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NEXT-GENERATIONAdvancedAlgebra andFunctionsSample Questions

The College BoardThe College Board is a mission-driven not-for-profit organization that connects studentsto college success and opportunity. Founded in 1900, the College Board was created toexpand access to higher education. Today, the membership association is made up ofover 6,000 of the world’s leading education institutions and is dedicated to promotingexcellence and equity in education. Each year, the College Board helps more than sevenmillion students prepare for a successful transition to college through programs andservices in college readiness and college success—including the SAT and the AdvancedPlacement Program . The organization also serves the education community throughresearch and advocacy on behalf of students, educators, and schools.For further information, visit collegeboard.org.ACCUPLACER Advanced Algebraand Functions Sample QuestionsThe Next-Generation Advanced Algebra and Functions placement test is a computeradaptive assessment of test-takers’ ability for selected mathematics content. Questionswill focus on a range of topics, including a variety of equations and functions, includinglinear, quadratic, rational, radical, polynomial, and exponential. Questions will also delveinto some geometry and trigonometry concepts. In addition, questions may assess astudent’s math ability via computational or fluency skills, conceptual understanding,or the capacity to apply mathematics presented in a context. All questions are multiplechoice in format and appear discretely (stand alone) across the assessment. Thefollowing knowledge and skill categories are assessed: Linear equations Linear applications Factoring Quadratics Functions Radical and rational equations Polynomial equations Exponential and logarithmic equations Geometry concepts Trigonometry 2017 The College Board. College Board, ACCUPLACER, and the acorn logo are registeredtrademarks of the College Board.00716-019ACCUPLACERNext-Generation Advanced Algebra and Functions 2017 The College Board.1

Sample Questions3.Choose the best answer. If necessary, use the paper youwere given.3 cmFunction g is defned by g(x) 3(x 8). What is thevalue of g(12)?A.B.C.D.2.Te surface area of a right rectangular prism can befound by fnding the sum of the area of each of thefaces of the prism. What is the surface area of a rightrectangular prism with length 4 centimeters (cm), width9 cm, and height 3 cm? (Area of a rectangle is equal tolength times width.)A. 75 cm2B. 108 cm2C. 120 cm2D. 150 cm2y6O–66x–64.5x4B. y 5x 34C. y 4x5D. y 4x 35ACCUPLACERWhich of the following expressions is equivalent to(x 7)(x2 – 3x 2)?A. x3 – 3x2 2x 14B. x3 4x2 – 19x 14C. x3 – 3x 14D. x2 – 2x 95.Which of the following is an equation of the line thatpasses through the point (0, 0) and is perpendicular tothe line shown above?A. y 4 cm9 cm–4204460Next-Generation Advanced Algebra and Functions Cost of ApplesCost (dollars)1.876543210Cost of Pears: C 7 p51 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9Number of poundsTe graph above shows the cost, in dollars, of apples asa function of the number of pounds of apples purchasedat a particular grocery store. Te equation above defnesthe cost C, in dollars, for p pounds of pears at the samestore. Which of the following statements accuratelycompares the cost per pound of apples and the cost perpound of pears at this store?A. Apples cost approximately 0.07 less per poundthan pears do.B. Apples cost approximately 0.04 less per poundthan pears do.C. Apples cost approximately 0.73 less per poundthan pears do.D. Apples cost approximately 0.62 more per poundthan pears do. 2017 The College Board.2

6.Which of the following is the graph of a function wherey f(x)?8.A biologist puts an initial population of 500 bacteriainto a growth plate. Te population is expected todouble every 4 hours. Which of the following equationsgives the expected number of bacteria, n, afer x days?(24 hours 1 day)A. n 500(2)xB. n 500(2)6xC. n 500(6)xD. n 500(6)2x9.x2 5x – 9 5A.yxOWhich of the following values of x satisfes the equationabove?A. 7B. 3C. –2D. –7B.y10. Te graph of y f(x) is shown in the xy-plane below.yxO2C.–4y–2O24x–2–4xO–6–8D.Which of the following equations could defne f(x)?A. f(x) x2 – 2x – 8B. f(x) –x2 2x – 8C. f(x) (x – 2)(x 4)D. f(x) –(x – 1)2 – 9yO7.xWhich of the following expressions is equivalent to3x2 6x – 24?A. 3(x 2)(x – 4)B. 3(x – 2)(x 4)C. (x 6)(x – 12)D. (x – 6)(x 12)ACCUPLACER11. Which of the following best describes the range ofy –2x4 7?A. y –2B. y 7C. y 7D. All real numbersNext-Generation Advanced Algebra and Functions 2017 The College Board.3

