Aluminum Extruders Council1000 N Rand Rd, Suite 214Wauconda, IL 60084Tel: 1-847-526-2010Email: [email protected]: www.aec.orgAluminum ExtrusionsPhoto courtesy of Scott Norsworthy 2012, 2013 Aluminum Extruders Council. The material contained in this course was researched,assembled, and produced by Aluminum Extruders Council and remains its property. “LEED” and related logois a trademark owned by the U.S. Green Building Council and is used by permission. Questions orconcerns about the content of this course should be directed to the program instructor.

Aluminum ExtrusionsPresented By: Aluminum Extruders Council1000 N Rand Rd, Suite 214Wauconda, IL 60084Description:Provides an overview of the characteristics, technical information, and benefits ofaluminum extrusions used as a building material, with a focus on whole building design,sustainability and application possibilities.

Purpose and Learning ObjectivesPurpose: Provides an overview of the characteristics, technical information, and benefitsof aluminum extrusions used as a building material, with a focus on whole building design,sustainability and application possibilities.Learning Objectives:At the end of this program, participants will be able to: provide technical information as to the benefits of aluminum extrusions used as buildingmaterial in terms of strength and durability outline the sustainable characteristics of extruded aluminum building products present solutions on how to address some of today’s building design challenges in lightof the increasing demand for green buildings showcase various building and construction applications and innovations usingaluminum extrusions, and relate the holistic applications of extruded aluminum products to the “whole buildingdesign” concept.

A Few Facts About AluminumLightweightAluminum is lightweight (low density)—about ⅓ of copper or steel—yet is one of thestrongest construction materials available.Aluminum’s high strength-to-weight ratio means that less of a building’s structure is spentsupporting its own weight.Aluminum offers undiminished structural integrity over a long service life.Buildings in seismic zones benefit even more from reduced weight, since seismic forcesare proportional to the structure’s weight.

A Few Facts About AluminumStructural StrengthAluminum’s structural strength and stability is consistently strong, even under extremeconditions and temperature changes, in terms of elastic modulus/stiffness. Where plasticsmay become brittle at low temperatures, aluminum actually becomes even stronger atextremely cold temperatures, which is why NASA chooses it for many aerospaceapplications.Aluminum: is 34 times stronger than vinyl is 43 times stronger than wood, and when appropriately alloyed and treated, can be stronger than some steels, with ultimatetensile strengths as high as 80,000 psi to 90,000 psi or more.

A Few Facts About AluminumTensile StrengthAluminum’s tensile strength and structural stability and rigidity mean that extrudedaluminum building components are more resistant to deformation caused by climatechanges and building movement over time. Aluminum’s unique enduring propertiesguarantee long-term performance with minimal maintenance.Structural integrity is judged based upon the ability of a material to withstand loads—i.e.,its strength.Tensile strength determines maximum load a material can carry under tension (whenstretched).Structural stiffness and strength combine with light weight and ease of fabrication to formthe ideal building material.

A Few Facts About AluminumModulus of Elasticity (E-value)In terms of E-value, the modulus of elasticity, aluminum has greater resistance todeformation than either wood or vinyl.By using extruded aluminum for window frames and curtain walls, manufacturers candesign slimmer, more elegant framing without sacrificing strength and rigidity. Slimmerframes mean larger glass areas and more natural daylighting.The modulus of elasticity (E-value) indicates rigidity (stiffness) or resistance to bending.Aluminum is 72 times more rigid than wood, and 23.2 times more rigid than vinyl (PVC).

A Few Facts About AluminumResists the Ravages of Time and TemperatureAluminum resists the forces of time. It’s impervious to humidity, temperature and warping,or becoming brittle; that translates to longer service life. Because aluminum doesn’t absorbmoisture, it won’t swell, shrink, split, crack, rot, or rust.In terms of appearance, aluminum’s corrosion resistance means that a building’s façadewill retain the finishes and visual appeal envisioned by the designer through decades ofwear.Aluminum retains its physical properties over time.Extruded aluminum building components resist deformation caused by climate changesand building movement, and aluminum extrusions retain their basic structure, strength,stability, and durability.

