WIND AND WATER POWER TECHNOLOGIES OFFICEU.S. Department of Energy Wind and Water PowerTechnologies Office Funding in the United States:OFFSHORE WINDPROJECTSFiscal Years 2006 - 2014


1WIND AND WATER POWER TECHNOLOGIES OFFICEPhoto from NRELIntroductionWind and Water Power Technologies OfficeThe Wind and Water Power Technologies Office(WWPTO), within the U.S Department of Energy’s (DOE’s)Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy(EERE), supports the development, deployment, andcommercialization of wind and water power technologies.WWPTO works with a variety of stakeholders to identifyand support research and development (R&D) effortsthat improve technology performance, lower costs, and—ultimately—deploy technologies that efficiently capturethe abundant wind and water energy resources in theUnited States. The WWPTO is one office that contains twodistinct focus areas: wind and water. The Wind Programand the Water Power Program operate as integrated, butseparate entities within WWPTO.WWPTO provides R&D funding across eight broad areas: ProjectsMarine and Hydrokinetic ProjectsOffshore Wind ProjectsWind Turbine ProjectsWind Integration ProjectsEnvironmental Impacts of Wind ProjectsWind Market Acceptance ProjectsWind Workforce Development Projects.The breakdown of WWPTO funding is presented in a seriesof reports that showcase the projects funded in each ofthe eight abovementioned areas.Types of Funding SourcesThe Wind and Water Power Technologies Office’s (WWPTO’s) researchand development (R&D) projects are financed through two primarysources of funding: Congressional Appropriations and CongressionallyDirected Projects (CDPs). Congressional Appropriations determinethe operating budgets for each EERE program. WWPTO-funded R&Dprojects are typically awarded to recipients as cooperative agreementsthrough competitive Funding Opportunity Announcements (FOAs) thatare dedicated to specific topic areas. CDPs are also funded by Congress,but are outside of the annual federal budget process. Frequently, there isa cost-share requirement for recipients of both competitive cooperativeagreements resulting from FOAs and CDPs.In addition to these two primary funding sources, the WWPTO maybe financed directly through specific legislation passed by Congress.In Fiscal Year (FY) 2009, for example, Congress passed the AmericanRecovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act). A portion ofRecovery Act funding was dedicated to WWPTO’s offshore wind R&Dprojects.WWPTO also funds research projects at DOE’s national laboratoriesthrough the laboratories’ annual operating plans. This funding is notdetailed in this report. However, a national laboratory may be lead ora partner on a competitively awarded project covered in this report. Inthese cases, the national laboratory is identified as the lead or partner inthe appropriate project descriptions.The Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program in DOE’s Officeof Science provides competitive awards-based funding for domesticsmall businesses engaging in R&D of innovative technology. SBIR hasfunded several projects with relevance to the offshore wind industry;however, these projects are not covered in this report.

