İstanbul Aydın UniversityPlagiarism HandbookPlagiarism is a serious ethical issue that can be experienced in the university environment. This guide has been prepared for the prevention ofplagiarism in theses, projects and assignments of the students and academic staff of İstanbul Aydın University. Turnitin program is used to determineplagiarism / similarity rates in our university. In this document, information is provided to show according to what criteria turnitin performs similaritytests.What is Plagiarism?Plagiarism is defined by the Council of Writing Program Administrators as:“In an instructional setting, plagiarism occurs when a writer deliberately uses someone else’s language, ideas, orother original (not common-knowledge) material without acknowledging its source.” 1Deciding if something is "common knowledge"“Generally speaking, you can regard something as common knowledge if you find the same information undocumented in at least five credible sources.Additionally, it might be common knowledge if you think the information you're presenting is something your readers will already know, or somethingthat a person could easily find in general reference sources. But when in doubt, cite; if the citation turns out to be unnecessary, your teacher or editorwill tell sm-statement.pdf last accessed on rint/589/ last accessed on 06.02.2017.

Types of Plagiarism us/media/plagiarism spectrum.php last accessed on 06.04.2015 last accessed on 06.02.2017.Samples of Plagiarism by Type from’s White Paper33All the below images are taken from the following website: us/media/plagiarism spectrum.php last accessed on 06.04.2015.

References / Bibliography Harvard StyleReferencing with HarvardWhen writing assignments you must acknowledge the source of your ideas and quotes in sufficient detail so that those reading can locate theitem. Referencing is important to avoid plagiarism, to verify quotations and to enable readers to follow up what you have written and locatethe cited author’s work. The “Harvard style” is a generic author-date style for citing and referencing information used. There are many styleswhich follow the author-date convention, including the American Psychological Association (APA) and the Chicago Manual of Style. Thisguide is based on an Australian style manual (AGPS style) now revised by Snooks & Co, 2002.Note: Before you create your list of references, check with your lecturer or tutor for the bibliographic style preferred by the School.Keep in Mind the Following Points: Write down all the citation details of a source as you use it. Place quotation marks “ “ around a direct quote and include page number(s) when quoting directly. Insert brief citations at the appropriate places in the text of your document. Compile a reference list at the end of the document that includes full details of all references citedIn-text Citations: In an author-date style, in-text citations usually require the name of the author(s) and the year of publication. A page number is included if you have a direct quote, paraphrase a passage or you want to direct the reader to a specific page. Pagenumbers may also be included if you are referring to a long work and the page numbers might be useful to the readerHow to Create a Reference List/BibliographyA reference list contains only the books, articles, and web pages etc that are cited in the text of the document. A bibliography includesall sources consulted for background or further reading.A reference list is arranged alphabetically by author. If an item has no author, it is cited by title, and included in the alphabetical listusing the first significant word of the title.If you have more than one item with the same author, list the items chronologically, starting with the earliest publication.

1. BOOKElements of the citationAuthor(s) of book – family name and initials Year of publication, Title of book – italicized, Edition, Publisher, and Place of publication.ReferenceTypeSingle Author2 Authors3 Authors4 or MoreIn-text ExamplesReference List ExampleSophisticated searching techniques areimportant in finding information (Berkman 1994)ORBerkman (1994, p. 25) claimed that ORBerkman (1994, pp. 30-35) agrees that from an engineering perspective (Cengel &Boles 1994)ORCengel and Boles (1994) found Berkman, RI 1994, Find It fast: how to uncover expertinformation on any subject, Harper Perennial, New York. as previously demonstrated (Reid, Parsons &Green 1989) neck pain caused by whiplash (Jull et al.2008).AuthorsORJull et al. (2008) have argued No author already mentioned (Be, know, do: leadershipthe Army way 2004).ORIn Be, know, do: leadership the Army way (2004)there is an interesting example Cengel, YA & Boles, MA 1994, Thermodynamics: anengineering approach, 2nd edn, McGraw Hill, London.Reid, DH, Parsons, MB & Green, CW 1989, Staffmanagementin human services: behavioral research and application,Charles C. Thomas, Springfield.Jull, G, Sterling, M, Fallah, D, Treleaven, J & O'Leary, S2008,Whiplash headache and neck pain: research-baseddirectionsfor physical therapies, Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh.Be, know, do: leadership the Army way 2004, JosseyBass, SanFrancisco.EndNoteReference TypeBookBookBookBookBook