Aluminum Comes in Various Alloys and TempersAluminum alloy designations begin with 1xxx series alloys. In the 2xxx series, aluminum isalloyed with copper. The 3xxx series alloys aluminum with manganese. 1xxx and 3xxxalloys are non-heat-treatable. They develop their strength characteristics from cold workafter extruding, section shape permitting. The 4xxx series alloys are not widely used due totheir low level of extrudability.1xxx Series:99% Aluminum2xxx Series:Al Copper3xxx Series:Al Manganese4xxx Series:Al Silicon High corrosion resistance High strength Excellent finish surface Relatively lowcorrosion resistance Low to mediumstrength Not widely usedin extrusions Easily joined by all methods Lower strength Excellent workability/poor machinability High electrical and thermal conductivity Applications: heat exchangers, pipe andtubing for carrying chemicals, foodstuffsand refrigerants Excellentmachinability Heat-treatable Applications:hydrauliccomponents, forgingstocks Good corrosionresistance Good workability andthermal stability Applications:condensers

Aluminum Comes in Various Alloys and TempersThe 5xxx series alloys aluminum with magnesium and is also non-heat-treatable. The 6xxxalloys combine aluminum with magnesium and silicon. The 2xxx, 6xxx, and 7xxx seriesalloys, which are the highest strength aluminum alloys, attain their maximum strengththrough controlled heat treatment in the extrusion press, and sometimes in a separatefurnace. Properties and characteristics of aluminum extrusions, such as density,conductivity, corrosion resistance, finish, mechanical properties, and thermal expansion aremodified, depending on the alloying element.5xxx Series:Al Magnesium6xxx Series:Al Magnesium & Silicon7xxx Series:Al Zinc, Magnesium, Copper Low to moderate strength Most popular extrusion alloy High strength and toughness Excellent marine corrosionresistance Good finish surface and strength Heat-treatable and good machinability Good extrudability Very good weldability Good corrosion resistance Applications: automotive, bumpers,head-rest bars, bumper back-up bars Applications: marine Good machinability and weldability Good formability and heat-treatable Applications: windows, doors, curtain walls,storefronts, sign panels, light fixtures, van bodies,boat masts, scaffolds, cranes, truck trailers,railroad components, substations, towers andgeneral structures

Aluminum TempersTemper designation refers to aluminum alloys being classified as heat-treatable or nonheat-treatable, depending on the method used to attain their maximum strength. Non-heattreatable alloys in the 1xxx, 3xxx, and 5xxx series develop strength characteristics throughcold work after extruding, if the section shape permits.Basic Temper DesignationsTypical Extrusion TempersFAs ExtrudedNo special control over thermalconditions or strain hardening; nomechanical property limitsOAnnealedThermally treated (fully annealed) toobtain the lowest strength temper O Fully annealedHStrain-hardenedCold working used to increasestrength and hardness H112 Strain-hardened; used for non-heattreatable alloysTThermally TreatedThermally treated to produce stabletempers other than F/O/H T1 Press-quenched and naturally aged T4 Solution heat-treated and naturallyaged T5 Press-quenched and artificially aged T6 Solution heat-treated and artificiallyaged

Aluminum Is SustainableGlobal Bauxite Mining SiteRehabilitation, km2Aluminum is a non-combustible and naturalmaterial: It is the third most abundant element inthe earth’s crust next to oxygen andsilicon, and the most abundant metal innature.AnnualAreasRehabili-tatedAluminum is environmentally friendly andnon-toxic, including at high temperatures.AnnualAreasOpenedforMining-40-2002040

Aluminum Is SustainableAluminum is recyclable: It is 100% recyclable with high scrap value. Aluminum can be repeatedly recycled, retaining the same material physical properties. 73% of all the aluminum ever produced is still in use today.Recycled aluminum retains value: At the end of its life, aluminum is 100% reusable. In a 2004 study, the Delft University of Technology found that “95% of the aluminumused in building and construction is recycled at the structure’s end-of-life.” During deconstruction, aluminum is extracted for scrap value and reducesenvironmental impact by not being deposited in landfills.

Aluminum Is SustainablePrimary Energy Demand for AluminumProductionGreenhouse Gas Emissions Caused byAluminum 0080,00060,00040,00020,000018,000Primary Aluminum Production42% Reduction16,000Primary Aluminum Production17% Reduction14,00012,00010,0008,0006,000Secondary Aluminum Production58% Reduction4,000Secondary Aluminum Production65% Reduction2,0000199119952006199119952006Recycling saves 95% of energy and GHG emissions compared to primary production.

