Power to WinEFI Technology Inc.Engine Control SystemHardware Reference GuideTHIRD ISSUE January 1st 2016The EFI logo is a trademark of EFI Technology Inc, Torrance CA 1993-2016 EFI Technology Inc. All rights reserved.www.efitechnology.comEFI System Hardware Reference Guide-1-

Power to WinDocumentationCopyrightInformation in this document is subject to change without notice. Complying with allapplicable copyright laws is the responsibility of the user. Without limiting the rightsunder copyright, no part of this document may be reproduced, stored in or introducedinto a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means (electronic,mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), or for any purpose, without theexpress written permission of EFI Technology.EFI Technology may have patents, patent applications, trademarks, copyrights, or otherintellectual property rights covering subject matter in this document. Except as expresslyprovided in any written license agreement from EFI Technology, the furnishing of thisdocument does not give you any license to these patents, trademarks, copyrights, orother intellectual property.This program is protected by copyright law and international treaties. Unauthorizedreproduction or distribution of this program, or any portion of it, may result in severe civiland criminal penalties and will be prosecuted to the maximum extent possible under law. 1993-2016 EFI Technology Inc. All rights reserved.EFI System Hardware Reference Guide-2-

Power to WinDisclaimerEFI Technology Inc makes no representation or warranties of any kind whatsoever withrespect to the contents hereof and specifically disclaims any implied warranties ofmerchantability or fitness for any particular purpose. EFI Technology Inc. shall not beliable for any errors contained herein or for incidental or consequential damages inconnection with the furnishing, performance or use of the software, hardware or thiswritten material.EFI Technology Inc. reserves the right to revise this publication from time to time and tomake changes in the content hereof without obligation to notify any person of suchrevision or changes. A copy of the EFI Technology Inc. Sales Terms and Conditions isavailable on request and includes a declaration of the warranty and limitation of liabilitywhich apply to all EFI Technology Inc. products and services.Health and SafetyAny hazardous materials used in EFI products are clearly marked with appropriatesymbols. Product safety data sheets relating to these materials are available on request.Field of UseFor the purposes of this document, EFI Technology Inc. understands that the intendedField of Use for this product is Automotive Racing Applications. All other existing or futureapplications are considered outside of this Field of Use.Technical SupportEFI Technology Inc. provides a first-line of technical support to its customers with regardto the installation and operation of the Engine Control Systems.On site support is also available and will be charged on a time and expenses basis orthrough support contracts established with each customer. This will provide for thefollowing services: Support Engineer attendance at all or an agreed to number of races.Ongoing system training.Assistance with system diagnostics.Access to emergency spare components.Unlimited telephone technical support.Access to restricted EFI web site areas that contain software updates.EFI System Hardware Reference Guide-3-

Power to WinContentsHardware Reference Guide . 1Documentation . 2Copyright . 2Disclaimer . 3Technical Support . 3Contents . 4Table of Figures . 6Introduction . 7Overview . 7Specifications . 8Connector Information . 9Autosport Connectors . 9Connector Details . 10Autosport part numbering . 11Contact arrangements . 12Installation . 13Connecting the ECU . 14Power requirements . 15Connections . 15Connection methods. 16Backup battery . 16Battery Connections . 17ECU Systems. 18Installation Information . 20Harness Installation . 20ECU Installation . 22ECU Orientation . 23Instrumentation . 25Connecting Sensors . 26Sensor types . 26Sensor Wiring . 27ConnectingConnectingConnectingConnectingEFI System Hardware Reference Guidea potentiometer . 27a strain gauge. 28an RTD sensor . 29a voltage output . 29-4-

Power to WinAppendix . 30Contact Information . 31Address . 31Web Information . 31Software License Agreement . 32END-USER LICENSE AGREEMENT . 32LIMITED WARRANTY . 33EFI System Hardware Reference Guide-5-