2WIND AND WATER POWER TECHNOLOGIES OFFICEOffshore Wind TechnologyThe strong, consistent, and abundant winds off the UnitedStates’ lengthy coastlines can be captured to providea clean, domestic, and renewable source of power forthe nation. Although offshore wind is still considered anemerging industry in the United States, it possesses immense potential as a renewable energy resource that candecrease the country’s greenhouse gas emissions, diversifyits energy supply, generate affordable electricity for homesand businesses with high energy costs, and help revitalizekey economic sectors, including manufacturing. DOE estimates that the technical offshore wind resource potentialfrom state and federal waters along the United Statesand the Great Lakes coasts is more than 4,000 gigawatts(GW).1 While not all of this potential can be realisticallydeveloped due to certain restrictions (e.g., competinguses, environmentally sensitive areas), with 50% of theAmerican population living within 50 miles of the coast, acost-effective offshore wind industry could still supply thenation with a substantial amount of capacity.The Wind Program helps industry develop, demonstrate,and deploy offshore wind technologies that can harness this renewable, emissions-free resource to generateenvironmentally sustainable and cost-effective electricity.Through support for public, private, and nonprofit efforts,the Wind Program promotes the responsible development of a world-class offshore wind industry in theUnited States and works to remove the market barrierscurrently inhibiting its growth. Although the United Stateshas more wind turbine generating capacity installed onland than almost any other country, there are presentlyno offshore wind turbines installed in U.S. waters. Majorbarriers include the high costs of offshore wind facilities;technical challenges surrounding installation, operation,maintenance, and grid interconnection; and the long anduncertain permitting processes governing deployment.In addition, there are specific challenges associated withinstalling offshore wind farms in deepwater off the coast ofthe United States that will require unique designs and solutions. In 2010, DOE launched the Offshore Wind Innovationand Demonstration Initiative, which developed a NationalOffshore Wind Strategy that aims to overcome some of thesechallenges and advance the state of commercial offshorewind development in the United States. The strategy’sprimary objectives are to reduce the cost of offshore windenergy to ensure cost-competitiveness with other electrical generation sources, and to reduce the timelines anduncertainties associated with U.S. offshore wind projectdevelopment. These objectives are met by focusing project investments in three key areas: the removal of marketbarriers to facilitate deployment and reduce technicalchallenges facing the entire industry; the development ofinnovative technologies that lower the cost of energy ofoffshore wind farms; and the demonstration of advancedtechnologies that verify innovative designs and technology developments and validate full performance and costunder real operating and market conditions.From 2006 to 2014, DOE’s Wind Program announcedawards totaling more than 300 million for 72 projectsfocused on offshore wind. These projects focus largelyon removing market barriers to deployment, developinginnovative technologies, and demonstrating advancedtechnologies – as outlined in the National Offshore WindStrategy. Table 1 provides a brief description of each ofthese 2006-2014 projects. There are two sources offunding for offshore wind projects covered in this report:competitive Funding Opportunity Announcements (funded by Congressional Appropriations) and CongressionallyDirected Projects (CDPs). See “Types of Funding Sources”on previous page.Photo from Principle Power

3WIND AND WATER POWER TECHNOLOGIES OFFICETable 1: 2006–2014 Offshore Wind Project DescriptionsaProject RecipientProject TitleDOE FundingAmountFunding SourceProjectLocationABB, Inc.National Offshore Wind Energy GridInterconnection Study 900,000FY11 U.S. Offshore Wind:Removing Market BarriersFOANorth CarolinaProject DescriptionABB is assessing the likely impact of offshore wind development in the various regions of the U.S. from the electric utility perspective.This work includes developing energy production profiles, performing an initial integration analysis, and evaluating the applicability oftraditional integration study methods and potential energy collection and delivery technologies.Project RecipientProject TitleDOE FundingAmountFunding SourceProject LocationAdvanced Magnet Lab,Inc.Lightweight, Direct Drive, FullySuperconducting Generator for LargeWind Turbines 1,896,850FY11 Next GenerationDrivetrain FOAFloridaProject DescriptionAdvanced Magnet Lab is developing an innovative superconducting direct-drive generator for large wind turbines. The project will employ anew technology for the drivetrain coil configuration to address technical challenges of large torque electric machines.Project RecipientProject TitleDOE FundingAmountFunding SourceProject LocationAlstom Power, Inc.Cost of Energy Reduction for OffshoreTension Leg Platform Wind TurbineSystems through Advanced ControlStrategies 3,780,848FY11 U.S. Offshore Wind:Technology DevelopmentFOAVirginiaProject DescriptionAlstom Power is developing an advanced control system that integrates innovative sensors on a floating wind turbine design. This controlsystem will maximize energy production while providing technology for effective monitoring and adjustment to prevent excessive loads onthe turbine that reduce power generation.Project RecipientProject TitleDOE FundingAmountAWS Truepower, LLCNational Offshore Wind Energy Resource 900,000and Design Data CampaignFunding SourceProject LocationFY11 U.S. Offshore Wind:Removing Market BarriersFOAMulti- State (NewYork, Colorado,Oklahoma, Texas)Project DescriptionAWS Truepower is establishing a Web-based national met-ocean wind energy resource and design conditions data inventory. The projectwill establish data needs, identify existing sources of relevant data, and carry out a gaps analysis to establish long term requirements fornew data to be gathered and disseminated through national public-private collaboration initiatives.continued aDOE Funding Amounts identified in this table reflect the total DOE funding planned for award to each project for the total period of projectperformance that may span multiple years. DOE Funding Amounts shown in this table may be subject to change.