Aluminum Is SustainableBenefits of Aluminum RecyclingAnnually: About 70 million barrels of crude oil equivalent of energy is saved—enough oil to feedU.S. consumption for three days, or nearly one day of the world’s oil supply. Approximately 2.4 million square meters of land is saved. More than 45 million tons of fresh and sea water use is avoided—enough water toprovide for the needs of New York City’s eight million people for ten days. Approximately 7.5 million tons of solid waste is avoided. About 27 million tons of CO2 equivalent of greenhouse gas emissions is avoided—equivalent to eliminating five large (1,000 MW) coal-fired power plants.Total Life Cycle Impact: Recycling Is KeySource: The Aluminum Association. “Aluminum: The Element of Sustainability.” September, cellaneous/Aluminum The Element of Sustainability.pdf. Accessed May 2012.

What Is an Aluminum Extrusion?The extrusion process involves taking an aluminum alloy billet and forming it into anextruded shape by forcing it through a die that is designed in whatever configuration isrequired for a particular building component. Complex and customized shapes are oftenordered, as well as a wide range of standard shapes and sizes.

Formability: Limitless Design OptionsAluminum extrusions are a truly versatile building material, especially when used oncommercial fenestration and building products.Aluminum is ductile and easily formable, and can be extruded into a vast array of shapes,including complex, multi-void hollows, and customized designs. Extrusions provide for theplacement of metal precisely where it’s needed. Tight tolerances, even on thin-walledextrusions, can be consistently maintained.Extrusions enablesophisticated design featuresto be easily incorporated asintegral building components.

Wide Selection of Finishing OptionsFor many applications, aluminum needs no protectivecoating because it is adequately protected by the thin,transparent oxide which covers its surface on exposureto air.Aluminum extrusions are particularly receptive to highperformance architectural coatings, helping to ensuremaintenance-free performance and longer service life.Where additional protection or decorative finishes aredesired, aluminum accepts a range of finishing options.Finishing methods include anodizing, painting and powdercoating, allowing a customized look and limitless colorchoices. Technological advances make these finishesextremely durable and environmentally friendly. Pretreated aluminum provides the ideal material on which todeposit a coating or finish. Aluminum manufacturers havedeveloped coatings using pigments and binders which areinherently lightfast to achieve the longest possible coatinglife under various environmental conditions.

Finishing: AnodizingAnodizing is an electrolytic process that forms adurable, porous oxide film on the surface ofaluminum, adding to the protection provided by itsnatural oxide layer. Durability: Anodic coating is part of the basemetal and will not chip or peel. Environmental: Anodizing emits no VOCs, andno heavy metals are used in the process. Recyclability: Anodized aluminum is easily recycled without any extra steps.Color Availability: Two-step electrolytic color is available in bronze and black. Morecolors are available in dyed finishes.Color Stability: Two-step electrolytic color will not fade over time in UV light.Maintenance: Anodized finishes are easily maintained.Specification: AAMA 611 - Class I 0.7 mils coating, Class II 0.4 mils coating.

Finishing: Paint and LacquersAluminum readily accepts paints and lacquers.Paints and lacquers may be applied toaluminum by any of these popular methods:electrostatic spraying, electrodeposition,powder coating, dip coating, flow coating. Provides corrosion resistance Consistent color from lot to lot Color availability: some paints easilymixable in small batchesMunicipal Parking GarageNaples, FL. Can sometimes cover minor metal defects PVDF is chemically inert and can outlast other finishes in corrosive environments Used in a broad range of applications: architectural and consumer products, industrialequipment, automotive applications Specifications: AAMA 2603 (Acrylic and most high-solid polyester resins), AAMA 2604(50% PVDF-based resins), AAMA 2605 (70% PVDF-based resins)

Finishing: Paint and Lacquers*Contact AAMA for latest revisions/changes to AAMA Specifications –

Finishing: Mechanical FinishesAluminum can be given many different types of surface texture, from rough or patterned tomirror-shiny, by a variety of mechanical methods including: grinding perforating embossing brushing or polishing satin finishing barrel tumbling barrel burnishing sandblasting, shot blasting, and/or glass bead blasting.These methods may be applied as: a final surface finish; to improve surface quality; or, aspreparation for a variety of final cosmetic finishes. They can often enhance the finish whendone in conjunction with anodizing and are an ideal way to “hide” surface imperfections.