Power to WinTable of FiguresFigure 1 – R8 ECU . 7Figure 3 - Autosport Free plug, type 6 . 10Figure 4 - Autosport Inline receptacle, type 1 . 10Figure 5 - Connector Part Numbering . 11Figure 6 - Battery Connections . 16Figure 7 - ECU Connections . 18Figure 8 - ECU Orientation . 23Figure 21 - Connecting a single ended input . 27Figure 22 - Connecting a single ended input . 28Figure 23 - Connecting a differential input. 28Figure 24 - Connecting an RTD sensor . 29Figure 25 - Connecting a voltage output . 29EFI System Hardware Reference Guide-6-

Power to WinIntroductionOverviewThe EFI Engine Control Systems are designed for all levels of professional motorsportsand available with up to 4, 8, 12 and 16 injector drives, 22 analog inputs and 4 digitalchannels. All analog inputs can be configured as 0-5 volt.Some products have fully integrate chassis control such as transmission shifter, torqueconverter, shock adjustment, nitrous outputs, chute release etc.Communications is via Bluetooth, CAN, USB, RS232 or current loop depending on theproduct and can interface to a wide range of 3rd party data logging systems.All analog inputs are 0-5 volt or RTD inputs and compatible with most standard enginesensors. Strain gauge inputs require external in-line amplifiers with adjustable gains.The system uses the latest Power to Win 9.0 software suite compatible with Win 8/10 64bit operating systems.Figure 1 – R8 ECUMore InformationThere is a wealth of additional information available on the EFI Technology web site You can find, updates to the documentation, free downloads,technical articles, engineering information and much more.EFI System Hardware Reference Guide-7-

Power to WinSpecificationsEFI System Hardware Reference Guide-8-

Power to WinConnector InformationAutosport ConnectorsThe EFI Engine Control System uses Deutsch Autosport AS, harsh environmentconnectors. The AS series is a range of medium and high density circular connectorsdesigned to meet the stringent requirements of the motorsports industry.Autosport connectors are manufactured using high strength aluminum alloys with blackzinc coated shells. Contacts are copper alloy with gold plating and insulators are madewith polyamide and fluorinated silicone.Autosport connectors are used throughout the EFI system, its associated components andharnesses.Features High density arrangementsContact sizes 16, 20 & 22Positive locking mechanismConductive black zinc finishInterfacial and wire sealing100% scoop proof with RFI groundingIntegral shield and boot locationIn-line and hole mounting stylesEnvironmentally sealedStandard gold plated contacts5 keyway orientations (color coded)Contact ratingContact sizeCurrent ratingMax wire dia.225 amps0.4mm207.5 amps0.6mm1620 amps1.2mmTemperature rating-55 deg to 175 deg CVibrationGreater than 60g RMS in 3 axesEFI System Hardware Reference Guide-9-

Power to WinConnector DetailsFigure 2 - Autosport Free plug, type 6Deutsch Autosport connectors use a rotating sleeve to lock the two halves of theconnector together. To connect Deutsch Autosport connectors:1Make sure that the two connectors are compatible by checking that the number ofcontacts and the position of the keyways is the same for both connectors.2Align the keyways, and bring the two halves of the connector together.3Apply light pressure to the connector as you slowly turn the knurled sleeve.4When the latches connect with the sleeve, keep turning until you hear the sleeveclick.Figure 3 - Autosport Inline receptacle, type 1The contacts of a Deutsch Autosport connector are labeled on the connector itself. Thecontact numbers are given on the outside and inside of the connector.EFI System Hardware Reference Guide- 10 -

Power to WinAutosport part numberingThe part number is made up using the AS range reference followed by the style, the shellsize, the contact arrangement, the insert type and the shell keyway e.g. AS108-35PN.The modification code is only applicable if a special modification has been made to theconnector.AS108 - 35PNRange:Style:0 2 hole flange receptacle1 Inline receptacle2 2 hole box mount6 Free plug8 Cap for plug9 Cap for receptacleShell Size:Contact arrangement:Insert type:P pinS socketShell keyways:N RedA YellowD GreenB BlueC OrangeU VioletFigure 4 - Connector Part NumberingEFI System Hardware Reference Guide- 11 -