4WIND AND WATER POWER TECHNOLOGIES OFFICETable 1: 2006–2014 Offshore Wind Project DescriptionsaProject RecipientProject TitleDOE FundingAmountFunding SourceProject LocationBaryonyx CorporationGulf Offshore Wind (GOWind)Demonstration Project 4,000,000bFY12 U.S. Offshore Wind:Advanced TechnologyDemonstration ProjectsTexasProject DescriptionBaryonyx plans to install three 6 megawatt direct-drive wind turbines in state waters near Port Isabel, Texas. The project will take advantageof lessons learned in the Gulf of Mexico’s oil and gas sector, demonstrating an advanced jacket foundation design, balance of plant improvements, and integrating advanced mitigation strategies that will improve hurricane survivability.Project RecipientProject TitleDOE FundingAmountFunding SourceProject LocationBiodiversity ResearchInstituteModeling Wildlife Densities and HabitatUse Across Temporal and Spatial Scaleson the Mid-Atlantic Continental Shelf 4,500,000FY11 U.S. Offshore Wind:Removing Market BarriersFOAMaineProject DescriptionBiodiversity Research Institute is collecting and analyzing data on bird, sea turtle, and marine mammal abundance and movement in themid-Atlantic region to determine species risk to offshore wind plant interaction. The project is performing baseline surveys using a varietyof technologies to develop predictive and risk assessment frameworks.Project RecipientProject TitleBoulder Wind PowerBoulder Wind Power Advanced Gearless(operated by Core Wind DrivetrainPower, Inc.)DOE FundingAmountFunding SourceProject Location 486,000FY11 Next GenerationDrivetrain FOAColoradoProject DescriptionBoulder Wind Power’s advanced gearless drivetrain project developed a design concept for an innovative permanent magnet-based directdrive generator for improved performance and reliability of a large utility-scale turbine up to 10 megawatts for land-based and offshoreapplications.Project RecipientProject TitleDOE FundingAmountFunding SourceProject LocationBowling Green StateUniversityCoastal Wind Ohio 2,531,900FY06, FY08, FY09 CDPsOhioProject DescriptionBowling Green State University is conducting research to remove impediments for deployment of wind turbines in Lake Erie. The primaryresearch questions are intended to address the deployment design and environmental issues.Project RecipientProject TitleDOE FundingAmountFunding SourceProject LocationBowling Green StateUniversityCoastal Ohio Wind Project: RemovingBarriers to Great Lakes Offshore WindEnergy Development 1,000,000FY10 CDPOhioProject DescriptionBowling Green State University is conducting the Coastal Ohio Wind Project to address problems that impede deployment of wind turbinesin the coastal and offshore regions of Northern Ohio. The University will conduct research to improve monitoring tools used for site assessment; to better understand operating characteristics of wind turbines, particularly issues that relate to ice mitigation; and to understanddifferent economic scenarios related to the deployment of offshore wind turbines.continued bDOE selected seven offshore wind demonstration projects to each receive 4 million for the engineering phase of the project. Upon completion of the engineering phase, DOE willselect up to three of the projects to each receive 46.7 million more, targeting in-water installation by the end of 2017.

