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DOT/FAA/AR-11/12Air Traffic OrganizationNextGen & Operations PlanningOffice of Research andTechnology DevelopmentWashington, DC 20591Performance Assessment of aMobile, Radar-Based ForeignObject Debris Detection SystemSeptember 2011Final ReportThis document is available to the U.S. publicthrough the National Technical InformationServices (NTIS), Springfield, Virginia 22161.This document is also available from the Federal AviationAdministration William J. Hughes Technical Center atactlibrary.tc.faa.gov.U.S. Department of TransportationFederal Aviation Administration

NOTICEThis document is disseminated under the sponsorship of the U.S.Department of Transportation in the interest of information exchange. TheUnited States Government assumes no liability for the contents or usethereof. The United States Government does not endorse products ormanufacturers. Trade or manufacturer's names appear herein solelybecause they are considered essential to the objective of this report. Thefindings and conclusions in this report are those of the author(s) and donot necessarily represent the views of the funding agency. This documentdoes not constitute Aircraft Certification policy.Consult the FAAsponsoring organization listed on the Technical Documentation page as toits use.This report is available at the Federal Aviation Administration William J.Hughes Technical Center’s Full-Text Technical Reports page:actlibrary.tc.faa.gov in Adobe Acrobat portable document format (PDF).

Technical Report Documentation Page1. Report No.2. Government Accession No.3. Recipient's Catalog No.DOT/FAA/AR-11/124. Title and Subtitle5. Report DatePERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF A MOBILE, RADAR-BASED FOREIGNOBJECT DEBRIS DETECTION SYSTEMSeptember 20116. Performing Organization Code7. Author(s)8. Performing Organization Report No.Edwin E. Herricks*, Peter Lazar III*, Elizabeth Woodworth*, andJames Patterson, Jr.**9. Performing Organization Name and Address10. Work Unit No. (TRAIS)*Center of Excellence for Airport TechnologyDepartment of Civil and Environmental EngineeringUniversity of Illinois at Urbana Champaign205 N. Mathews, MC-250Urbana, IL 61801**Federal Aviation AdministrationWilliam J. Hughes Technical CenterAirport and Aircraft Safety Research and Development GroupAirport Technology Research and Development TeamAtlantic City International Airport, NJ 0840511. Contract or Grant No.12. Sponsoring Agency Name and Address13. Type of Report and Period CoveredU.S. Department of TransportationFederal Aviation AdministrationOffice of Airport Safety & StandardsWashington, DC 20591Final Report14. Sponsoring Agency CodeAAS-10015. Supplementary Notes16. AbstractIn 2008, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Airport Technology Research and Development Team initiated research toconduct a performance assessment of the Trex Enterprises FOD Finder , a mobile, radar-based foreign object debris (FOD)detection system. This assessment included the system’s capability to detect objects of various shapes, sizes, and materials at alllocations on the runway surface. The system’s capability to detect FOD during both nighttime and daytime conditions, in periodsof sun, rain, mist, fog, and snow was also assessed.The FOD Finder detection system was installed at the Chicago O’Hare International Airport (ORD) in March 2009 and initiallytested in July 2009. The assessment of the FOD Finder detection system at ORD was supplemented by the evaluation of twoadditional FOD Finder detection systems at Honolulu International Airport and the McClellan-Palomar Airport in Carlsbad,California. The performance assessment at all three airports began in May 2010 and concluded in September 2010. Researchersconducted several test sessions at each airport to assess the FOD Finder’s capability to detect selected FOD items that were ofvarious shapes, sizes, color, and material in both nighttime and daytime conditions, in periods of sun, rain, mist, fog and snow.The FOD Finder detection system was able to detect the objects of various shapes, sizes, and materials on runway surfaces,taxiways, and aprons, and was able to perform satisfactorily in nighttime, daytime, sun, rain, mist, fog, and snow conditions, asrequired by FAA Advisory Circular 150/5220-24, “Airport Foreign Object Debris (FOD) Detection Equipment.”17. Key Words18. Distribution StatementForeign object debris, Radar, Trex, Performance assessment,Mobile radar-based, O’Hare, Honolulu, Carlsbad, AirportFOD detectionThis document is available to the U.S. public through theNational Technical Information Service (NTIS), Springfield,Virginia 22161. This document is also available from theFederal Aviation Administration William J. Hughes TechnicalCenter at actlibrary.tc.faa.gov.19. Security Classif. (of this report)UnclassifiedForm DOT F 1700.720. Security Classif. (of this page)Unclassified(8-72)Reproduction of completed page authorized21. No. of Pages3522. Price