Ease of FabricationEasy to fabricate: Often, designing with aluminum extrusions can eliminate many fabrication andassembly steps. Aluminum extrusions can be made with almost any cross-sectional shape. Parts can beeasily cut, machined, finished, fabricated, and assembled.Joinable by various methods: Aluminum extrusions can be joined to other aluminum products or to different materialsby all major methods, including welding, soldering, brazing, bolts, rivets, clips,adhesives, clinching, and slide-on, snap-together or interlocking joints.Suitable for easy-assembly designs: Aluminum extrusions can be designed for easy assembly with other parts includingmating surfaces or shapes that match up for easy joining.By using aluminum extrusion’s ability to easily and costeffectively produce complex, integral profiles, designerscan often accomplish tremendous part-count reductions!Courtesy ofAlexandria Extrusion

Extrusion Tooling and Lead-Time EconomicsAluminum extrusion offers advantages over other processes in both the cost and the leadtime of tooling design and manufacture. Aluminum extrusion dies often cost from 500 to 5000 depending on the size and whether the shape is a solid or hollow profile.Comparable injection molding dies, die castings or roll forming can cost 25,000 or more.The initial costs and lead-times of aluminum extrusion dies and supporting tools are usuallya good deal lower that the tooling required for other processes (often a few weeks versus12–20 weeks for comparable processes).ProcessTypical Tooling Cost ( )Aluminum Extrusions 500 to 5,000Vinyl Extrusion 1,500 and upInjection Molding 25,000 and upDie Castings 25,000 and upRoll Forming 30,000 and upStampings 5,000 and up

Application Examples Using Aluminum ExtrusionsHere are some of the innovative applications for aluminum extrusions in commercialbuildings: Windows and doors (including hurricane- andblast-resistant)Skylights/rotundasCurtain wallsSun shades and louversPhotovoltaic panel framingReflective solar roof panel framingAtriums and enclosuresSun roomsObservatoriesWalkways, entryways and gatewaysPanel systemsStore frontsElevator cab framing Bridge decksSteeplesGates and archwaysCanopiesSpace frame systemsGarages and parking coversGeodesic domes and structuresRain screens and water collection systemsSupports for aluminum composite panelsystemsHousing for interior lighting gridsDemountable interior walls and lightdeflecting shelvesAnd more The versatility of the extrusion process applied to aluminum continues to stir theimagination of designers and architects everywhere.

Application: Commercial Windows and DoorsAluminum extrusions were used for the windows of Northwestern University’s Chicagocampus in the Ward Building. Aluminum windows and doors provide energy efficiency,structural integrity, superior resistance to air and water infiltration, aesthetics, as well aslong-term durability.Northwestern University, Ward Building, Chicago, IL The Apple Group Architectural Photography

Application: Curtain Walls and StorefrontsThere are numerous reasons why aluminumextrusions are the framing material of choice forcurtain walls and storefronts. Strength-to-weight ratio Glazing and wind load capability Minimal expansion and contraction coefficients Ability to seal to the building structure Maximal indoor daylighting Design flexibility Maintenance Ease of fabrication and assembly Aesthetics Finishing options Thermal capabilitiesW-Austin Hotel and Residences, Austin, TX Wes Thompson PhotographyPhoto courtesy of Kawneer/Traco

Application: Skylights and Sun RoomsAluminum extrusions are also commonly used for skylight applications and are especiallywell-suited for sunrooms and atriums such as these areas in a banquet hall.Photo courtesy of Light Metal Age magazinePhoto courtesy of Four Seasons Solar Products LLC

Application: Photovoltaic PanelsAluminum extrusions provide the framinghardware system for today’s photovoltaicpanels for commercial construction.Here, thin-layer PV is applied on glass, andpolycrystalline silicon wafers are laminatedbetween two glass panes within an extrudedaluminum framework. The photovoltaic solarcells convert light into electrical energy thatoperates a building, or is fed into a supplynetwork.

Application: Ceiling PanelsThere are plenty of ways extrusions are used in a building’s interior. Here, the extrudedaluminum framing grid has a pendant-mounted up-lighting system. The lobby’s marbleclad elevator core houses high-capacity elevator cabs framed entirely with aluminumextrusions.Photos courtesy of James Steinkamp Photography. Used with permission of Goettsch Partners, Inc.

Application: Almost endless .Aluminum extrusions are used throughout the world for exquisite architectural designs.Aluminum extrusion building components are also used in many types of arches,entryways, and gateways, such as this Florida SunPass gantry which uses round, tubularextrusions. Aluminum extrusions are continuously being used in various constructionapplications.Photo courtesy of Light Metal Age magazineCourtesy of CST Covers

Today’s Challenges for Commercial BuildingsThis section of the course will focus on some of today’s architectural and design challengesinvolving overall commercial building performance. Reducing energy and resource consumption Energy codes becoming more stringent Increasing demand for sustainable buildings New Green Building codes being introduced LEED being specified Impact resistance being mandated Increased security (i.e. bullet-resistant glass, high-security entrances, etc.)