Power to WinContact arrangementsDeutsch Autosport connector shell size and contact arrangementsThe shell size and contact arrangement are shown below. Three sizes of contact areavailable: sizes 22, 20 and 16. The table below shows which sizes can be fitted.Shell sizeContactsSize 22Size 20Size 9-EFI System Hardware Reference Guide- 12 -

Power to WinInstallationEFI System Hardware Reference Guide- 13 -

Power to WinConnecting the ECUThe majority of vehicles have the negative terminal of the battery connected to thechassis and is commonly referred to as having a negative earth.Battery connections are usually made through a Master Switch, which may be fitted ineither the negative or positive, or both, supply leads from the battery. The Master Switchdisconnects all electrical power in an emergency, and is required by the regulationsgoverning most motor sports.When connecting an ECU you should make sure that: the ECU remains powered up when the engine is turned offthe ECU does not drain the car battery excessivelythe supply voltage to the ECU remains high enough for correct operationWhen connecting an ECU to the battery: make all connections to, or as near as possible to, the battery terminalsuse a common point for connections to the battery keep the wire between the battery terminal and the connection point as short use 20-gauge or 22-gauge wire for connections between an ECU, and theas is possible. Use heavy gauge wire, or braiding for this connectionconnection pointCAUTION: Before making any connections to the battery, make sure you areconfident with any harnessing that you have made. Remove power from the ECUbefore making any alterations.EFI System Hardware Reference Guide- 14 -

Power to WinPower requirementsThe ECU needs a supply voltage greater than 8.0 volts to start-up and between 10.0 voltsand 18.0 volts to operate correctly. If the supply voltage is outside the 8.0 volts and 18.0volts limits, the LCU will not function correctly.Depending upon the loads that you have connected and number and type of sensors thecurrent consumption is typically between 1 amp and 3 amps. The battery VE and battery-VE supply lines are fitted with a 5 amp fuse inside the LCU.ConnectionsAll system battery connections must only be connected to the battery at one point.Multiple connections to a length of wire or the chassis, will Introduce noise and reduce theintegrity of sensor readings.The optimum installation utilizes common connection points for the positive and negativeterminals of the battery. Connecting equipment at a common point reduces the variationin supply voltage as current returns to the battery from other electrical components.EFI System Hardware Reference Guide- 15 -

Power to WinConnection methodsThe most common form of electrical system for vehicles consists of a battery analternator and electric starter motor. Power to the electrical components is made from thebattery through a master Switch that isolates the entire vehicle electrical system. Batterypower is then directed to secondary switches for all other device connections.If your vehicle has this type of electrical system, then connect your logging system usingthe arrangement shown below. Use 20 or 22 gauge twisted wire to the logger system.Logging SystemMaster SwitchIgnition, ECU etc.System GNDBatteryChassisFigure 5 - Battery ConnectionsBackup batterySome vehicles fitted with an electrical starter motor may drop the battery to as low as 6volts during starting conditions. The ECU will not function normally below 8 volts and itmay be necessary to install a separate backup battery to maintain sufficient voltageunder these conditions.EFI System Hardware Reference Guide- 16 -

Power to WinBattery ConnectionsThe ECU utilizes an internal common input power supply and grounding scheme withredundant connections. The battery connection and pins utilized are listed below.NOTE: You must fit a backup battery if you are using safety critical or controlapplications. For further details refer to the section on fitting a backup battery.Connecting the ECUThe ECU is connected to the battery using pins located on the 79 pin system connector.These battery connections provide all of the power to the ECU and their functions arelisted below. It is recommended that at least 3 of the PWR GND pins are utilized for thebattery connection.Battery connectionsPinConnectionFunction77787926PWR GNDPWR GNDPWR GNDVBATTBatteryBatteryBatteryBattery The battery input connection is protected by a 5 amp thermal fuse. The input circuit isalso protected against reversed battery polarity connections and transient voltages up to35 volts.EFI System Hardware Reference Guide- 17 -