Multiple Worksby the sameAuthorMultiple Worksby the sameAuthor,publishedin the same yearTwo or Moreworks byDifferentAuthors geology of Queensland’s national parks(Willmott 2004, 2006). geographically speaking (Dawkins 1996a,1996b) rock formations (Dawkins 1996; Willmott2004)Book by an in the case of an institution (AustralianOrganization or Government Publishing Service 1987)InstitutionDifferent the meaning of educational research (PringEditions2004)Edited Book some findings (Sjostrand 1993)OR optics defined (Pike & Sarkar 1986)Book SeriesIn defining permutation groups Bhattacharjee(1998) BookWillmott, WF 2006, Rocks and landscapes of the nationalparksof central Queensland, Geological Society of Australia,Queensland Division, Brisbane.Order chronologically in the reference list.Dawkins, R 1996a, Climbing Mount Improbable, Viking,London.Dawkins, R 1996b, River out of Eden, Phoenix, London.Order alphabetically by title in the reference list.Dawkins, R 1996, Climbing Mount Improbable, Viking,London.Willmott, WF 2004, Rocks and landscapes of the nationalparksof southern Queensland, Geological Society of Australia,Queensland Division, Brisbane.Australian Government Publishing Service 1987,Commonwealth printing and publishing manual, 2nd edn,A.G.P.S., Canberra.Pring, R 2004, Philosophy of educational research, 2nd edn,Continuum, London.The edition statement is placed after the title of the work.This is not necessary for a first edition.Sjostrand, S (ed.) 1993, Institutional change: theory andempirical findings, M.E. Sharpe, Armonk, N.Y.Pike, ER & Sarkar, S (eds.) 1986, Frontiers in quantum optics,Adam Hilger, Bristol.Bhattacharjee, M 1998, Notes of infinite permutation groups,Lecture notes in mathematics no.1698, Springer, New York.BookBookBookBookEdited BookBook

2. CHAPTER IN A BOOKElements of the citationAuthor(s) of chapter – family name and initials Year of publication, ‘Title of chapter – in single quotation marks’, in Editor(s) – familyname and initials (eds), Title of book – italicised, Edition, Publisher, Place of publication, Page numbers.Reference TypeIn-text ExamplesChapter in anBernstein (1995) explained intelligent trafficedited bookflows.Reference List ExampleBernstein, D 1995, ‘Transportation planning’, in Chen WF(ed.),The civil engineering handbook, CRC Press, Boca Raton,pp.231-61.EndNoteReference TypeBook Section3. CONFERENCE PAPERElements of the citationAuthor(s) of paper – family name and initials Year of publication, ‘Title of paper – in single quotation marks’, Title ofpublished proceedings which may include place held and date(s) – italicized, Publisher, Place of Publication, Pagenumber(s).Reference TypeIn-text ExamplesReference List ExamplePublishedConferencePaperBourassa (1999) emphasized UnpublishedConferencePaper estimating partner change (Bowden andFairley 1996)Bourassa, S 1999, ‘Effects of child care on youngchildren’,Proceedings of the third annual meeting of theInternationalSociety for Child Psychology, International Society forChildPsychology, Atlanta, Georgia, pp. 44-6.Bowden, FJ & Fairley, CK 1996, ‘Endemic STDs in theNorthernTerritory: estimations of effective rates of partnerchange’,paper presented to the scientific meeting of the RoyalAustralian College of Physicians, Darwin, 24-25 June.EndNoteReference TypeBook SectionConference Paper