Challenge: Reducing Energy and ResourceConsumption Buildings use 39% of ALL U.S. energyconsumed. 72% of all electricity and 54% of allnatural gas in the U.S. is consumed inbuildings. (U.S. Department of Energy- Buildings use 40% of world’s rawmaterials—3 billion tons per year.(Worldwatch Institute 170 million tons of U.S. buildingrelated construction and demolitiondebris is generated every year. (U.S.Environmental Protection Agency ldings18%21%ResidentialBuildings33%IndustryGreen design and building technologies lowerconstruction costs and reduce operatingexpenses. Buildings are draining our nation’s totalenergy, much more so than the transportationindustry.

Challenge: Energy Codes Becoming More StringentEnergy codes are all around us. Each state, county, or city has building codes that alsoinclude requirements for building energy efficiency. This includes requirements for thethermal performance of windows, doors, and skylights, based upon location or climatezone.Climate zonesused by the InternationalEnergy ConservationCode andASHRAE 90.1.

Challenge: Energy Codes Becoming More StringentVertical Fenestration U-Factor Insulation Requirements – Commercial BuildingsThis table shows the thermal performance U-factor requirements for windows, curtainwalls, storefront, and glazed doors in the two major standards for energy efficiency forcommercial and high-rise residential buildings.4 (except5 andMarine) Marine 46780.320.320.32Climate Zone123Nonmetalframing0.500.400.35Metal E 90.1-20130.500.500.460.380.380.360.290.292012 IECCMetal HRAE 90.1-20130.650.650.600.450.450.430.370.372012 IECCMetal framing,entrance door1.100.830.770.850.770.770.770.77ASHRAE 90.1-20131.100.830.770.770.770.770.770.772012 IECC0.350.32No category – same as metal framed, fixed or operableASHRAE 90.1-20132012 IECC

Challenge: Increasing Demand for SustainableBuildingsThe demand for commercial green buildings is increasing globally, with a focus on: curbing greenhouse gas emissions increasing overall energy efficiency reducing heating and cooling costs, and integrating high-demand design elements: structural, mechanical, botanic, air quality, lighting, plumbing, and water use.Increasing demand for green buildings is reflected in end-use shipments of extrudedaluminum products. According to AEC and the Aluminum Association, 1.3 billion pounds ofaluminum rod, bar, pipe, tube, and extruded profiles were used in 2007 in building andconstruction, primarily in windows, doors, and curtain walls. Commercial structures thatuse aluminum extrusions emit less carbon dioxide and reduce energy costs throughincreased heating and cooling efficiency. Automatically controlled indoor lighting andimproved natural daylighting also cut energy costs, and provide economic benefits fromincreased worker health and productivity due to the improved indoor environment.

Challenge: New Green Building Codes BeingIntroducedRecently, new green building codes have been developed, including the 2012 InternationalGreen Construction Code and ASHRAE 189.1. These incorporate even higher levels ofenergy efficiency, but also bring in concepts like requirements for sustainable materials.Again, aluminum framed products meet the thermal performance requirements in everylocation, with increased use of thermal barriers, low-e glass, and triple glazing. Also,exterior shading including aluminum sunshades is required in certain buildings. Finally,there is an increasing demand for building materials to be sustainable, recyclable, andsupported by environmental impact studies such as life cycle analysis.

Challenge: Leadership in Energy and EnvironmentalDesign (LEED )An ever-increasing number of construction projects, whether new or retrofittingconstruction, are specifying the projects to meet LEED certification. LEED-certified projectsare becoming more and more a requirement rather than an option.A few facts about LEED: According to the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC), as of November 2012, therewere 15,000 LEED-certified commercial buildings in the U.S.1 LEED-certified annual construction value is expected to exceed 1 billion by 2013.2Conclusion: The demand for LEED constructionprojects continues to grow.1Source:2Source:U.S. Green Building Council website. Accessed May 2013.USGBC. “Green Jobs Study.” USGBC. 6435. Accessed May 2012.