12. For which of the following equations is x 6 theonly solution?A. (6x)2 0B. (x – 6)2 0C. (x 6)2 0D. (x – 6)(x 6) 013. If f(x) x2 3x 1, what is f(x 2)?A. x2 3x 3B. (x 2)2 3(x 2) 1C. (x 2)(x2 3x 1)D. x2 3x 917. In the function f(x) a(x 2)(x – 3)b, a and b are bothinteger constants and b is positive. If the end behaviorof the graph of y f(x) is positive for both very largenegative values of x and very large positive values of x,what is true about a and b?A. a is negative, and b is even.B. a is positive, and b is even.C. a is negative, and b is odd.D. a is positive, and b is odd.18. Which of the following equations is equivalent to 25x 7?7A. x log 2 5()14. What, if any, is a real solution to 5x 1 9 3 ?1A. 5B. 71435D. Tere is no real solution.C.315. If x –2 and x , what is the solution to25x ?x 2 2x 332C. –2 and32RKQPTriangle JKL and triangle PQR are shown above. If Jis congruent to P, which of the following must betrue in order to prove that triangles JKL and PQR arecongruent?A. L R and JL PRB. KL QR and PR JLC. JK PQ and KL QRD. K Q and L RACCUPLACERlog 7 25D. x log 7 52A.x yx yB.x yC.x yx x y y520. In triangle ABC, angle C is a right angle. If cos A ,8what is the value of cos B?JLC. x D.D. –3 and –516.log 2 7519. If x 0 and y 0, which of the following expressions isequivalent to x y ?x yA. 3 and 5B. 2 and B. x Next-Generation Advanced Algebra and Functions A.38B.58C.398D.898 2017 The College Board.4

Answer 19.20.ABACBBDACBBDAADBCCACCUPLACERNext-Generation Advanced Algebra and Functions 2017 The College Board.5

Rationales1. Choice D is correct. The value of g(12) can be found by substituting 12 for x in theequation for g(x). This yields g(12) 3(12 8), which is equivalent to 3(20) or 60.Choice A is incorrect. This answer represents the value of x in the equation12 3(x 8). Choice B is incorrect. This answer represents the value of theexpression in parentheses. Choice C is incorrect. This answer is a result of incorrectlydistributing the 3 through the expression in parentheses: g(12) 3(12) 8.2. Choice A is correct. The slopes of perpendicular lines are negative reciprocals of44. The negative reciprocal of 555is . A line that passes through the point (0, 0) has a y-intercept of 0. Therefore,455the equation y x 0, or y x, is correct. Choice B is incorrect because it is an44each other. The slope of the line in the graph is equation of a line that is perpendicular to the line shown, but it does not pass throughthe origin. Choice C is incorrect because this equation is parallel to the line shown,not perpendicular. Choice D is incorrect because it is the equation of the line shown inthe graph.3. Choice D is correct. The surface area of the rectangular prism is the totalarea of each of the faces of the prism and can be written as 2(length width) 2(height width) 2(length height), which is 2(4 cm 9 cm) 2(3 cm 9 cm) 2(4 cm 3 cm), or 150 cm2. Choice A is incorrect because it is half the surface areaof the prism. Choice B is incorrect because it is the volume of the prism. Choice C isincorrect because it is 30 units less than the surface area of the prism described.4. Choice B is correct. Using the distribution property, the given expression can berewritten as x(x2) x( 3x) x(2) 7(x2) 7( 3x) 7(2). Further simplifying results inx3 3x2 2x 7x2 21x 14. Finally, adding like terms yields x3 4x2 19x 14.Choices A, C, and D are incorrect because they each result from errors made whenperforming the necessary distribution and adding like terms.5. Choice A is correct. The cost per pound of apples can be determined by theslope of the graph as about 1.33 per pound. The cost per pound of pears can bedetermined by the slope of the line defined by the equation C 7p . The slope of the57,, so the cost per pound of pears is 1.40. Therefore, the apples5cost approximately 0.07 less per pound than pears do. Choice B is incorrect. This isthe result of misreading the cost per pound of apples as 0.67 and the cost per poundof pears as 0.71 and then finding the difference between the two values. Choice Cline defined by C isis incorrect. This is the result of misreading the cost per pound of apples from thegraph as 0.67 and then subtracting the cost per pound of pears, 1.40. Choice D isincorrect. This is the result of misreading the cost per pound of pears as 0.71 andthen subtracting this value from the cost per pound of apples, 1.33.6. Choice C is correct. A function has one output for each input. Each x-value on thisgraph corresponds to only one y-value. Choices A, B, and D are incorrect becauseeach has x-values that correspond to more than one y-value.7. Choice B is correct. The expression 3(x 2)(x 4) can be expanded by firstmultiplying (x 2) by 3 to get (3x 6) and then multiplying (3x 6) by (x 4) toget 3x2 6x 24. Choice A is incorrect because it is equivalent to 3x2 6x 24.Choice C is incorrect because it is equivalent to x2 6x 72. Choice D is incorrectbecause it is equivalent to x2 6x 72.ACCUPLACERNext-Generation Advanced Algebra and Functions 2017 The College Board.6