4. JOURNAL ARTICLEElements of the CitationAuthor(s) of journal article – family name and initials Year of publication, ‘Title of journal article – in single quotation marks’,Title of journal – italicised, Volume, Issue or number, Page number(s).Reference TypePrint/OnlineJournal articleswith pageNumbersOnline journalarticle withoutIn-text ExamplesHuffman (1996) expanded on the theory OR uses for whey protein (Huffman 1996). the discipline of art history (DonahueWallace& Chanda 2005)page numbersReference List ExampleEndNoteReference TypeHuffman, LM 1996, ‘Processing whey protein for use as aJournal articlefoodingredient’, Food Technology, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 49-52.Donahue-Wallace, K & Chanda, J 2005, 'A case study inElectronic articleintegrating the best practices of face-to-face art history and in EndNoteonline teaching', Interactive Multimedia ElectronicJournal ofComputer-Enhanced Learning, vol. 7, no. 1, viewed 30January2009, .5. THESISElements of the citationAuthor of thesis – family name and initials Year of preparation of thesis, ‘Title of thesis – in single quotation marks’, Award, Institution issuingdegree,Location of institution.ReferenceTypeIn-text ExamplesReference List ExampleEndNoteReferenceTypeExelby (1997) described the processThesisExelby, HRA 1997, ‘Aspects of gold and mineral liberation’, PhDThesis ORthesis, University of Queensland, Brisbane. processing gold (Exelby 1997)The title is not italicised and is placed in quotation marks.

6. REPORTElements of the citationAuthor(s) of report – (person or organisation) Year of Publication, Title of report - italicised, Report number (if available), Publisher/Institution, Place of publication, (viewed date, URL - if accessed electronically).ReferenceTypeReportIn-text Examples in Queensland waterways (Mortimer &Cox1999)Report withcorporateauthor(Australian Institute of Health and Welfare2010)Reference List ExampleMortimer, M & Cox, M 1999, Contaminants in mud crabsandsediments from the Maroochy River, Environmenttechnicalreport no. 25, Queensland Department of theEnvironment,Brisbane.Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2010, Childprotection Australia 2008-09, Child welfare series no. CWS 35, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare,Canberra.EndNoteReference TypeReportUse the institutionfield for publisherNameReportUse the institutionfield for publisherName

7. WEB PAGEElements of the citationAuthor(s) of page – (person or organisation) Year (page created or revised), Title of page - italicised, Publisher (if applicable), Place ofpublication (if applicable), viewed date, URL.Reference TypeIn-text ExamplesWeb page withauthor this agreement (Albanese 2009)Web page - noauthorWeb page withinstitutional or(Behaviour modification 2007)(Queensland Health 2009)organisationalauthorWeb page withno date ofpublication it has been argued that emotionalintelligenceis a combination of competencies (Bliss n.d.)Reference List ExampleAlbanese, A 2009, Fairer compensation for air travellers,media release, 29 January, Minister for Infrastructure,Transport, Regional Development and Local Government,viewed 30 January 2009, /2009 .Behaviour modification 2007, Viewed 31 August 2011, .Queensland Health 2009, Sun safety and physical activity,viewed 31 August 2011, Safety/sunSafetyAndPhysicalActivity ap.asp .Bliss, SE n.d., The effect of emotional intelligence on amodernorganizational leader’s ability to make effective decisions,viewed 10 February 2008, .EndNoteReference TypeWeb pageWeb pageWeb page

8. TABLE, IMAGE OR DIAGRAMElements of the citationAuthor(s) of item – family name and initials Year of publication, Title of item – italicised, Edition, Publisher, Place of publication.Reference TypeIn-text Examples(Newton 2007)References are placed directly under the table,Reference List ExampleNewton, AC 2007, Forest ecology and conservation: ahandbook of techniques, Oxford University Press,Oxford.EndNote Reference TypeBookUse the relevantreference typefordiagram or image.the item you areciting.

