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Withlacoochee River Working GroupCounty: AlachuaSan Felasco Invasive Exotic Plant ControlPCL: San Felasco Hammock Preserve State ParkPCL Size: 6,926 acresProject Manager: Florida Park Service (DEP)Randy Brown, Park Manager4732 Millhopper Road, Gainesville, Florida 32653Phone: 386-462-7905, Fax: 386-462-7297E-mail: [email protected] ID: WR-026Project Size: 500 acresFiscal Year 01/02Project Cost: 16,975.48San Felasco Hammock Preserve State Park is located northwest of Gainesville along Millhopper Road (CR232). This project encompassed two major areas; portions of the Moonshine Creek and Blues Creekwatersheds, and the northern quadrant of the Preserve north of Sanchez Prairie. Since the original parkacquisition in 1974, there have been several additions to the Preserve. This proposal lies within an 809-acreparcel purchased in 1994. This parcel was the headquarters for a dairy operation during the 1950s and laterthe site of an extensive tung oil orchard. Many of the tung oil trees have persisted, especially those along theslopes of the many relatively undisturbed sinkholes and ravines in the area. This species continues to be themost widespread of the exotics described for this project, covering approximately 450 acres in total. It hassteadily invaded the northern slopes of Sanchez Prairie over the years, and the potential for continued spreadinto and through the prairie lowlands is very high. The stand density varies from low at outlying spots tovery high in locations close to the old orchard operation.Target PlantsMelia azedarachCinnamomum camphoraAlbizia julibrissinAleurites fordiiWisteria sinensisRicinus communisCitrus spp.Lagerstroemia indicaCommon NameChinaberrycamphor treemimosatung oil treeChinese wisteriacastor beancitruscrape-myrtleFLEPPC RankCategory ICategory ICategory ICategory IICategory IICategory IIn/an/aTreatmentbasal barkbasal barkbasal barkbasal/hand pullbasal barkbasal barkbasal barkbasal barkHerbicideGarlon 4Garlon 4Garlon 4Garlon 4Garlon 4Garlon 4Garlon 4Garlon 4A basal bark herbicide treatment is quick and effective in dense stands of exotic trees.109

Many management areas are divided into “zones,” which can help in treating and tracking exotics.110

Paynes Prairie Invasive Exotic Plant ControlPCL: Paynes Prairie Preserve State ParkProject Manager: Florida Park Service (DEP)James Weimer, Preserve BiologistRoute 2, Box 41, Micanopy, Florida 32667Phone: 352-466-8081, Fax: 352-466-4297E-mail: [email protected] ID: WR-021Fiscal Year 01/02County: AlachuaPCL Size: 20,945 acresProject Size: 45 acresProject Cost: 10,104.26Paynes Prairie Preserve State Park is located immediately south of Gainesville. The park is listed as anOutstanding Florida Water, a National Natural Landmark, and a Priority Wetland Species Use Area. Thepark has a national reputation for the abundance and diversity of its plants and animals. With its large size,the park is the central piece in the Orange Creek Corridor of public lands, which stretches over forty miles,extending from the Santa Fe River in the north to the Ocklawaha River to the southeast.This project targeted Chinese tallow. The total project size is 312 acres; however, the project was dividedinto four phases with one phase proposed for each of the next four years. Each year the project site will bedivided into two parcels. One parcel will be treated by a contractor and the other will be treated by park staffas an in-kind contribution. The total project is divided into 120 acres to be contracted and 192 acres to betreated by staff. Phase I, treated this year, included 25 acres under contract and 20 acres treated by staff.Most of the project area was covered with a practically impenetrable thicket of small trees, shrubs, briars,and vines that virtually precluded normal access. To facilitate contractor access and to initiate restoration ofthe site, staff used heavy equipment (chopper and tree cutter) to cut paths through the project site. Thesepaths were laid out in grid and maps of the grid provided to the contractor. Paths will be suitable for foottraffic but will be too rough for use by vehicles. After treatment of exotics, the site will receive additionalchopping and a prescribed burn to facilitate community restoration. As the site is opened up by exoticscontrol, wetter spots along drainage channels are expected to be invaded by wild taro (Colocasia esculenta).Wild taro is a Category I invasive exotic and will be treated by staff as needed. Prior experience with wetprairie restoration indicates that the soil seed bank will prove adequate to restore native vegetation and arevegetation program will not be necessary.Target PlantsCommon NameFLEPPC RankSapium sebiferumChinese tallowCategory ICinnamomum camphoracamphor-treeCategory ITreatmentbasalfoliarbasalHerbicideGarlon 4Garlon 4Garlon 4111