TABLE OF CONTENTSPageEXECUTIVE SUMMARYix1.INTRODUCTION12.OBJECTIVE13.PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR FOD DETECTION SYSTEMS14.THE FOD FINDER CHARACTERISTICS AND SPECIFICATIONS55.THE FOD FINDER INSTALLATION AT CRQ, HNL, AND ORD76.THE FOD FINDER ASSESSMENT PROTOCOLS96.16.26.37.8.9.The FOD Test ItemsRunway and Taxiway Test ProceduresPerformance Assessment Methods910126.3.1 Targets6.3.2 Test Methods6.3.3 Location Accuracy121212THE FOD FINDER PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT RESULTS ANDDISCUSSION137.17.27.3131314Summary of Standard Target DetectionLocation AccuracyDetection Under Variable Weather ConditionsDETECTION OF STANDARD FOD ITEMS AS REQUIRED BYAC 150/5220-2414THE FOD FINDER ASSESSMENT BASED ON AC 150/5220-24REQUIREMENTS159.1Basic Functions199.1.1 Provide Surveillance in the AOA as Specified by the Airport199.1.2Detect and Locate Single and Multiple FOD Items on the AOA199.1.3Provide an Alert to the User When FOD has Been Detected20iii

9.1.4Operate in Conjunction With, and Not Interfere With, Airport andAircraft Communication, Navigation, and Surveillance Systems9.1.5 Operate in Conjunction With, and Without Interference From,Normal Airport and Aircraft Operations9.1.69.29.3Provide a Data Record of Detected FOD, Allowing for EquipmentCalibration and Maintenance, and Analysis of the FOD Event202020Detection 212121212121Object DetectionLocation AccuracyInspection FrequencyDetection Response TimeSurveillance AreaPerformance in WeatherAlerts and AlarmsSystem Output229.3.1 Detection Data9.3.2 Data Presentation9.3.3 Data Management22222210.OPERATIONAL ANALYSIS2211.SUMMARY2512.REFERENCES25iv

LIST OF FIGURESFigure1PageThe FOD Finder Components, Including Sensor, Control Module, and VacuumAttachment62Scan Profile for the FOD Finder63Airport Diagram of CRQ84Airport Diagram of HNL85Airport Diagram of ORD96Standard Targets Used to Assess the FOD Finder107Characteristics of the Test Rectangle108Cones and Large Corner Reflector Marking Front-Left Corner of the Test Rectangle119Large (6-in.) Corner Reflector Used to Define Test Rectangle Corners1110Small (1.5-in.) Corner Reflector Used to Mark 100-ft Increments on the Long Axisof the Test Rectangle1111Items Selected to Meet AC Detection Requirements1512Airport Map Providing Information on Runway, Taxiway, and Other HNL AirportSurfaces2313Inspection Report Providing Color-Coded Results of Inspection Report2414Example of Tabular Inspection Data That Provides Location Information forDetected FOD24v

LIST OF TABLESTable1234PageAC 150/5220-24 Performance RequirementsDetection of Standard Targets at Selected AirportsDetection of Standard Targets on Different Airport SurfacesSummary of FOD Finder Performance Related to AC 150/5220-24 Requirementsvi2131315