9. OTHER INTERNET SOURCESElements of the citationAuthor(s) Year, Title - italicised, Type of medium, Publisher (if applicable), Place of publication (if applicable), Viewed date, URL.ReferenceTypeIn-text ExamplesPodcasts(Williams 2011)Blog Post(O’Neill 2011)Reference List ExampleEndNoteReference TypeWilliams, R 2011, New lab for ancient DNA: Science Show,AudiovisualPodcast,ABC, viewed 31 October 2011,material 3345448.htm .O'Neill, I 2011, Could Kepler Detect Borg Cubes? Why Not,AstroEngine,viewed 5 October 2011, tect-borgcubes-why-not/ .Web PageUse thepublisher fieldfor blog name10. PATENTElements of the citationAuthor(s) of patent – family name and initials Year of issue, Title of patent- italicised, Number of patent including country of issue.Reference TypePatentIn-text Examples gas insulated transmission systems(Cookson1985)Reference List ExampleCookson, AH 1985, Particle trap for compressed gasinsulatedtransmission systems, US Patent 4554399.EndNoteReference TypePatent

11. STANDARDElements of the citationCorporate body issuing standard Year of publication, Title of standard- italicised, Number of standard including identifier ofissuing country or body, Publisher of standard, Place of publication.Reference TypeStandardIn-text Examples steels are classified (InternationalOrganizationfor Standardization 1982)Reference List ExampleInternational Organization for Standardization 1982, Steelsclassification - part 1: classification of steels intounalloyedand alloy steels based on chemical composition, ISO 49481:1982, International Organization for Standardization,Geneva.EndNoteReference TypeStandard12. MAPElements of the citationIssuing body Year of publication, Title of map – italicised, Series (if available), Publisher, Place of publication.Reference TypeMapIn-text ExamplesReference List Example reading this map (Department of Mines and Department of Mines and Energy, Queensland 1996,Dotswood, Australia 1:100 000 geological series, sheet8158,Energy, Queensland 1996)Department of Mines and Energy, Queensland, Brisbane.EndNoteReference TypeMap

13. DVD or VIDEOElements of the citationAuthor/Producer/Director Year, Title, Type of medium, Publisher, Place.Reference TypeDVD or VideoIn-text ExamplesReference List ExampleSmith, S 2009, Excellence in teaching: lesson planning,DVD,Sunburst Media, Plainview, NY.(Smith 2009)EndNoteReferenceTypeAudiovisualmediaAdd DVD to theType field.14. LECTURE NOTESElements of the citationName of author(s) or the institution responsible, use & for multiple authors Year of publication, Title and subtitle of publication –italicised, Type of medium, Name of institution, Location of institution.Reference TypeLecture notesIn-text Examples(Johnson 2008)Reference List ExampleJohnson, A 2008, Week 3 Pipes, PowerPoint slides,Universityof Queensland, Brisbane.EndNoteReference TypeBook

15. PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONElements of the citationInformation obtained by interview, telephone call, letter or email should be documented in the text, but should NOT be included inthe list of References.Reference TypePersonalcommunicationIn-text ExamplesWhen interviewed on 15 June 1995, Dr PeterJones explained that ORThis was later verbally confirmed (P Jones1995,pers. comm., 15 June).Reference List ExampleEndNoteReference TypeDo not include in the Reference List16. INDIRECT CITATIONAn indirect citation is when the ideas of one author are published in another author’s text but you have not read or accessed the original author’swork.In the list of References provide the details of the author of the work you have read.Reference TypeIn-text ExamplesReference List ExampleEndNoteReference TypeIndirect citationor secondaryMiller (cited in Agrios 2005) found it was found (Miller cited in Agrios 2005).sourceAdd “cited in” manually using “Edit Citation” optionAgrios GN, 2005, Plant pathology, 5th edn,Elsevier,Burlington, MA.BookUse the relevantreference typeforthe item you areciting.

17. DIRECT QUOTATIONA direct quotation reproduces word-for-word material directly quoted from another author’s work, or from your own previouslypublished work. If the quotation is fewer than 40 words, incorporate it into your paragraph and enclose the quotation in double quotationmarks.If the quotation comprises 40 or more words, display it in an indented, freestanding block of text, without quotation marks. At the endof a block quotation, cite the quoted source and the page number in parentheses, after the final punctuation mark.If you have directly quoted words from a source (in inverted commas, or in an indented paragraph), provide the author, year, and specificpage number for that quotation. (For material without page numbers, give the paragraph number.) Include a complete reference in thereference list.

