvertised in the Hearne Brothers catalogue and includedcoffin plates handles, different types of screws andescutcheons. Handles, used to carry the coffin, are of the swingbail or short bar types. These would be fastened to the coffinsides by lugs, which were usually decorative or by the use ofbacking plates and two or four screws. Thumbscrews had largewhite metal heads attached to an iron screw and were used tofasten the lid to the coffin. Thumbscrews were usually pairedwith escutcheons which were flat, decorative metal plates thatwere screwed to the coffin lid and used as a guide for thethumbscrews. After the lid was placed on the coffin, thethumbscrews were inserted through the escutcheons. Whitemetal coffin screws were used for coffin decoration and werebasic iron screws with ornamental white metal heads. Coffinstuds, made from tin, were four-sided, star-shaped or roundand were used to cover the screws or nails giving them a neat,6decorative finish. Before the practice of embalming becamemore established, coffin windows, formed by making a hole inthe coffin lid and covering it with a pane of glass werecommon. These windows were fixed in place and were used toview the body without having the coffin open.The coffin hardware found by the archaeologists wascompared to that uncovered at similar sites. The assembledchronology used by the archaeologists illustrates not onlywhen certain coffin styles appeared but and also when variousdecorations were popular. previous cemetery research inOntario indicated rectangular coffins gradually replacedhexagonal coffins sometime after 1850. Also, about the sametime, coffins began to include increasing numbers of hardwareitems, beginning with two forms of plaques or nameplates,followed by swing bail handles (c. 1860), white metal coffinscrews (c. 1860 onward), tin studs (c. 1870 onward), viewingwindows and short bar handles (1878 onward), and finallyescutcheons and thumbscrews (c. 1881 onward). Thischronology of the coffin hardware was used by thearchaeologists at Farewell to help date the burials.7Much like the Hearne Brothers catalogue, the coffinhardware from the Farewell Cemetery represented a greatcross section of styles and finishes. The range of variation inthe artifacts recovered from the graves at the Farewell site isremarkable for the number of burials uncovered. Of the 38