8. Choice B is correct. An exponential function can be written in the form y abtwhere a is the initial amount, b is the growth factor, and t is the time. In the scenariodescribed, the variable y can be substituted with n, the total number of bacteria, andthe initial amount is given as 500, which yields n 500bt. The growth factor is2 because the population is described as being expected to double, which gives theequation n 500(2)t. The population is expected to double every 4 hours, so for thetime to be x days, x must be multiplied by 6 (the number of 4-hour periods in 1 day).This gives the final equation n 500(2)6x. Choices A, C, and D are incorrect. ChoiceA does not account for the six 4-hour periods per day, choice C uses the numberof time periods per day as the growth rate, and choice D uses the number of timeperiods per day as the growth rate and multiplies the exponent by the actualgrowth rate.9. Choice D is correct. Subtracting 5 from both sides of the equation givesx2 5x 14 0. The left-hand side of the equation can be factored, giving(x 7)(x 2) 0. Therefore, the solutions to the quadratic equation are x 7 andx 2. Choice A is incorrect because 72 5(7) 9 is not equal to 5. Choice B isincorrect because 32 5(3) 9 is not equal to 5. Choice C is incorrect because( 2)2 5( 2) 9 is not equal to 5.10. Choice A is correct. The graph of y f(x) crosses the x-axis at x 2 and x 4,crosses the y-axis at y 8, and has its vertex at the point (1, 9). Therefore, theordered pairs ( 2, 0), (4, 0), (0, 8), and (1, 9) must satisfy the equation for f(x).Furthermore, because the graph opens upward, the equation defining f(x) musthave a positive leading coefficient. All of these conditions are met by the equationf(x) x2 2x 8. Choice B is incorrect. The points ( 2, 0), (4, 0), (0, 8), and (1, 9),which are easily identified on the graph of y f(x), do not all satisfy the equationf(x) x2 2x 8; only (0, 8) does. Therefore f(x) x2 2x 8 cannot define thefunction graphed. Furthermore, because the graph opens upward, the equationdefining y f(x) must have a positive leading coefficient, which f(x) x2 2x 8does not. Choice C is incorrect. The points ( 2, 0), (4, 0), (0, 8), and (1, 9), whichare easily identified on the graph of y f(x) , do not all satisfy the equationf(x) (x 2)(x 4); only (0, 8) does. Therefore, f(x) (x 2)(x 4) cannot define thefunction graphed. Choice D is incorrect. Though the vertex (1, 9) does satisfy theequation f(x) (x 1)2 9, the points ( 2, 0), (4, 0), and (0, 8) do not. Therefore,f(x) (x 1)2 9 cannot define the function graphed. Furthermore, because thegraph opens upward, the equation defining y f(x) must have a positive leadingcoefficient, which f(x) (x 1)2 9 does not.11. Choice C is correct. The range of a function describes the set of all outputs, y, thatsatisfy the equation defining the function. In the xy-plane, the graph of y 2x4 7 isa U-shaped graph that opens downward with its vertex at (0, 7). Because the graphopens downward, the vertex indicates that the maximum value of y is 7. Therefore, therange of the function defined by y 2x4 7 is the set of y-values less than or equalto 7. Choices A, B, and D are incorrect in that choice A doesn’t cover the entire range,while choices B and D include values that aren’t part of the range.12. Choice B is correct. The only value of x that satisfies the equation (x 6)2 0 is 6.Choice A is incorrect because x 0 is the only solution to the equation (6x)2 0.Choice C is incorrect because x 6 is the only solution to the equation (x 6)2 0.Choice D is incorrect because although x 6 is a solution to the equation(x 6)(x 6) 0, x 6 is another solution to the equation.13. Choice B is correct. Substituting x 2 for x in the original function gives f(x 2) (x 2)2 3(x 2) 1. Choice A is incorrect. This is f(x) 2. Choice C is incorrect. Thisis (x 2)f(x). Choice D is incorrect. This is f(x) 23.ACCUPLACERNext-Generation Advanced Algebra and Functions 2017 The College Board.7