Challenge: Impact Resistance Is Being MandatedMany states mandate the use of impact-resistant products in wind-borne debris regions. Asrepresented in yellow, this area stretches from Texas, around the Gulf Coast, up the entireEastern Seaboard and the Hawaiian Islands.States in yellow impact-resistant products mandated

Reducing Building’s Energy and ResourceConsumptionAccording to the Department of Energy’s 2010 Buildings Energy Data Book, windows areresponsible for 1.88 Quadrillion BTUs (Quads) of energy for heating and 3.86 Quads ofenergy for cooling commercial buildings.3Aluminum windows, through the use of thermal barriers and low-e glazing, meet andexceed all of ASHRAE 90.1-2013 and 2012 IECC vertical fenestration U-factor insulationrequirements for commercial buildings in every U.S. climate zone.3Source:CSBR, Windows and Daylighting Group. “Performance: Energy & Cost.” Windows for High-Performance Commercial hp. Accessed May 2012.

What Does a Thermal Barrier System Do?Thermally separating extruded aluminum windowsgreatly improves thermal efficiency in the sashand frame, and vastly reduces thermalconductivity to energy-efficient levels. Thermallyseparating extruded aluminum windows allowsaluminum’s many key properties to be utilized.When thermal barrier materials, such aspolyurethane and glass fiber reinforcedpolyamide, are used in conjunction with extrudedaluminum framing, the resulting thermal efficiencyin a window’s sash and frame are greatlyimproved. Manufacturers have been able toreduce thermal conductivity to a fraction of theoriginal value. Aluminum fabricators, using thermalseparators as barriers, have overcome thermalconductivity issues in order to utilize thesustainable attributes of aluminum, and createhighly thermally efficient window frames.A thermal barrier is a material of lowthermal conductivity inserted betweenmembers of high conductivity in orderto reduce the heat transfer. Thethermal barrier material conductivityshall not be more than 0.52 W/m*k(3.6 Btu*in/hr*ft2*F). - NFRC 100

What Does a Thermal Barrier System Do?The thermal barrier makes an extruded aluminumwindow, skylight, or door highly energy efficient,reducing heating and cooling costs substantially.Thermal barrier material must not only be strongand resist deterioration over time, but it must alsoinsulate. The material acts as a barrier to heatflow from a warm interior to a cold exterior inwinter, and blocks heat entering a building insummer.

Thermal Barrier CategoriesThe NFRC breaks down the thermal barrier description into two of the most widely usedthermal barrier product categories. Thermally Improved Member Enhances efficiency due to design or thermal materials usedMay not offer the highest efficiency availableSystem members with a 1.6mm (0.062 in.) separation provided by a material where theconductivity is 0.5 W/m*K 3.6 Btu*in/hr*ft2*F), or open air space between the interior andexterior surfacesSuch systems include members with exposed interior or exterior trim attached with clipsand all skip debridged systemsNFRC 100Thermally Broken Member Products used to gain further energy efficiencySystem members with a 5.3mm (0.210 in.) separation provided by a low-conductancematerial where the conductivity is 0.5 W/m*K ( 3.6 Btu*in/hr*ft2*F), or open air spacebetween the interior and exterior surfaces.Such systems include pour and debridged urethane systems, crimped-in-place polyamidesystems and pressure-glazed systems with intermittent fastenersNFRC 100

Thermal PerformancePoured and Debridged Thermal BarrierPolyamide Strip Thermal BarrierHigh-performance polymer (polyurethane)is poured into a specially designed cavityformed by a thin metal bridge temporarilyconnecting the interior and exteriorsections of the frame. Once the materialhas cured, the metal bridge is removed(debridged) to form the thermal barrier.Reinforced polyamide profiles (nylonbased polymer reinforced with glassfibers) mechanically join separatelyextruded interior and exterior aluminumprofiles.

Thermal PerformanceFenestration systems manufacturers have responded to energy savings requirements withcontinuous innovation, before it was popular. This timeline demonstrates that aluminumproducts have led in energy savings, improving product efficiency nearly three-fold.

Thermal PerformanceThis cross-section shows a typical aluminum framed window. Key thermal improvementsgive this window a U-factor of .41. In this example, the thermal barrier alone representsnearly half of the U-factor improvement. In the second image, adding argon or a similar gasbetween the insulated glass unit’s panels allows extruded aluminum fenestration productsto meet and exceed an overall U-factor of .38, making

ordered, as well as a wide range of standard shapes and sizes. Formability: Limitless Design Options Aluminum extrusions are a truly versatile building material, especially when used on commercial fenestration and building products. .