5WIND AND WATER POWER TECHNOLOGIES OFFICETable 1: 2006–2014 Offshore Wind Project DescriptionsaProject RecipientProject TitleDOE FundingAmountFunding SourceProject LocationCase Western ReserveUniversityGreat Lakes Offshore Wind: Utility andRegional Integration Study 540,000FY11 U.S. Offshore Wind:Removing Market BarriersFOAMulti- State (Ohio,Colorado, NewYork, Pennsylvania)Project DescriptionCase Western University is evaluating potential impacts of offshore wind on the electric grid in the Great Lakes region and determiningrequirements for interconnection, control systems, and the application of additional support for different transmission systems. The projectis providing regional stakeholders with the knowledge base and capabilities to develop state-of-the-art, long-range strategies for mitigatingthe impacts of offshore wind interconnection, as well as realizing the economic cost reductions and benefits that can be achieved throughimplementing these strategies.Project RecipientProject TitleDOE FundingAmountFunding SourceProject LocationClear Path Energy, LLCPivot Offshore Wind Turbine 500,000FY11 U.S. Offshore Wind:Technology DevelopmentFOADelawareProject DescriptionClear Path Energy created a conceptual design for offshore wind systems that can be deployed in water deeper than 35 meters using innovative foundation technology and installation techniques.Project RecipientProject TitleDOE FundingAmountFunding SourceProject LocationClemson UniversityLarge Wind Turbine Drivetrain TestingFacility 44,555,252FY09 American Recoveryand Reinvestment ActSouth CarolinaProject DescriptionClemson University constructed a large wind turbine drivetrain test facility. The test facility will enhance the performance, durability, andreliability of both land-based and offshore utility-scale wind turbines by enabling the United States to expand its development and testingof large-scale drivetrain systems in the 5-15 megawatt range.Project RecipientProject TitleDOE FundingAmountFunding SourceProject LocationClipper WindpowerNovel, Low-Cost, High Reliability WindTurbine Drivetrain 468,450FY11 Next GenerationDrivetrain FOAIowaProject DescriptionClipper Windpower developed a megawatt-scale, low-cost drivetrain design based on a chain-drive concept. The project analyzed potentialimprovements in the areas of cost, serviceability, and compliance to rotor loads.Project RecipientProject TitleDOE FundingAmountFunding SourceProject LocationDNV Renewables, Inc.Creation of a Model for Interactionof Bottom-Fixed Wind Turbines withSurface Ice for Use with CommonSimulation Codes 391,031FY11 U.S. Offshore Wind:Technology DevelopmentFOAWashingtonProject DescriptionDNV Renewables is creating a computational tool to simulate how an offshore wind turbine platform may be structurally impacted byinteractions with ice on the surface of the water in regions such as the sub-Arctic or the Great Lakes. The project will lead to a design codefor ice loading on the towers of offshore, bottom-mounted wind turbines that can interface with common simulation codes and is accessible to the public.continued

6WIND AND WATER POWER TECHNOLOGIES OFFICETable 1: 2006–2014 Offshore Wind Project DescriptionsaProject RecipientProject TitleDOE FundingAmountFunding SourceProject LocationDominion (operatedby Virginia Electric andPower Company)Virginia Offshore Wind TechnologyAdvancement Project: Demonstration ofan Innovative Offshore Wind System offthe Coast of Virginia 4,000,000bFY12 U.S. Offshore Wind:Advanced TechnologyDemonstration ProjectsVirginiaProject DescriptionDominion, an electric and natural gas utility, plans to design, develop, and install two 6-megawatt direct-drive turbines 24 nautical miles offthe coast of Virginia Beach on inward battered guide structures that offer the strength of traditional jacket or space-frame structures butuse substantially less steel.Project RecipientProject TitleDOE FundingAmountFunding SourceProject LocationDominion (operatedby Virginia Electric andPower Company)Integrated Optimization and Costof Energy Analysis of an InnovativeOffshore Wind Plan for the VirginiaOuter Continental Shelf 350,000FY11 U.S. Offshore Wind:Technology DevelopmentFOAVirginiaProject DescriptionDominion, an electric and