Loblolly Woods Phase II Invasive Exotic Plant ControlCounty: AlachuaPCL: Loblolly WoodsPCL Size: 130 acresProject Manager: City of Gainesville Recreation and ParksDenise Sauerbrey1024 NE 14th Street, Building A, Gainesville, Florida 32602Phone: 352-334-2231, Fax: 352-334-2234E-mail: [email protected] ID: WR-023Project Size: 55.75 acresFiscal Year 01/02Project Cost: 24,419.91The primary goal of this project was to control emerging populations of small-leaf spiderwort and sweetautumn virginsbower. The secondary goal of this project was to prevent the spread of these species to newsites within the Hogtown Creek watershed. Loblolly Woods is contiguous with over 600 acres of additionalgreenway properties. These and other city properties have direct connections to Alachua County’sconservation property at Kanapaha Prairie. Phase I of this project addressed the treatment of eleven exoticspecies occurring at varying densities within Loblolly Woods. The City of Gainesville manages LoblollyWoods to protect and restore natural communities, maintain the floodplains, provide passive recreationoutdoors, and to serve as a connection to other conservation properties that comprise the Hogtown CreekGreenway. Loblolly Woods contains Seepage Stream, Floodplain Forest, Upland Mixed Forest, andBottomland Forest natural communities.Target PlantsTradescantia fluminensisDioscorea bulbiferaClematis terniflora112Common Namesmall-leaf spiderwortair-potatosweet autumn virginsbowerFLEPPC RankCategory ICategory In/aTreatmentfoliarfoliarfoliarHerbicideRoundup ScytheGarlon 4/Roundup ScytheGarlon 4

Hernando County Brazilian Pepper Invasive Exotic Plant ControlPCL: (see below)Project Manager: Hernando County Mosquito/Aquatic Weed ControlDr. Guangye Hu, Manager201 West Martin Luther King Jr. Blvd., Brooksville, Florida 34601Phone: (352) 754-4061, Fax: (352) 754-4066Project ID: WR-022Fiscal Year 01/02County: HernandoPCL Size: variousProject Size: 60 acresProject Cost: 31,977.19Ninety-five percent of all lands west of Highway 19 in Hernando County are held for conservation purposes.This control effort focused on public lands flanking county roads and adjacent waterways, and coastal spoilbanks west of Highway 19. Preliminary assessments indicate that Brazilian pepper has not spread east ofHighway 19. County lands are contiguous with state and federal conservation lands around Hernando Beach,Weeki-Wachee Preserve, Chassahowitzka National Wildlife Refuge, Aripeka, and Bayport. Brazilian pepperwas targeted in the following areas: Pine Island (McKethan) Park, Bayport Park, Hernando Beach Park, JenkinsCreek Park, Hernando Beach boat ramp, and spoil islands. The treatment areas included spoil islands and a100-foot swath along each side of trails, driveways, rivers, creeks, and parking lots. Hernando County hasadopted an ordinance to ensure long-term control of Brazilian pepper. The control of this species relies on theordinance and enforcement, plus the ability of the county to attract new partners to assist with the costs of thephases of this proposal.Target PlantsSchinus terebinthifoliusCasuarina equisetifoliaAlbizia julibrissinPaederia foetidaKoelreuteria elegansCommon NameBrazilian pepperAustralian pinemimosaskunk vineflamegold treeFLEPPC RankCategory ICategory ICategory ICategory ICategory IITreatmentbasal/hand pullbasal barkbasal barkfoliarbasal barkHerbicideGarlon 4Garlon 4Garlon 4RoundupGarlon 4The Bayport (left) and Pine Island(below) sites. Airboats were required toreach the canal banks and many smallislands in this project113