Other forms of conduct that violate scientific ethics in research and publicationsFalsificationTo make up data and information that do not rely on actual research; to modify a work that is presented or published usingfalse data or information; to publish such research; to pretend that a particular study has been carried out where in fact it has notbeenTo distort records of research or data and information that have been collected through research; to pretend that certain methods,devices or materials have been used in research although they have not been; to exclude from analysis data that do not supportDistortionthe research hypothesis; to tamper with data or results to make them conform to relevant theories or assumptions; to distort orshape research results in line with the interests of the persons or institutions that have provided support for the research.To present multiple works that are based on the same results of the same research as if they are different in evaluations forRecyclingacademic promotion and associate professorship exams.To divide the results of a research into parts improperly and in a way that violates the integrity of the research and to obtainSlicingseperate publications from these without citing each other; to present these as separate works in evaluations for academicpromotion and the associate professorship exam. ,WrongfulauthorshipTo include persons among the authors of a work although they have not actively contributed to the research; to exclude personsfrom the authorship of a work although they have actively contributed to the work; to change the order of authors without ajustification and improperly; to exclude the names of persons who have contributed actively to the research during publicationor in subsequent editions of a published work; to have his/her name included among authors by using one's influence althoughhe/she has not actively contributed to the research. ,Other forms ofethicalviolationsNot to acknowledge persons, organizations and insitutions that have provided support to a research in publications based on thatresearch; to violate ethical rules while conducting research on humans and animals; not to respect patient rights in publications;to share with others information contained in a work which one has been assigned to review; to use funds, places and devicesallocated for research for other purposes; to make accusations of ethical violations without any basis and deliberately.* Source: content/56 INSTANCE rEHF8BIsfYRx/10279/18187

APA 6 SYSTEMReference examplesOne author (a book chapter)EaEaston, B. (2008). Does poverty affect health? In K. Dew & A. Matheson (Eds.), Understanding health inequalities in Aotearoa New Zealand (pp.97–106). Dunedin, New Zealand: Otago University Press.One author, multiple works published in the same yearRush, E., McLennan, S., Obolonkin, V., Cooper, R., & Hamlin, M. (2015a). Beyond the randomised controlled trial and BMI--evaluation ofeffectiveness of through-school nutrition and physical activity programmes. Public Health Nutrition, 18(9), 322Rush, E. C., Obolonkin, V., Battin, M., Wouldes, T., & Rowan, J. (2015b). Body composition in offspring of New Zealand women: Ethnic andgender differences at age 1–3 years in 2005–2009. Annals Of Human Biology, 42(5), 492–497.Two authors (a journal article with doi)Li, S., & Seale, C. (2007). Learning to do qualitative data analysis: An observational study of doctoral work. Qualitative Health Research, 17(10),1442-1452. authorsrnBarnard, R., de Luca, R., & Li, J. (2015). First-year undergraduate students’ perceptions of lecturer and peer feedback: A New Zealand actionresearch project. Studies In Higher Education, 40(5), 933–944. Use "&" before the final author.

Four to seven authorsSzSzcz Ę Sna, A., Nowak, A., Grabiec, P., Paszkuta, M., Tajstra, M., & Wojciechowska, M. (2017). Survey of wearable multi-modal vitalparameters measurement systems. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, 526. 37 List all authors in the reference entryMore than seven authorsKKasabov, N., Scott, N. M., Tu, E., Marks, S., Sengupta, N., Capecci, E., . . . Yang, J. (2016). Evolving spatio-temporal data machines based onthe NeuCube neuromorphic framework: Design methodology and selected applications. Neural Networks, 78, 1-14. First 6 authors . last author. and follow by date and other information.Click the type of resources on the left column to find more reference examples.Go to the In-text citation page to learn how to do in-text citations.Reference List exampleReferencesAlAlred, G. J., Brusaw, C. T., & Oliu, W. E. (2009). The business writer’s handbook. New York, NY: St Martin's Press.