LIST OF ory CircularAirport operations areaCenter of Excellence for Airport TechnologyMcClellan-Palomar AirportFederal Aviation AdministrationForeign object debrisGlobal positioning systemGraphical user interfaceHonolulu International AirportO’Hare International AirportPolyvinyl chlorideWide area augmentation systemvii/viii

EXECUTIVE SUMMARYIn 2008, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Airport Technology Research andDevelopment Team initiated research to conduct a performance assessment of the TrexEnterprises FOD Finder , a mobile, radar-based foreign object debris (FOD) detection system.In 2008, Chicago O’Hare International Airport (ORD) agreed to host the FOD Finderdemonstration. The detection system was installed by Trex Enterprises at ORD in March 2009,and the FAA developed plans for a comprehensive performance assessment of the technology.Preliminary testing was conducted in March 2009 and July 2009. Mobile units were alsodeployed to the Honolulu International Airport in Honolulu, Hawaii and McClellan-PalomarAirport in Carlsbad, California. Installation and preliminary testing continued in 2009, and theperformance assessment program was implemented in May 2010 with a test schedule intended toevaluate detection performance under typical airport operational conditions and under differentenvironmental conditions. As part of an FAA Safety Technology Research and DevelopmentProgram, research teams from the University of Illinois Center of Excellence for AirportTechnology (CEAT) developed the performance assessment protocol specifically for this mobiletechnology and implemented testing procedures appropriate to the technology and the specificairport setting.This report describes a performance assessment of the FOD Finder detection system.Performance requirements were based on FAA Advisory Circular (AC) 150/5220-24, “AirportForeign Object Debris (FOD) Detection Equipment,” which details parameters for a FODdetection system’s basic functions, detection performance, and system output. An assessment ofoperational issues was also performed.The FOD Finder performed according to the manufacturer’s product specifications and metperformance requirements identified in AC 150/5220-24. For basic functions, the FOD Finder provided surveillance in the airport operations area (AOA) as specified by the airport. detected and located single and multiple FOD items on the AOA. provided an alert to the user when FOD was detected. operated in conjunction with, and did not interfere with, airport and aircraftcommunication, navigation, and surveillance systems. operated in conjunction with, and without interference from, normal airport and aircraftoperations. provided a data record of detected FOD, allowing for equipment calibration andmaintenance and analysis of the FOD event.In the area of detection performance, the FOD Finder met the requirements for location accuracy.ix

met the requirements for inspection frequency. provided surveillance of an entire runway. met the specifications for clear weather, dry pavement conditions with a standard targetdetection rate of 100%. met the specifications for detection of ten categories of items required in the AC with adetection rate of 100%. provided alerts of FOD presence on the runway and provided location information tofacilitate removal.For system output, the CEAT tests revealed that the FOD Finder provided a digital data record of operations that included an alert time and date and thelocation of the FOD object. provided digital data that could be presented in a number of formats. provided digital data suitable for data management, which meets the needs of manyairports.x