The Aripeka project area. Both public and private lands are affected by a Hernando County ordinance thatrequires the removal of Brazilian pepper from all properties within the county.Contractor crews landed on the islands and defeated the invading Brazilian pepper (left) and Australian pine (right).114

Skunk vine is a serious problem in southwest Florida. It smothers understory vegetation and has a putrid odor.This exotic invader is a real stinker!The sun has set fot the last time on these Australian pines.115

Goethe State Forest Invasive Exotic Plant ControlCounty: Alachua, LevyPCL: Goethe State ForestPCL Size: 45,212 acresProject Manager: Division of Forestry (DACS)Elizabeth Zimmerman8250 SE CR 336, Dunnellon, Florida 34431Phone: 352-447-2202, Fax: 352-447-1358E-mail: [email protected] ID: WR-027Project Size: 49.7 acresFiscal Year 01/02Project Cost: 6,459.60Goethe State Forest has more than fifteen different natural communities, including Sandhill, MesicFlatwoods, Hydric Hammock, Scrubby Flatwoods, Wet Flatwoods, Dome Swamp, and Basin Swamp. Theforest may contain the largest tract of contiguous, old-growth, longleaf pine flatwoods in the state. Thisextensive old-growth flatwoods has one of the largest red-cockaded woodpecker populations in Florida.Other rare animal species found on the forest include the Florida black bear, gopher tortoise, Sherman's foxsquirrel, and bald eagle. Rare plants include the hooded pitcher plant, greenfly orchid, and coontie.This project is divided into three exotic control areas: New Acquisition North (NAN), New AcquisitionSouth (NAS), and Watermelon Pond East (WPE). Camphor tree, Chinaberry, and skunk vine were foundwithin 31 acres total of NAN with 18%, 18%, and 8% cover, respectively. Camphor tree and air-potatooccupied 10 acres of NAS with 20% and 30% cover, respectively. Japanese climbing fern occurred in WPEover 8.7 acres with a 45% cover.Target PlantsCinnamomum camphoraLigustrum spp.Common Namecamphor treeprivetFLEPPC RankCategory ICategory IAlbizia julibrissinmimosaCategory IDioscorea bulbiferaLygodium japonicumWisteria sinensisair-potatoJapanese climbing fernChinese wisteriaCategory ICategory ICategory II116Treatmentbasal barkbasal barkbasal barkfoliarfoliarfoliarfoliarHerbicideGarlon 4Garlon 4Garlon 4RoundupRoundupRoundupRoundup

Project maps for New Acquisition (previous page) and Watermelon Pond (above) areas of Goethe Forest.Posting an informative sign at controlsites helps educate the public aboutinvasive species. The Bureau has alimited number of signs (left) that itmakes available to project managers.These aluminum signs are durable andcan be passed on to another projectafter completion.117

Invasive adventive (exotic) vines are a problem throughout the state. Inthe north, air-potato (above) and Japanese climbing fern (right) are two ofthe worst invaders.These two sites were treated for Lygodium japonicum andsome initial die-off is evident. L. japonicum and its southernrelative L. microphyllum, Old World climbing fern, arerecognized as severe threats to Florida’s natural areas.118

County: MarionScott Springs Invasive Exotic Plant ControlPCL: Scott Springs/Celebrate 2000 Community ParkPCL Size: 22 acresProject Manager: City of Ocala Recreation and ParksElizabeth C. Houck, Landscape ArchitectP.O. Box 38, Ocala, Florida 34478Phone: 352-629-8521, Fax: 352-629-8208E-mail: [email protected] ID: WR-024Project Size: 7 acresFiscal Year 01/02Project Cost: 6,722.48Scott Spring/Celebrate 2000 Community Park is a 9.6-acre natural “sink” that lies amidst a 22-acre parcel ofland. The site has several unique geological features including above-ground and underwater caves. Most ofthe invasive exotics were found in the 4.15-acre mesic hammock surrounding the sink. This area has beendisturbed over the years due to artifact hunters digging throughout. Exotic plant coverage was estimated at70%, northeast of the sink. The remainder of the preserved property is a pine upland area, (approximately5.20 acres). This area is well drained, with rock outcrops and sinkholes occurring. The D.R.A. (DrainageRetention Area) is a dry pond supporting many vegetative pioneer species including salt bush, red cedar,pine, and hackberry. Exotic plant coverage was estimated at 20% around the drainage area boundaries.Target PlantsMelia azedarachCinnamomum camphoraAlbizia julibrissinLigustrum spp.Broussonetia papyriferaCommon NameChinaberrycamphor treemimosaprivetpaper mulberryFLEPPC RankCategory ICategory ICategory ICategory ICategory IITreatmentbasal barkbasal barkbasal barkbasal barkbasal barkHerbicideGarlon 4Garlon 4Garlon 4Garlon 4Garlon 4119