14. Choice D is correct. Subtracting 9 from both sides of the equation yields5x 1 6, and there are no real values of x that result in the square root of anumber being negative, so the equation has no real solution. Choices A and C areincorrect due to computational errors in solving for x and not checking the solutionin the original equation. Choice B is incorrect because it is the extraneous solution tothe equation.15. Choice A is correct. To solve the equation for x, cross multiply to yield x(x 2) 5(2x 3). Simplifying both sides of the new equation results in x2 2x 10x 15. Next,subtract 10x from both sides of the equation and add 15 to both sides of the equationto yield x2 8x 15 0. By factoring the left-hand side, the equation can be rewrittenin the form (x 3)(x 5) 0. It follows, therefore, that x 3 and x 5. Choices B, C, andD are possible results from mathematical errors when solving the equation for x.16. Choice A is correct. If two angles and the included side of one triangle arecongruent to corresponding parts of another triangle, the triangles are congruent.Since angles J and L are congruent to angles P and R, respectively, and the sidelengths between each pair of angles, JL and PR, are also equal, then it can be proventhat triangles JKL and PQR are congruent. Choices B and C are incorrect becauseonly when two sides and the included angle of one triangle are congruent tocorresponding parts of another triangle can the triangles be proven to be congruent,and angles J and P are not included within the corresponding pairs of sides given.Further, side-side-angle congruence works only for right triangles, and it is notgiven that triangles JKL and PQR are right triangles. Choice D is incorrect becausethe triangles can only be proven to be similar (not congruent) if all three sets ofcorresponding angles are congruent.17. Choice D is correct. A polynomial function of even degree with a positive leadingcoefficient will have positive end behavior for both very large negative values of xand very large positive values of x. For a polynomial function in the form f(x) a(x 2)(x 3)b to be of even degree with a positive leading coefficient, a must bepositive and b must be odd. Choice A is incorrect. If a is negative and b is even, thepolynomial function will be of odd degree, with a negative leading coefficient. Thisresults in positive end behavior for very large negative values of x and negative endbehavior for very large positive values of x. Choice B is incorrect. If a is positiveand b is even, the polynomial function will be of odd degree with a positive leadingcoefficient. This results in negative end behavior for very large negative values of xand positive end behavior for very large positive values of x. Choice C is incorrect.If a is negative and b is odd, the polynomial function will be of even degree with anegative leading coefficient. This results in negative end behavior on both sides ofthe function.18. Choice B is correct. By definition, if (b)x y, where b 0 and b 1, then x logb y.Therefore, the given equation 25x 7 can be rewritten in the form log27 5x. Next,solving for x by dividing both sides of the equation by 5 yieldslog 2 7 x . Choices A,5C, and D are incorrect because they are the result of misapplying the identity, whichstates that if (b)x y, where b 0 and b 1, then x logb y.ACCUPLACERNext-Generation Advanced Algebra and Functions 2017 The College Board.8

19. Choice C is correct. Since x 0 and y 0, x can be rewritten asrewritten as(2y ) . It follows, then, that( x )2x ycan be rewritten asx yand y can be( x )2 ( y )2x y.Because the numerator is a difference of two squares, it can be factored as( x y )( x y ). Finally, dividing the common factors of ( x y )( x y)numerator and denominator yieldsx y . Alternatively, ifin thex yis multiplied byx yx y,, which is equal to 1, and therefore does not change the value of thex yoriginal expression, the result is(x y )( x y )( x y )( x y ), which is equivalent tox x x y y x y y(x y)( x y ). This can be rewritten as, which can bex xy xy y(x y)simplified tocombiningx y . Choice A is incorrect and may be the result of incorrectlyx y . Choice B is incorrect because it is equivalent tox y. Choicex yD is incorrect and may be the result of misusing the conjugate strategy. Instead ofmultiplying the numerator and denominator by the quantitybeen multiplied by( x y)( x y ) , they may haveand then improperly distributed.20. Choice C is correct. If triangle ABC is defined as a right triangle, where angle Cis the right angle, then the cosine of angle A (cos A) is defined as the ratiothe length of the side adjacent to angle A5. Since this ratio is defined as , then the8the length of the hypotenuselength of the side opposite angle A, which is also the side adjacent to angle B, canbe derived from the Pythagorean theorem: a2 52 82, where a represents thelength of the side opposite angle A. Solving for a yields a2 64 25 39, so a 39 .Then, to determine the cosine of angle B, use the same ratio in relation to angle B:the length of the side adjacent to angle B39cosB . Choice A and D are incorrect8the length of the hypotenuseand likely results from an error in finding the length of side CB. Choice B is incorrectand is the value of cos A and sin B.ACCUPLACERNext-Generation Advanced Algebra and Functions 2017 The College Board.9

excellence and equity in education. Each year, the College Board helps more than seven million students prepare for a successful transition to college through programs and services in college readiness and college success—including the SAT and the Advanced Placement Program . The organization als