1. INTRODUCTION.As part of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Airport Safety Technology Research andDevelopment Program, the University of Illinois Center of Excellence for Airport Technology(CEAT) has been supporting the research and development activities of the FAA William J.Hughes Technical Center for more than 10 years. In 2004, the FAA initiated research to assessforeign object debris (FOD) detection systems used within the airport operations area (AOA).The system that is the subject of this assessment is the FOD Finder , a mobile radar-based FODdetection system developed by Trex Enterprises. In March 2009, CEAT conducted a preliminaryassessment of the FOD Finder at Chicago O’Hare International Airport (ORD). Based on thepositive findings from the preliminary assessment, a second assessment was conducted in July2009. Installation of the FOD Finder system was completed at ORD in late 2008. Testing trials,as FOD Finder systems were integrated into airport operations, were in March 2009. Aperformance assessment program was implemented in May 2010 with a testing scheduleintended to evaluate detection performance under typical airport operational conditions andunder different environmental conditions. In addition to ORD, performance assessments werealso conducted at the Honolulu International Airport (HNL) and the McClellan-Palomar Airport(CRQ) in Carlsbad, California. Because the FOD Finder is a mobile technology, theperformance protocols and procedures used for stationary systems were reviewed and adapted tothis technology type by the CEAT research team. Test campaigns were conducted from May2010 through September 2010.2. OBJECTIVE.The overall objective of the assessment was to determine the performance of the FOD Finder andto develop requirements and standards for FOD detection technologies. With publication ofAdvisory Circular (AC) 150/5220-24 [1], performance requirements were identified by the FAA.This report describes the performance of the FOD Finder and considers if the assessment data isrelevant to the requirements described in the AC.3. PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR FOD DETECTION SYSTEMS.AC 150/5220-24 established specifications, as shown in table 1, for a range of FOD detectiontechnologies, including: an intelligent vision system.a radar-based FOD detection system.a hybrid vision/radar FOD detection system.a mobile, radar-based system, such as the FOD Finder.The requirements in AC 150/5220-24 for a mobile, radar-based system are used in this report asa focus of the performance assessment for the FOD Finder and provide the performance criteriato which the technology should be evaluated to demonstrate compliance with the AC. The FODitems used in the tests were selected based on sensor characteristics conforming to the ACrequirements for this technology.1

Table 1. AC 150/5220-24 Performance RequirementsAC CategoryBasic FunctionsDetection Performance:Object DetectionAC Performance Requirement for FOD Detection SystemsEquipment must perform the following functions:1. Provide surveillance in the AOA as specified by the airport.2. Detect and locate single and multiple FOD items on the AOA.3. Provide an alert to the user when FOD has been detected.4. Operate in conjunction with, and not interfere with, airport andaircraft communication, navigation, and surveillance systems.5. Operate in conjunction with, and without interference from,normal airport and aircraft operations (e.g., aircraft and vehiclemovements).6. Provide a data record of the detected FOD, allowing forequipment calibration and maintenance, and analysis of the FODevent.Systems must be able to detect the following objects (mobilesystems must provide this performance at a minimum speed of20 mph (30 km/h)):1. An unpainted metal cylinder measuring 1.2 in. (3.1 cm) high and1.5 in. (3.8 cm) in diameter2. A white, grey, or black sphere measuring 1.7 in. (4.3 cm) indiameter (i.e., a standard size golf ball)3. 90% of the following objects when placed within a 100- by100-ft (30- by 30-m) square in the desired coverage area. Oneitem from each category must be included in the group, and eachitem must measure no larger than 4 in. (10 cm) in any dimension,unless otherwise specified: a chunk of asphalt or concrete any portion of a runway light fixture (in-pavement or edgelight) an adjustable crescent wrench up to 8 in. (20 cm) long a deep socket at least 2 in. (5 cm) in length a piece of rubber from an aircraft tire a distorted metal strip up to 8 in. (20 cm) in length a fuel cap (aircraft or automotive) a lug nut a hydraulic line (from aircraft or ground support equipment)up to 8 in. (20 cm) in length a white PVC pipe of 2 in. (5 cm) in diameter4. Any two of the objects above, located no more than 10 ft (3 m)apart from each other, identified as separate objects.2