Boardwalks and trails lead through a “jungle” of paper mulberry.The springs area (above) is central to the park. Here native plants(right) grow from out of the steep limestone walls.120

County: MarionFort King Invasive Exotic Plant ControlPCL: Fort King PropertyPCL Size: 37 acresProject Manager: City of Ocala Recreation and ParksElizabeth C. Houck, Landscape ArchitectP.O. Box 38, Ocala, Florida 34478Phone: 352-629-8521, Fax: 352-629-8208E-mail: [email protected] ID: WR-028Project Size: 37 acresFiscal Year 01/02Project Cost: 21,572.49The Fort King property in east Ocala is comprised predominately of Upland Mesic Hardwood Hammock andmuch of the exotics were found in this natural community. An Aquatic Marsh at the southeast corner of theproperty includes a spring-fed pond, approximately 50 feet in diameter, which outfalls to a small creektraveling north. The creek floodplain was dominated by coral ardisia. An area of planted pine west of thehomestead contains approximately 10% of invasive species. These are mostly concentrated adjacent to aneighboring residential property. A small area (approximately 3.5 acres) of the property was cleared due tothe Southern pine beetle infestation that hit Marion County in 1997 and subsequently has become host toseveral invasive species. The area around the house and entry off East Fort King Street is sod under plantedpines and contained approximately 5% of the invasive species.Target PlantsArdisia crenataCinnamomum camphoraNephrolepis cordifoliaLigustrum spp.Common Namecoral ardisiacamphor treesword fernprivetFLEPPC RankCategory ICategory ICategory ICategory IAlbizia julibrissinmimosaCategory IBroussonetia papyriferapaper mulberryCategory IIWisteria sinensisChinese wisteriaCategory IIKoelreuteria elegansgolden raintreeCategory IITreatmentbasal/foliarbasal barkbasal barkbasal barkbasal barkfoliarbasal barkfoliarbasal barkfoliarbasal barkHerbicideGarlon 4Garlon 4Garlon 4Garlon 4Garlon 4Roundup/Garlon 4Garlon 4RoundupGarlon 4RoundupGarlon 4Coral ardisia (left) was the primary target species, while air-potato(above) remains to be treated.121

Silver River Cogon Grass Invasive Exotic Plant ControlPCL: Silver River State ParkCounty: MarionPCL Size: 4,230 acresSite Manager: Florida Park Service (DEP)Bob LaMont, Park Manager1425 NE 58th Avenue, Ocala, Florida 34470Phone: 352-236-7152, Fax: 352-236-7150E-mail: [email protected] ID: WR-025, WR-030Project Size: 75 acresFiscal Year 01/02Project Cost: 20,975Silver River State Park is located in Ocala, adjoining the Silver Springs attraction. Silver River is a firstmagnitude spring-fed stream that flows into the Ocklawaha River. The park encompasses the river and overfourteen natural community types. Cogon grass occurs throughout the Pine Flatwoods and is invading thehigh quality, endangered Sandhill. Cogon grass occurs in various concentrations, from relatively continuouscoverage to small patches, in areas accessible by roads. Portions of the flatwoods community do notpresently have cogon grass, but the potential for cogon grass to spread into the unaffected flatwoods areas isextremely high. This project worked to contain the further spread of cogon grass into the park’s flatwoods.This was a cost-share project with the Florida Park Service contributing 5,000 toward the project cost. Are-treatment was also conducted on the project area treated in the previous fiscal year.Target PlantsImperata cylindrica122Common Namecogon grassFLEPPC RankCategory ITreatmentfoliarHerbicideRoundup