Power to WinECU SystemsIf your vehicle is fitted with a data logger you can connect it to the ECU to enable them toshare information. Data is typically shared using one of the defined ECU communicationsinterfaces.It is recommended that the ECU and logging system are connected to the battery usingcommon ground connections. If your vehicle has this type of installation then connect thelogging system and ECU using the arrangement shown below.Master SwitchLogging SystemECUBatteryChassisFigure 6 - ECU ConnectionsGround loopsThe ECU should be connected directly to the negative terminal of the battery but in somecases may be connected inadvertently to chassis ground causing a ground loop causingsignal noise and incorrect sensor readings.Ground loops can also occur if the shell of a connector touches the chassis and it may benecessary to fit rubber insulating material or boots over the connectors.EFI System Hardware Reference Guide- 18 -

Power to WinTesting for ground loopsGround loops can be avoided by making direct connections to the battery. Before usingyour System, or if you are having problems with noise appearing in data from sensors,you should test for ground loops.To test for a ground loop:1. Disconnect the System connector from the car battery.2. Measure the resistance between the ECU case and the chassis. If the resistancereading is low, then there is an electrical path to the chassis.3. Starting with the sensor or junction box that is furthest away from the ECU,unplug ONE component at a time and measure the resistance between the ECUcase and the chassis.4. Repeat step 3 until the resistance reading is infinite.5. Carefully check the component that you last disconnected for signs of shorting.If the resistance reading is greater than 10k ohms, then your System is electricallyisolated from the chassis. If you are still experiencing noise problems, then you shouldcheck that boots are fitted to all connectors, and that no connector is making contact withthe chassis through vibration.Avoiding ground loopsThe most common source of a ground loop is a grounded sensor. Ensure that all sensorsused are either isolated from the chassis (or engine), or if that is not possible then isolatethe shield connection from that sensor.EFI System Hardware Reference Guide- 19 -

Power to WinInstallation InformationThis section contains general information on how to install the Engine Control System,harnesses and associated equipment into your vehicle.Harness InstallationThe harnesses manufactured by EFI Technology are made from spec 55 military airframewire that can withstand temperatures up to 150 C. Harnesses are terminated withDeutsch Autosport connectors, are shielded and covered with Raychem heat shrink sleeveunless otherwise specified.If you are making your own harnesses, then ask EFI for help with selecting suitable wireand connectors. Using poor quality wire and connectors may affect the performance andreliability of your logging System.CAUTION: Manufacturing your own harnesses may void some of the terms andconditions of your product warranty.Fitting harnessesWhen fitting harnesses to your car, consider the following points: Care should be taken when routing wires near the engine. Make sure that yourharnesses do not make contact with hot engine components such as exhaust pipes,manifolds, turbochargers or brake components. Excessive heat will burn the protective heat shrink layer, and may expose the innershield and wires. This may lead to intermittent electrical faults and noise. When you install your harnesses, make sure that their position will not be affected bylocalized heating (heat soak) when the car is stationary. Remember that brake components frequently get very hot, and it will only beapparent after you have been running your car.The easiest way to install harnesses is to make all connections to the ECU first, and thenwork away, towards any junction boxes, auxiliary equipment and sensors. Generally theharnesses become smaller and easier to route further away from the ECU.EFI System Hardware Reference Guide- 20 -