natural gas utility, is analyzing the performance and cost-of-energy estimates of a hypothetical 600 megawattoffshore wind project for a variety of sites on the U.S. Atlantic coastline in water depths up to 60 meters.Project RecipientProject TitleDOE FundingAmountFunding SourceProject LocationDouglas-Westwood,LLCOptimized Vessel Assessment forOffshore Wind in the United States 300,000FY11 U.S. Offshore Wind:Removing Market BarriersFOANew YorkProject DescriptionDouglas-Westwood identified the national vessel requirements under several offshore wind industry growth scenarios. The project collecteddata on the vessels currently deployed in the international offshore wind industry; assessed necessary trends for future dedicated vessels; and identified resources to implement innovative strategies to support companies seeking to build new vessels and establish relatedservices as the industry grows.Project RecipientProject TitleDOE FundingAmountFunding SourceProject LocationDuke Energy BusinessServices, LLCCarolinas Offshore Wind IntegrationCase Study 534,910FY11 U.S. Offshore Wind:Removing Market BarriersFOANorth CarolinaProject DescriptionDuke Energy Business Services conducted a study that examined the potential system impacts of offshore wind development on the DukeEnergy Carolinas system, determined the costs of upgrading the transmission system to support large-scale offshore projects, and assessedstrategies for system integration and management. The first phase of the study — which can be found at ICS Phase 1 Final Report1%5B1%5D.pdf — found that new high-voltage transmission infrastructure is needed toreliably integrate offshore wind resources.Project RecipientProject TitleDOE FundingAmountFunding SourceProject LocationEaton CorporationReliable, Lightweight Transmission forOffshore, Utility-Scale Wind Turbines 533,518FY11 Next GenerationDrivetrain FOAMichiganProject DescriptionEaton Corporation conducted research to reduce the technical risk for a hydrostatic drivetrain for high-power, utility-scale wind turbines. Researchincluded detailed design and cost analysis of key components including the pump, shaft connection, and controls.continued

7WIND AND WATER POWER TECHNOLOGIES OFFICETable 1: 2006–2014 Offshore Wind Project DescriptionsaProject RecipientProject TitleDOE FundingAmountFunding SourceProject LocationFishermen’s AtlanticCity Windfarm, LLCFishermen’s Atlantic City Windfarm 4,000,000bFY12 U.S. Offshore Wind:Advanced TechnologyDemonstration ProjectsNew JerseyProject DescriptionFishermen’s plans to install up to 6 turbines in state waters three miles off the coast of Atlantic City, New Jersey. The project will include extensivedata gathering and analysis by the Energy Department’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The project will advance the Body of Knowledgeconcerning wind farm turbine density, construction operations around marine mammals, and operations constraints during periods of low visibility.Project RecipientProject TitleDOE FundingAmountFunding SourceProject LocationFreshwater Wind, LLCShallow Water Offshore Wind SystemOptimization for the Great Lakes 500,000FY11 U.S. Offshore Wind:Technology DevelopmentFOAOhioProject DescriptionFreshwater Wind is creating a computational model to study how existing wind turbine systems could be optimized for shallow waterconditions found in the Great Lakes. The project analysis included a detailed study of different foundations and installation concepts for thesoil composition and shallow waters, a larger rotor for the low wind speed, an optimized layout leveraging cable costs with Annual EnergyProduction, and improved operating and maintenance strategies.Project RecipientProject TitleGarrad Hassan America, User-Friendly Analysis Tool forInc.Optimized Offshore Wind Installation,Operation, and Maintenance StrategiesDOE FundingAmountFunding SourceProject Location 199,100FY11 U.S. Offshore Wind:Removing Market BarriersFOACaliforniaProject DescriptionGarrad Hassan America identified and quantified key areas for offshore wind project installation and operations where advancements inthe approach or technology may lower the cost of energy produced by offshore wind plants. The project developed a user-friendly toolthat