Rainbow Springs Phase II Invasive Exotic Plant ControlPCL: Rainbow Springs State ParkSite Manager: Florida Park Service (DEP)David Jowers, Park Manager19158 SW 81st Place Road, Dunnellon, Florida 34432Phone: 352-489-8503, Fax: 352-465-7855E-mail: [email protected] ID: WR-029Fiscal Year 01/02County: MarionPCL Size: 1,038 acresProject Size: 16.75 acresProject Cost: 31,367.94Rainbow Springs is a first-magnitude spring with an average discharge of 491 million gallons per day. Thestate park was established with the purchase of a former private attraction built around the spring pool andheadsprings. The spring run is also managed by the state as the 4,000-acre Rainbow River State AquaticPreserve. The former attraction included ornamental gardens, which went untended for nearly twenty yearsbefore the state’s purchase and are the source of most of the exotic plant invasions. The natural communitiesof the park include Hydric Hammock, Pine Flatwoods, Sandhill, Upland Mixed Forest, and Basin Swamp.Disturbed areas, in addition to the gardens, include shallow phosphate mining pits from the late 1800s. TheRainbow Springs Phase II project was primarily directed at treatment of air potato.This was a cost-share project with Florida Park Service contributing 6,274 toward the project cost.Target PlantsAlbizia julibrissinCinnamomum camphoraMelia azedarachDioscorea bulbiferaDioscorea bulbiferaColocasia esculentaPaederia foetidaCommon towild taroskunk vineFLEPPC RankCategory ICategory ICategory ICategory ICategory ICategory ICategory IArdisia crenatacoral ardisiaCategory IBroussonetia papyriferaWisteria sinensisElaeagnus pungensPodocarpus macrophylluspaper mulberryChinese wisteriasilverthornyew plumpineCategory IICategory IICategory arbasal/foliarhand pullbasalbasalbasalbasalHerbicideGarlon 4Garlon 4Garlon 4Garlon 4RoundupRoundupRoundupGarlon 4n/aGarlon 4Garlon 4Garlon 4Garlon 4123

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Ravine Gardens Invasive Exotic Plant ControlPCL: Ravine Gardens State ParkProject Manager: Florida Park Service (DEP)Bob Rundle, Park ManagerP.O. Box 1096, Palatka, Florida 32177Phone: 904-329-3721, Fax: 904-329-3718E-mail: [email protected] ID: WR-017Fiscal Year 01/02County: PutnamPCL Size: 146.42 acresProject Size: 6 acresProject Cost: 24,990.74Ravine State Gardens contains three steephead ravines totaling approximately 53 acres. Air-potato waslocated primarily along the slopes of the ravine with an approximate 30% coverage. Camphor-tree and coralardisia were scattered throughout the ravine with an estimated coverage of less than 5%. The bottom of theravine downstream of the seeps had over one acre of bamboo (Bambusa spp.) removed within the last twoyears. In addition to the three Category I species listed above, cat’s-claw vine (Macfadyena unguis-cati)invaded in small patches along the upper ravine slopes. Since no Current Control Technologies exist for thisspecies, it was omitted from the proposal, but park staff proposed to remove this species from the areaconcurrently. The goal of the project was to control air-potato (Dioscorea bulbifera), camphor-tree(Cinnamomum camphora), and coral ardisia (Ardisia crenata) located within the western end of Ravine 1A.This was a cost-share project with the Florida Park Service contributing 5,000 toward the project cost.Target PlantsCommon NameFLEPPC RankDioscorea bulbiferaair-potatoCategory IArdisia crenataMelia azedarachCinnamomum camphoraElaeagnus pungensPodocarpus macrophylluscoral ardisiaChinaberrycamphor-treesilverthornyew plumpineCategory ICategory ICategory ICategory IIn/aTreatmentfoliarhand on 4Garlon 4Garlon 4Garlon 4Garlon 4125

forest may contain the largest tract of contiguous, old-growth, longleaf pine flatwoods in the state. This extensive old-growth flatwoods has one of the largest red-cockaded woodpecker populations in Florida. Other rare animal species found on the forest include the Florida black bear, gopher