Table 1. AC 150/5220-24 Performance Requirements (Continued)AC CategoryDetection Performance:Location AccuracyDetection Performance:Inspection FrequencyDetection Performance:Detection Response TimeAC Performance Requirement for FOD Detection SystemsSystems must provide location information for a detected object thatis within 16 ft (5.0 m) of the actual FOD object location.Note: This standard is based on the average accuracy of hand-heldGPS devices, which most airport operators use when retrievingdetected FOD. Airport operators using nonvisual detection systems,who require greater location accuracy, can procure optionalcomponents that enable the system to have visual detectioncapabilities.For continuous detection systems—The system must providecontinuous operation from fixed sensors to allow the continuousinspection of runway surfaces during flight operations. The durationof flight operations is dependent on the airport and specified by theuser.For mobile detection systems—The system must provide a mobileoperations capability to enhance mandated airport safety selfinspections (per AC 150/5200-18 [2]). The frequency of inspectionsis dependent on the airport and specified by the user.Systems must have the capability to provide rapid detection of aFOD occurrence in the area being scanned.For continuously operating FOD detection systems designed toprovide between-movement alerts, the system must provideinspection of runway surfaces between aircraft movements.For other continuously operating FOD detection systems, the systemmust provide inspection updates as specified by the airport,generally within 4 minutes of a FOD occurrence.Detection Performance:Surveillance AreaThe airport operator will specify the desired surveillance (detection)area in the AOA requiring FOD detection. This area is generallybased on the airport’s FOD management plan.The primary area of coverage is the runway; certain portions of therunway may be specified by the airport operator if full coverage isnot feasible. Other areas are of less importance, with a decreasinglevel of priority from other paved movement areas down tononpaved, nonmovement areas.The manufacturer of a FOD detection system must notify the airportoperator of any locations within the specified surveillance areawhere detection would not be possible.3

Table 1. AC 150/5220-24 Performance Requirements (Continued)AC CategoryDetection Performance:Performance in WeatherSystem Performance:Alerts and AlarmsAC Performance Requirement for FOD Detection SystemsSystems must demonstrate detection performance under clear andinclement weather conditions. Under clear weather conditions, thepavement of the AOA is expected to be dry; under inclementweather conditions, the pavement will be wet with rain, snow, ormixed precipitation.1. Detect objects under rainfall or snow conditions (e.g., having aspecific intensity, duration, and frequency) for a 2-year categoryof storm in the local region, as specified in CLIM 20,Climatology of the United States No. 20 [3]). More stringentrequirements may be specified by the user.2. Systems must have site-specific performance specifications thatinclude: performance during clear weather conditions. performance during inclement weather conditions. amount of time required for the system to recover after a rainor snow storm (e.g., to return to clear-weather performancecapabilities after adverse weather conditions subside, definedas when precipitation of rain or snow ends.)All systems must demonstrate detection performance duringdaylight, nighttime, and dawn/dusk operations.Systems must be able to alert the system operator to the presence ofFOD in scanned areas, providing airport management with enoughinformation to assess the severity of the hazard to determine ifimmediate object removal is necessary. False alarms (an alert causing the airport operator to takeaction to remove a FOD object that does not exist) should beminimized and must not exceed:- For systems with visual detection capabilities: one perday as averaged over any 90-day period.- For systems without visual detection capabilities: threeper day as averaged over any 90-day period.Note: Some small items may be moved by wildlife or blown awaybefore airport operators have a chance to investigate FOD alerts.4

Table 1. AC 150/5220-24 Performance Requirements (Continued)AC CategorySystem Output:Detection DataSystem Output:Data PresentationSystem Output:Data ManagementAC Performance Requirement for FOD Detection SystemsAll systems must automatically provide a data record on detectedFOD.1. Records must contain: alert time and date location of FOD object2. Capturing the following information is recommended, but notrequired: Description of FOD detected or retrieved (e.g., size, name,type, serial number) Time and date of FOD retrieval Time and date of disposition of alert Name of personnel detecting/investigating FOD item Image of the FOD object retrieved (if available) Chain of custody informationFOD detection data can be provided in a coordinate scheme, on mapsof the airport, in an operator’s console, or broadcast to mobile units.The selection of information options will be specified by the airport,consistent with airport systems operations.Data collected in the FOD detection process should be digitallyrecorded. Data systems should have the capability to retain the datafor at least 2 years after the detection event.GPS Global positioning systemPVC Polyvinyl chloride4. THE FOD FINDER CHARACTERISTICS AND SPECIFICATIONS.The FOD Finder, as shown in figure 1, is based on a millimeter-band radar mounted on a vehicle.As the vehicle moves along the length of the runway or the surface to be examined, the FODFinder scans the surfaces in front of the vehicle. The FOD Finder is designed to scan an 80 areain front of the vehicle and approximately 650 ft (200 m) ahead of the vehicle, as shown in figure2. Recent modifications to the FOD Finder allow scanning to the side and the rear. The FODFinder can operate on all airport surfaces, runways, taxiways, and apron and ramp areas.Because the radar scan covers areas wider than the runway or other surfaces, system operatorsdefine a polygon that limits FOD reporting to defined surface areas. The system provides preciselocation information as the vehicle moves. Alerts programmed into the system warn drivers ofcritical airport locations to prevent runway incursions and to avoid areas where height clearancesare less than the height of the vehicle with the radar. Vehicle speed can vary up to and exceeding30 mph. Performance assessments were performed at approximately 15 mph.5