Power to WinInterferenceIn general, harnesses should not be routed next to sources of electrical interference i.e.ignition coils, plug leads, alternators, fuel pumps, telemetry equipment, especiallyantennas, and Ignitions. If you have to route a harnesses near any of these, try to avoidparallel runs.Notes Allow harnesses to follow their natural curvature. Do not force them around very tightradii. When a harnesses passes through a hole in the chassis or bulkhead, make sure thatthere is no risk of it being cut or damaged. When using tie-wraps avoid attaching harnesses to sharp or abrasive objects.ManufacturingWhen making your own harnesses, use a spare length of cable, and route it exactly as thefinished harness. Use off-cuts of cable to create branches and carefully mark the mainharness where the branches occur. By spending time adjusting your dummy harness, youcan achieve the optimum installation for your vehicle.If you are supplying a harness specification to EFI, take measurements from the dummyharness to create an engineering drawing. Use the following standards when specifyingmeasurements and dimensions to EFI.Specify all dimensions: to the end of connectorsto the centerline of transitionsto end of terminals or lugsEFI System Hardware Reference Guide- 21 -

Power to WinECU InstallationWhen installing the ECU you should consider the following points: The ECU is resistant to water, but after prolonged exposure, water, oil and fuel mayeventually work their way inside the ECU.Select a position where the ECU will not be in constant contact with any fluid. The ECU must be protected from vibration. Use anti-vibration mounts. Make sure that air can flow over the ECU to keep it below 70 C. Do not place the ECU near sources of electrical interference e.g. Ignition coils, plugleads, alternators and telemetry antenna.EFI System Hardware Reference Guide- 22 -

Power to WinECU OrientationOrientationSome ECU’s contains three identical accelerometers which are used to measure thelateral, longitudinal and vertical accelerations for each of the axes. The verticalaccelerometer is a build option and may not be installed in your ECU.It is particularly important that the lateral acceleration axis is in the correct orientation forthe track mapping feature to function correctly in the analysis program. Please refer tothe section later in this chapter if you need to change the standard ECU orientation. Thestandard ECU orientation and acceleration axes are shown in the figure below.The ECU orientation is shown with the connectors pointing toward the front of the vehiclewith the 66 pin system connector located on the right side of the housing.Longitudinal axisLateral axisVertical axisFigure 7 - ECU OrientationEFI System Hardware Reference Guide- 23 -

Power to WinChanging orientationYou can mount the ECU in a different orientation to the standard method. The three axesof acceleration (longitudinal, vertical and lateral) will still be measured, but by a differentaccelerometer to that used in the standard orientation. The channel names will need to bechanged in the Power to Win software to correctly identify each channel.The accelerometer channel names can be changed in the calibration editor window underchannel calibrations. Please refer to the Help file or contact your EFI representative forfurther information on re-naming the acceleration channels.Installing an ECU Select a suitable dry location for the ECU. Make sure that the area does not exceed 70 C. Localized heating effects will add to the ambient air temperature. Use the mounting lugs and vibration mounts to secure the ECU. When you have installed the ECU make sure that air can flow around it.CAUTION: The ECU housing acts as a heat sink for its internal electroniccomponents. It is Important that air can flow around the sides of the ECU.EFI System Hardware Reference Guide- 24 -

Power to WinInstrumentationEFI System Hardware Reference Guide- 25 -

Power to WinConnecting SensorsThe EFI engine control system uses an Autosport 5 pin connector standard for all sensorconnections. The standard pinout for some different sensor types are given in the tablebelow.Sensor types5 pin sensor connectionsPinSingleDiffRTDThermDig12345N/C5VSIG N/CGNDN/C5VSIG SIGGNDN/CN/CRTD RTDN/CN/CN/CSIG SIGN/C12V *5VSIGN/CGND* See the section on voltage regulators for information about the supply current availablefor each of the regulated outputs.ExcitationThe sensor excitation voltage is typically 5 or 12 volts. The ECU also has an adjustableregulator set nominally at 8 volts and a fixed 20 volt 300mA output available.InputsDifferential means that there is a signal ve and signal –ve input. Single ended meansthat the signal –ve is common with the signal ground input.Generally only low current sensors should be used with single ended inputs. These typesof input are suited to temperature or pressure sensors where the absolute accuracy is notrequired.ModeUnipolar means that the inputs can only measure positive signals. Bipolar means that theinput can measure both positive and negative signals.GainUnipolar channels can be configured with gains from 0 to 8. Bipolar channels can beconfigured with gains from 0 to 1200.EFI System Hardware Reference Guide- 26 -