graves excavated, 28 of the burials included nineteenthThe Victorians were known for their complex behaviorscentury coffin hardware in the form of engraved coffin plaques,associated with death and mourning. Coffin decoration wasswing bail and short bar coffin handles, decorative white metaljust one part of the elaborate rituals associated with deathscrews, stamped tin studs in various shapes,practiced during the nineteenth century.viewingwindows,thumbscrewsandAlthough not as visible or as well-known asescutcheons.other aspects of death rituals like clothing,perhaps most interestingly, the Farewellmourning behaviors and gravestonesite revealed one item not seen in thecarving and sculpture, coffin decorationHearneBrotherscatalogueandwas one way mourners could personalizepreviously unknown to the archaeologistsa coffin for a loved one. Today the coffinand a unique decorative treatment for thehardware from the Farewell Cemeteryexterior of a coffin. The hardware piece isexcavation resides at the Oshawaa decorative metal strip with threeMuseum where it continues tostuds in place. The other find is anassist researchers in understandingunusual form of coffin designationhow the Victorians decoratedthat consisted of the letters “G” andcoffins and commemorated their“W” separated by a stylized heart.dead.The “G” “W” and heart were created“No. 2, White,” decorative metal handle, as seen in a catalogfrom fabric that was placed onpublished by Hearne Bros., & Co., Whitakers, North Carolina,the coffin lid and formed by brassc. 1890. Courtesy East Carolina University.studs nailed into the fabric. Theletters represent the name of thedeceased individual: George Weekes, Jr.8Melissa Cole was born and raised in Oshawa and has worked at theThe coffin hardware recovered at Farewell Cemetery isOshawa Museum for 18 years. She has a Bachelor of Arts (Honours)similar to examples found at other contemporary sites and thedegree in Anthropology from Trent university and a Museumcoffin hardware collection discovered at the hardware store ofManagement and Curatorship certificate from Sir Sandford FlemingCollege. Melissa cares for the extensive collection at the Oshawa MuseumA. L. Calhoun in Clio, South Carolina.9, 10 These similaritiesand is also responsible for the design, construction, fabrication,suggest that most coffin hardware would have come from a fewinstallation and maintenance of exhibits. She is passionate about hermanufacturers and distributors. Cost would most likely havehometown heritage and challenging the traditional story and history ofOshawa.been an important factor in deciding what items were to befixed to a coffin. Unfortunately the available catalogues do notLaura Suchan is the executive Director of the Oshawa Museum, alist prices, for it was most likely the distributors that set themuseum dedicated to the preservation of Oshawa’s history. Laura’scost for customers. Many of the decorations such as studs,passion for public history has led to presentations at provincial, nationaland international conferences including the Ontario Museum Association,were manufactured of inexpensive stamped tin. Handles wereHistory of education Society, and the Association for Gravestone Studies.made of various materials such as white metal, plated whiteIn 2005, Laura developed a classification system for nineteenth centurymetal and sometimes solid brass. The more elaborate coffinsOntario gravestones which allowed for a more systematic transcriptionwith an abundance of hardware do not necessarily indicate anand preservation of gravestones. She currently contributes her time tothe unregistered Cemeteries Committee (Ontario Historical Society), theexpensive burial since most of the hardware represented atTrent university Alumni Association and the Women’s HerstoryFarewell Cemetery was made of elaborately decorated whiteConnection of Durham region.metal or stamped tin and could be compared to inexpensivecostume jewellery.hNotes1. The funeral home business founded by the Luke brothers is still inoperation today under the name McIntosh Anderson Kellam (MAK).The Manchester of Canada: Oshawa Illustrated, The Ontarioreformer: Oshawa, Ontario, 1911, 32.2. Catalogue H-6. Illustrating Coffin and Casket Hardware and FuneralSundries, Hearne Bros. & Co., Whitakers, N.C., u.S.A. DigitalCollections, east Carolina university, Catalogue H-6. Illustrating Coffin and Casket Hardware and FuneralSundries, Hearne Bros. & Co., Whitakers, N.C., u.S.A. DigitalCollections, east Carolina university, July 23, 2018.4. Grave Preservation by the Old Cemeteries Society of Victoria, GravePreservation, Monuments, Obelisks, Columns, art sy4.htm. Accessed July 23, 2018.5. Laura Suchan, Memento Mori: Classifying Nineteenth Century OntarioGravestones, Oshawa, ON: Laura Suchan, 2012, 31.6. “Archaeological Mitigation of the Farewell (Harmony road) PioneerCemetery,” City of Oshawa regional Municipality of Durham,Toronto, Ontario: Archaeological Services, 1993.7. “Archaeological Mitigation of the Farewell (Harmony road) PioneerCemetery,” City of Oshawa regional Municipality of Durham,Toronto, Ontario: Archaeological Services, 1993.8. “Archaeological Mitigation of the Farewell (Harmony road) PioneerCemetery,” City of Oshawa regional Municipality of Durham,Toronto, Ontario: Archaeological Services, 1993.9. Philip J. Woodley, The Stirrup Court Cemetery Coffin Hardware.Ontario Archaeology 53: 45-64. 1992.10. Debi Hacker-Norton and Michael Trinkley, “remember Man ThouArt Dust: Coffin Hardware of the early.” Chicora Foundationresearch Series Publications, accessed July 26, Devex.LB.1,5068.1. Anin-depth analysis of a large cache of hardware found at the A. L.Calhoun merchandise store in Calhoun, N. C. and the Sumter CasketCompany, Sumter, S. C., was presented in this 1984 study.7