enables project developers, owners, and managers to evaluate and compare how various installation and maintenance strategies andtechnical approaches impact cost of energy.Project RecipientProject TitleGarrad Hassan America, User Friendly Analysis Tool forInc.Optimized Offshore Wind PortsAssessmentDOE FundingAmountFunding SourceProject Location 497,725FY11 U.S. Offshore Wind:Removing Market BarriersFOACaliforniaProject DescriptionGarrad Hassan America incorporated lessons learned from Northern European offshore wind projects to identify the port requirementsnecessary to meet various offshore wind industry growth scenarios in the United States. The project created a publicly available analysistool to enable decision-makers to perform cost-benefit assessments of potential port infrastructure investments in support of offshore winddevelopment.Project RecipientProject TitleDOE FundingAmountFunding SourceProject LocationGeneral Electric (GE)Global ResearchSuperconductivity for Large-Scale WindTurbines 449,183FY11 Next GenerationDrivetrain FOANew YorkProject DescriptionGE Global Research adapted low-temperature superconductivity technology to the design of a direct-drive wind turbine generator at the 10megawatt power level. The design employs a unique stationary superconducting component design that reduces the risk of cryogenic fluidleakage.continued

8WIND AND WATER POWER TECHNOLOGIES OFFICETable 1: 2006–2014 Offshore Wind Project DescriptionsaProject RecipientProject TitleDOE FundingAmountFunding SourceProject LocationThe Glosten Associates,Inc.Innovative Offshore Wind Plant SystemDesign Studies 401,941FY11 U.S. Offshore Wind:Technology DevelopmentFOAWashingtonProject DescriptionGlosten Associates is developing the design of an offshore wind farm in water depths exceeding 60 meters using floating offshore wind tension leg platforms (TLPs). This project will create tools for optimizing floating offshore wind TLPs, perform testing on new anchor tendons,and develop the preliminary design for a TLP installation vessel.Project RecipientProject TitleGLWN (WestsideU.S. Wind Energy Manufacturing andIndustrial Retention and Supply Chain: A CompetitivenessExpansion Network)AnalysisDOE FundingAmountFunding SourceProject Location 300,000FY11 U.S. Offshore Wind:Removing Market BarriersFOAOhioProject DescriptionBuilding on their existing database of wind energy supplier capabilities, GLWN interviewed major companies involved in the offshoreglobal production of wind energy to identify potential resource requirements and global competitiveness as well as gaps in the suppliervalue stream. In addition, they collaborated with established wind industry partners, associates and National Institutes of Standards andTechnology Manufacturing Extension Partnerships in the coastal states. The findings from this study will be made available on the web, andpresented at workshops, key wind industry forums, and conferences.Project RecipientProject TitleDOE FundingAmountFunding SourceProject LocationGrand Valley StateUniversityMichigan Alternative and RenewableEnergy Center Offshore WindDemonstration Project 1,427,250FY09 CDPMichiganProject DescriptionTo lower critical data collection costs, Grand Valley State University is validating state-of-the-art floating Light Detection and Ranging(LIDAR) instrument measurements with conventional meteorological data. In addition, the University is conducting research on the uniqueengineering challenges and environmental conditions found in the Great Lakes.Project RecipientProject TitleDOE FundingAmountFunding SourceProject LocationGreat LakesCommissionGreat Lakes Wind Collaborative: BestPractices to Accelerate Wind Power inthe Great Lakes Region and Beyond 99,730FY09 20% Wind by 2030FOAMichiganProject DescriptionThe Great Lakes Commission, an interstate agency based in Ann Arbor, Michigan, conducted a study in support of states in the Great Lakesregion to identify best practices and policies for wind development; build awareness and knowledge among all wind energy stakeholdersfor best practices and policies; and build capacity among states to create policies based on an assessment of the benefits of wind powerprojects in the Great Lakes region.Project RecipientProject