Figure 1. The FOD Finder Components, Including Sensor, Control Module, andVacuum AttachmentFigure 2. Scan Profile for the FOD FinderThe sensor is capable of detecting small targets under a variety of environmental conditions. Thescan is directed in front of the vehicle, although scan options include a scan to the rear to confirmremoval of a FOD item by the optional vacuum system, shown in figure 1. When FOD isdetected, the FOD Finder operator receives an audio and visual alert. Standard operatingprocedures will cancel the FOD alert if the vehicle drives over the FOD item when the vacuum isoperating. The operator also has the option of retrieving the FOD item. Upon retrieval, theoperator has the option of photographing and cataloging the FOD item using an onboard videocapture system and a bar code printer. All detections are recorded, and an electronic report isgenerated following each FOD management session. Within the vehicle, a tablet PC providesoperational control for the system and a moving map that updates the vehicle and FOD positionin real time. The graphical user interface (GUI) uses icons to indicate the position of the vehicle,scan area, and FOD detections.6

The primary performance criterion for the FOD Finder is to detect a metal cylinder that is 1 in.(2.5 cm) high with a diameter of 0.94 in. (2.4 cm). The standard target used in this performanceassessment was smaller than the 1.2-in. (3.0-cm)-high and 1.5-in. (3.8-cm)-diameter cylinderspecified in AC 150-5220-24.5. THE FOD FINDER INSTALLATION AT CRQ, HNL, AND ORD.The FOD Finder was installed on vehicles at three airports: CRQ, HNL, and ORD. The airportdiagrams are shown in figures 3, 4, and 5, respectively.At HNL and ORD, the FOD Finder was installed on airport operational vehicles. At CRQ, theFOD Finder was installed on a Ford 150 pick-up truck. The units at HNL and ORD were used indaily operations to support airport operations personnel. At CRQ, the FOD Finder was used asneeded for tests and demonstrations.At each airport, the FOD Finder was tested on multiple pavement types: At CRQ, tests were conducted on Runway 6/24. At the time of testing, the runway wasbeing replaced, so the tests were conducted on old and new runway surfaces. Both surfaceswere ungrooved asphalt. At HNL, Runway 8R and Taxiway RA were used. The runway was grooved; the taxiwaywas not. At ORD, Runway 27L and an apron area, referred to as the scenic pad, were used. BothORD locations were Portland cement concrete. The scenic pad was jointed, reinforcedconcrete pavement that was not grooved. Runway 27L was grooved, jointed pavement.7