Elbridge H. Thompson (1839-1931).8

Funny EpitaphsA CENTURY-OLD LOOK AT SOME pOIGNANT AND AMUSING CARVINGSElbridge H. Thompson (1839-1931) Lebanon, New HampshireEditor’s note:When my grandmother, Beatrice Davis Ashworth, died in 1978, she left in my care along, typewritten manuscript for a lecture her old Uncle Elbridge gave in his home townof Lebanon, New Hampshire (and perhaps elsewhere). Until contemplating this issue ofNineteenth Century on the subject of death, I never quite knew what to do with hisremarkable piece of field research. I have resurrected it here, with some judiciousediting for readability. Wherever possible, I have corroborated his observationsthrough the remarkable website But, even when the gravesnoted herein have been found there, more than a century after Uncle Elbridge’sobservations they are often unreadable due to the weathering.Since I was able to find enough evidence that these epitaphs are not invented, I haveconfidence that Uncle Elbridge was an accurate researcher. The date of this researchand of the delivery of his lecture is not known. Based on some reasonable conjecturenoted later, I expect this was gathered and written between 1900 and 1910.It is fair to ask why a peer-reviewed scholarly publication such as NineteenthCentury would publish an article written more than a century ago. The currentcondition of the epitaph for Mary Pemberton, in Vergennes, Vermont provides ananswer to the question. In Elbridge Thompson’s day, the grave and its poignantmessage was legible. Today it is nearly indecipherable. Thus, the first publicationanywhere of this research affords us a record of graves that may be illegible orcompletely lost today.As a last note, we at Nineteenth Century should be quite glad of any corroborationreaders might wish to furnish. These graves are all in New England (or New York). Ifan opportunity arises to visit one or more of these graveyards, please let us know if youlocate the grave that is written about here.Warren AshworthI propose to wander with you among the cemeteries of our landand trace the idiosyncrasies of the world as they crop out [sic] ontombstones. Someone has said the deaths of the world are onlyprovision for the births of the world and there would be no roomfor to-day if yesterday did not get out of the way. This is true andif death must come, there must be graveyards. Even theadvocates of cremation demand a finely laid our cemetery withits slabs and monuments on which to record the names, age and,sometimes, the peculiarities of those who have gone before.The cemetery is an educator of the living where one may getwisdom and rare instruction from the monuments and graveswhich so outnumber the abodes of the living. Some of what isinscribed there is the subject of this essay and I testify to theauthenticity of what you are about to read. Fictitious inscriptionslack the charm of authenticity which in the case of epitaphs aremore remarkable than any imagination could conjure. Almostany witty writer can produce very funny epitaphs, hence thepapers and magazines always intent on novelty often publishmost quaint and grotesque epitaphs but many of them are ofsuch absurd character that I came to the conclusion they must befiction. I was induced to give the matter careful study to ascertainif any portion of them were real. To that end, I have visited manyout-of-the-way graveyards. The result was indeed startling: thatpeople of any intelligence could allow the sculptor to work forhours, days or even weeks with the stone and chisel to inscribesuch odd, gossipy or downright inappropriate words tocommemorate the death of a friend or relative is astounding, aswith this example from the Hollis Cemetery here in NewHampshire:Here lies old Caleb Ham, By trade a Bum;When he died, the Devil cried,“Come Caleb, Come”Starting close to home, I commenced my odyssey in the oldpine Hill Cemetery on the ridge near the residence of Miss Fanny9

From a tombstone in Knaresborough, England.1Alden in Lebanon. Finding nothing particularly queer, I didcome away with this poignant inscription:In memory of Mr. John Baldwin who diedDecember 7th, 1817, in his 75th year.And then is added:Mr. Baldwin had 13 of his family die in 6 yearsA tragic bit of family history that still resounds so many yearslater.More intriguing are two tombstones I found in Hollis, NewHampshire, three if you include the above ode to Caleb Ham.Here is the epitaph of a man who evidently was not a generalfavorite in the town, yet two stood by him to the last:Here the old man liesNo one laughs and no one cries;Where he’s gone or how he faresNo one knows and no one caresBut his brother James And his wife EmalineThey were his friends all the time.And I encountered this:Here lies Cynthia, Steven’s wife,She lived six years in calm and strife;Death came at last and set her free;I was glad and so was she.In Guilford, New Hampshire, may be seen two graves; onethat of Josiah Haines and the other of his wife; and althoughgiven to good works, they evidently were not fond of ministers.Mr. Haines’ stone is thus inscribed:He was a blessing to the SaintsTo Sinners rich and poor;He was a kind and worthy manHe’s gone to be no more.He kept the faith unto the end,And left the world in Peace,He did not for a doctor sendNor for a hireling priest.On Mrs. Haines’ stone we find the following:Here beneath these marble stonesSleeps the dust and rests the bonesOf one who led a Christian Life‘Twas Haineses, Johsiah’s Wife.She was a woman full of TruthAnd feared her God from early youth;And priests and elders did her fightBecause she brought their deed to light.Quite a bit of family history in two grave stones. And inbitterness towards the clergy the Haines’ were not alone. InMilford, New Hampshire, one Doctor Cutter became very muchdisgusted with his church because of an unpleasantness which10YYPraises on a tombstone are trifl

THE MAGAZINE OF THE VICTORIAN SOCIETY IN AMERICA h 30 Reprises EATI NG HBODY SC R Allison C. Meier A TALE OF TWO GRAVES Bridget M. Marshall Contents 36 Preservation Diary MAKING A MUSEUM: EUSTIS HOUSE Karla Rosenstein About the Guest Editor Sara Durkacs is the membership secret