TitleDOE FundingAmountFunding SourceProject LocationIndiana UniversityTrusteesAn Integrated Approach to OffshoreWind Energy Assessment: Great Lakes3D Wind Experiment 700,000FY11 U.S. Offshore Wind:Removing Market BarriersFOAMulti-State(Indiana, Ohio)Project DescriptionIndiana University, in partnership with Case Western University, Clarkson University, and Arizona State University, is conducting a project tointegrate wind data from remote sensing, aerial and satellite measurements, and meteorological towers in producing a high resolution windcharacterization of Lake Erie. The project will also analyze the effectiveness of various measurement instruments and develop best practicesfor each type.continued

9WIND AND WATER POWER TECHNOLOGIES OFFICETable 1: 2006–2014 Offshore Wind Project DescriptionsaProject RecipientProject TitleDOE FundingAmountFunding SourceProject LocationLake Erie EnergyDevelopmentCorporationLake Erie Offshore Wind ProjectIcebreaker 4,000,000bFY12 U.S. Offshore Wind:Advanced TechnologyDemonstration ProjectsOhioProject DescriptionLake Erie Development Corporation (LEEDCo) plans to install nine 3-megawatt direct- drive wind turbines on innovative ‘ice breaker’monopile foundations that are designed to reduce ice loading, seven miles off the coast of Cleveland in Lake Erie.Project RecipientProject TitleDOE FundingAmountFunding SourceProject LocationMassachusetts CleanEnergy CenterMassachusetts Wind Technology TestingCenter 24,752,779FY09 American Recoveryand Reinvestment ActMassachusettsProject DescriptionThe Massachusetts Clean Energy Center used project funding to establish the Wind Technology Testing Center, the nation’s first facilitycapable of testing wind turbine blades 90 meters in length. The Center’s testing capabilities will accelerate technical innovation in turbineand blade design and speed up deployment of longer turbine blades, which can produce more energy per turbine and help reduce theoverall cost of wind energy.Project RecipientProject TitleDOE FundingAmountFunding SourceProject LocationMichigan StateUniversityBat and Avian Migration Along the LakeMichigan Coastline: A Pilot Study toInform Wind Turbine Siting 99,951FY09 20% Wind by 2030FOAMichiganProject DescriptionMichigan State University studied bird and bat migration routes near the Great Lakes coastline in high-priority wind development areas. Theproject is providing valuable information to the wind power industry for the siting of both individual turbines and large wind farms.Project RecipientProject TitleDOE FundingAmountFunding SourceProject LocationNational Center forAtmospheric ResearchImpacts of Stratification and NonEquilibrium Winds and Waves onHub-Height Winds 702,000FY11 U.S. Offshore Wind:Removing Market BarriersFOAColoradoProject DescriptionThe National Center for Atmospheric Research is evaluating surface level to hub-height level wind speed extrapolations and methods in aneffort to evaluate and improve the siting and design of turbines, as well as the accuracy of wind energy predictions.Project RecipientProject TitleDOE FundingAmountFunding SourceProject LocationNational Center forAtmospheric ResearchInvestigating Marine Boundary LayerParameterizations by CombiningObservations with Models via StateEstimation 702,000FY11 U.S. Offshore Wind:Removing Market BarriersFOAColoradoProject DescriptionThe National Center for Atmospheric Research is examining the layer of the atmosphere that has direct contact with the ocean to determine how temperature changes in the atmosphere can affect the ocean, and how temperature changes in the ocean can affect atmosphericconditions impacting wind energy production and facility design parameters.continued

10WIND AND WATER POWER TECHNOLOGIES OFFICETable 1: 2006–2014 Offshore Wind Project DescriptionsaProject RecipientProject TitleDOE FundingAmountFunding SourceProject LocationNational RenewableEnergy Laboratory(operated by Alliancefor Sustainable Energy,LLC)U.S.-Sourced, Nex

Bowling Green State University Coastal Wind Ohio 2,531,900 FY06, FY08, FY09 CDPs Ohio Project Description Bowling Green State University is conducting research to remove impediments for deployment of wind turbines in Lake Erie. The primary research questions are intended t