BBest, A. (2004). International history of the twentieth century. Retrieved from http://www.netlibrary.comEEaston, B. (2008). Does poverty affect health? In K. Dew & A. Matheson (Eds.), Understanding health inequalities in Aotearoa New Zealand (pp.97-106). Dunedin, New Zealand: Otago University Press.FlFlesch, R. (n.d.). How to write plain English. Retrieved April 12, 2009, from guide/writing/flesch.shtmlGGlobal warming. (2009, June 1). Retrieved June 4, 2009, from warmingLiLi, S., & Seale, C. (2007). Learning to do qualitative data analysis: An observational study of doctoral work. Qualitative Health Research, 17,1442–1452. New Zealand. (2008). Annual report 2007-2008. Retrieved from file/0010/179676/Radio NZ Annual Report 2008.pdfRRead, E. (2007, November 1). Myth-busting gen Y. New Zealand Management. Retrieved from citationsA secondary citation is where you are citing information or quotes the author of your reference has taken from source that you havenot read.In-text citation:Seidenberg and McClelland’s study, conducted in 1990 (as cited in Coltheart, Curtis, Atkins, & Haller, 1993), shows that . as some studies show (Seidenberg & McClelland, as cited in Coltheart, Curtis, Atkins, & Haller, 1993).

Name the author of the original work in your text, cite the secondary source in in-text citation: (as cited in ., 1993)Reference list entry:ColColtheart, M., Curtis, B. Atkins, P., & Haller, M. (1993). Models of reading aloud: Dual-route and parallel-distributed-processingapproaches. Psychological Review, 100, 589–608. Give the secondary source in the reference list.DOI and URLDOIDOI digital object identifier A DOI commonly identifies a journal article but it can also be found on other publication types including books.All DOIs start with 10. and includes numbers and letters. Example: doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2009.08.001The DOI provides a permanent internet address for the item making it easy to locate.You may search by DOI numbers in Library Search to locate articles.Doi in your reference list entry: Always use the DOI if available (for print or online articles and books).No full stop at the end of a DOI.New!A new citing format for DOI was introduced by APA in March 2017. The new format includes https and theprefix

Example:OOppenheimer, D., Zaromb, F., Pomerantz, J. R., Williams, J. C., & Park, Y. S. (2017). Improvement of writing skills during college: A multi-yearcross-sectional and longitudinal study of undergraduate writing performance. Assessing Writing, 32, OTES:Articles retrieved from library databases may include in the DOIs. This ezproxy information should be removed.For pubmed/fdv045The correct URL for this DOI is: there is no DOI for a online journal article or an e-book, include a URL in your reference.Use the URL of a journal home page for journal articles without DOI Use the URL of the journal homepage, NOT the full URL of the article, in your reference.Finding a journal homepage URL: You could do a Google search for the journal title (within double quotation marks), e.g. "new zealand management magazine"to find the journal's homepage Or, go to the Library database Ulrichsweb, search by the journal title or the journal's ISSN to find the journal record. On thejournal record page, find the journal URL for your reference.Journals without a home page and no DOI:

This can happen to some discontinued journals, or journals archived in an archival database only. Use the database home page URL in your reference. See the example in the following section.Use a URL of a library database:Resources retrieved from a library database, without a DOI:If you use electronic resources without DOI, such as an ebook or a data set or a journal without a website, from a library database,You are required to include the URL of the database homepage in your reference. Do not use the full URL of the source that you retrieved from a database.Example:An ebook "Small town sustainability: economic, social,and environmental innovation".The URL on the ebook page 1121624 You should remove ezproxy and other details following it.The correct URL in the reference for this book should be http://ebookcentral.proquest.comSource: st

plagiarism in theses, projects and assignments of the students and academic staff of İstanbul Aydın University. Turnitin program is used to determine plagiarism / similarity rates in our university. In this document, information is provided to show according to what criteria turnitin perfor