Power to WinTypesThere are two main types of sensor available, absolute and ratio-metric.Absolute sensors are usually active sensors, such as accelerometers, which have aninternal voltage reference or regulator and are unaffected by drift in the excitationvoltage.Ratiometric sensors, such as potentiometers or strain gauges, are affected by theexcitation voltage. If you increase the excitation voltage the output signal will alsoincrease proportionally.In ratio-metric mode the ECU monitors the excitation voltage and compensates for anydrift. This is useful for strain gauges or sensors using high gains where the excitationvoltage may be higher to increase the output.In ratio-metric mode the calibration is unchanged even when the excitation is increased.This means you can decrease the gain and improve the signal to noise ratio.Sensor WiringWiring information for some different sensor types is given in the following figures.Connecting a potentiometerConnect a potentiometer to a single ended input as shown below. If an amplifier isinstalled it should be configured with a gain of 1.ECUSENSOR5V2SIG 3GND5Figure 8 - Connecting a single ended inputEFI System Hardware Reference Guide- 27 -

Power to WinConnect a potentiometer to a differential input as shown below.LCUSENSOR5V2SIG 3SIG -4GND5Figure 9 - Connecting a single ended inputConnecting a strain gaugeConnect a strain gauge as shown below. The input amplifier should be configured with again from 100 to 1000 and typically with an offset of 2.5 volts.LCUSENSOR5V2SIG 3SIG -4GND5Figure 10 - Connecting a differential inputEFI System Hardware Reference Guide- 28 -

Power to WinConnecting an RTD sensorConnect an RTD as shown below. The input amplifier should be configured with a gain of100 and use a 3K92 pull-up resistor connected to 5 volts on the input.LCUSENSORSIG 3SIG -4GND5Figure 11 - Connecting an RTD sensorConnecting a voltage outputConnect 0-5 volt output sensor (e.g. pressure transducer) as shown below. Use either the5v or 12v excitation voltage as recommended by the sensor manufacturer.LCUSENSOR5V2SIG 3GND5Figure 12 - Connecting a voltage outputEFI System Hardware Reference Guide- 29 -

Power to WinAppendixEFI System Hardware Reference Guide- 30 -

Power to WinContact InformationAddressEFI Technology Inc.4025 Spencer St. #102Torrance, CA 90503TelFax310 793 2505310 793 2514Web InformationWeb hnology.comEFI System Hardware Reference Guide- 31 -

Power to WinSoftware License AgreementEND-USER LICENSE AGREEMENTThis End-User License Agreement "EULA" is a legal agreement between you and EFITechnology Inc. "EFI" for software products which may include associated softwarecomponents, media, printed materials and online or electronic documentation"SOFTWARE PRODUCT". By installing, copying, or otherwise using the SOFTWAREPRODUCT, you agree to be bound by the terms of this EULA. If you do not agree to theterms of this EULA, do not install or use the SOFTWARE PRODUCT. If the SOFTWAREPRODUCT was purchased by you, you may return it to your place of purchase for a fullrefund.COPYRIGHTThe SOFTWARE PRODUCT and the related documentation is owned by EFI or its suppliersand is protected by United States and international copyright laws. You must treat thisSoftware like any other copyrighted

Deutsch Autosport connectors use a rotating sleeve to lock the two halves of the connector together. To connect Deutsch Autosport connectors:- 1 Make sure that the two connectors are compatible by checking that the number of contacts and the position of the