Figure 3. Airport Diagram of CRQFigure 4. Airport Diagram of HNL8

Figure 5. Airport Diagram of ORD6. THE FOD FINDER ASSESSMENT PROTOCOLS.6.1 THE FOD TEST ITEMS.To meet AC 150/5220-24 performance requirements, detection of an unpainted metal cylindermeasuring 1.2 in. (3.1 cm) high and 1.5 in. (3.8 cm) in diameter and white, grey, or black spheresmeasuring 1.7 in. (4.3 cm) in diameter (i.e., a standard size golf ball) were required. The longterm test program used a standard technology-specific FOD item, which was smaller than the9

target required in AC 150/5220-24. The target used in this assessment was a metal cylinder thatwas 1 in. (2.5 cm) high with a diameter of 0.94 in. (2.4 cm), as shown in figure 6. Targets wereplaced in a 500- by 100-ft (152- by 30-m) rectangle on the airport surface. A target grid,consisting of three lines of five targets, was located in the rectangle. One line was placed alongthe center line of the rectangle, and two lines were located 25 ft (8 m) to each side of the centerline, as shown in figure 7.Figure 6. Standard Targets Used to Assess the FOD FinderFigure 7. Characteristics of the Test Rectangle (The green dots indicate the radar reflectorpositions and the blue dots indicate the standard target locations.)6.2 RUNWAY AND TAXIWAY TEST PROCEDURES.The assessment procedures were designed to test sensor performance on different airportsurfaces, including taxiways, apron areas, and runways, and under different environmentalconditions. Tape measures were used to establish a test rectangle with a nominal dimension of500 ft (152 m) long by 100 ft (30 m) wide on the selected surface.10

To position the vehicle prior to each detection run, a starting point located 500 ft (152 m) fromthe rectangle was marked with cones. Cones and large corner reflectors, as shown in figures 8and 9, were placed at the four corners of the rectangle. Small corner reflectors, as shown infigure 10, were placed every 100 ft (30 m) along the length of the rectangle. The reflectorsprovided a detection reference for the FOD target tests. FOD targets were placed in the rectangleon a test grid defined by the center line of the rectangle (see figure 7).Figure 8. Cones and Large Corner Reflector Marking Front-Left Corner of the Test RectangleFigure 9. Large (6-in.) Corner Reflector Used to Define Test Rectangle CornersFigure 10. Small (1.5-in.) Corner Reflector Used to Mark 100-ft Increments on the Long Axis ofthe Test Rectangle11

The FOD Finder vehicle was driven through the test rectangle between the outer edge of the testrectangle and the test grid at a speed of approximately 15 mph. The distance from target tosensor varied continuously as the vehicle moved through the rectangle. A complete test includeda pass in each direction through the rectangle. Following the two passes, detections wereverified and data recorded.In the assessment, the FOD Finder was operated in normal mode. In this mode, all detectionswere shown on the console screen, alerts were provided, and the target location was recorded.Following each test, a report was generated. The report included a map showing the FODdetections and tables of detections identified by latitude and longitude. This report was alsobroadcast to mobile devices immediately after test completion.6.3 PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT METHODS.Final assessment procedures were developed to accommodate the specific capabilities of theFOD Finder. Because the FOD Finder can be used on all airport surfaces, assessments weredesigned to provide test campaigns on a variety of surfaces, with an emphasis on runways. Intotal, six runway test campaigns were completed, two at each airport: CRQ, HNL, and ORD.Multiple test campaigns were completed on the airport taxiway and apron areas, as appropriate.The FOD Finder can be adjusted to different surfaces by altering a threshold, or sensitivity,setting. For these assessments, the sensitivity of the FOD Finder was changed based on surfaceconditions and preliminary tests. The sensitivity levels used in these assessments varied between21 and 28, with 50% of the tests set at 25 and 33% of the tests set at 22. The sensitivity valuewas established based on preliminary testing at each site, and the setting was kept constant foreach test campaign.6.3.1 Targets.The targets used in the final performance assessment were selected and provided by TrexEnterprises, which conformed to the target

tested in July 2009. The assessment of the FOD Finder detection system at ORD was supplemented by the evaluation of two additional FOD Finder detection systems at Honolulu International Airport and the McClellan-Palomar Airport in Carlsbad, California. The performance assessment at all three