March 2006A GUIDE TO NAMES ANDNAMING PRACTICESThis guide has been produced by the United Kingdom to aid with difficulties that arecommonly encountered with names from around the globe. Interpol believes that membercountries may find this guide useful when dealing with names from unfamiliar countries orregions. Interpol is keen to provide feedback to the authors and at the same time developthis guidance further for Interpol member countries to work towards standardisation fortranslation, data transmission and data entry.The General Secretariat encourages all member countries to take advantage of thisdocument and provide feedback and, if necessary, updates or corrections in order tohave the most up to date and accurate document possible.

A GUIDE TO NAMES AND NAMING PRACTICES1.Names are a valuable source of information. They can indicate gender, marital status,birthplace, nationality, ethnicity, religion, and position within a family or even within a society.However, naming practices vary enormously across the globe. The aim of this guide is toidentify the knowledge that can be gained from names about their holders and to helpovercome difficulties that are commonly encountered with names of foreign origin.2.The sections of the guide are governed by nationality and/or ethnicity, depending onthe influencing factor upon the naming practice, such as religion, language or geography.Inevitably, this guide is not exhaustive and any feedback or suggestions for additionalsections will be welcomed.How to use this guide4.Each section offers structured guidance on the following:a.typical components of a name:e.g. personal name family nameb.familial relationships, i.e. how marriage affects names and how children arenamed;c.common titles used as forms of address;d.unique characteristics of the naming customs for a particular nationality orethnicity;e.any common variations in spelling names in English.6.The Common Names Guide (Annex A) and the Common Origins of Family NameEndings (Annex B) both act as initial indicators of a name’s possible origins and link to therelevant section of the guide.7.Links and crossovers in the guide are referenced and hyperlinked (indicated byunderlined blue text in the electronic version) for ease of use.Explanation of terms8.The terms used in this guide include:a.personal name; middle name; family name (given in upper-case);b.father’s personal name: as a component of a child’s full name;c.patronymic: name derived from personal name of father;d.grandfather’s personal name: as a component of a grandchild’s full name;e.(honorific) title: a name or title given to, or used by, a person as a mark ofstatus or respect;f.religious name: a name or title given to, or used by, a person according tothe tradition of the person’s religion.2

A GUIDE TO NAMES AND NAMING PRACTICESCONTENTSPageAFRICA1.Nigerian:2.Somalia. Yorubab. Igbo (Ibo)c. .15.16.BulgarianCzech & eseRomanianRussianSpanishTurkishUkrainianWestern Balkans:a. Albanianb. Bosnian, Serbian & Croatianc. Macedoniand. 8-29303131-3232-3333a. Iraqi Arabb. Iraqi Kurdish34-3738-394040MIDDLE EAST17.18.19.Arab MuslimIranianIraqiSOUTH AMERICA20.21.BrazilianColombian4141SOUTHERN ASIA22.Afghan:23.24.Bangladeshi-MuslimIndian:a. Northern Indiana. Darib. Pashtub. Southern Indianc. Muslimd. Sikh25.26.Pakistani-MuslimSri Lankan:a. Sinhaleseb. Tamili. Hinduii. 5-563

SOUTH EASTERN & EASTERN ASIA27.Chinese28.29.30.KoreanThaiVietnamesea. Mainlandb. Taiwanc. Hong Kong57-61626263-656667-68ANNEXESA.B.Common Names GuideCommon Origins of Family Name Endings69-8788-894

1. NIGERIAN1.1Nigeria has hundreds of different ethnic groups, with many unique naming practices.Three of the most prominent of these groups are Yoruba, Igbo/Ibo and Hausa.a.YORUBA – South Western regions1.2personal name(s) family namee.g. Oluwole RANSOME-KUTI1.3Yoruba personal names are chosen for their meaning and may give more informationabout their holders (see 1.7).1.4Many Yoruba names are compound words, with the following elements frequentlyoccurring in some part of the name:ade, ayo, fe, ife, ire, oba, omo, ola, olu, oluwae.g. Olatunde.Familial relationships1.5Women typically take their husband’s family name upon marriage.1.6Children traditionally take their father’s family name.1.7In Yoruba culture, personal names often reflect the circumstances under which achild was born:a.Sunday: some children are named after the day of the week on which theywere born (in English), particularly used for children born on a Sunday;b.Taiwo: ‘pre-tasted the world’, given to the first of a set of twins;c.Kehinde: ‘the one who lagged behind’, given to the second of a set of twins;d.Idowu: this is given to the child born after a set of twins;e.Alaba: this is given to the child born after Idowu;f.Tokunbo: this is given to a child born outside of Nigeria.Unique Characteristics1.8The following naming practices should also be noted:a.long Yoruba names are often abbreviated:e.g. ‘Wole for Oluwole, ‘Tai for Taiwo;b.some Yoruba names are not gender specific, e.g. Kehinde;5

c.individuals may also have a Western nickname or an additional Westernpersonal name. These are quite often biblical names, e.g. Joseph, Samson,Moses, but can be other Western names, e.g. Austin:e.g. Austin Babatunde OLALEGBIN.d.some Yoruba individuals add a Muslim title to their name (see 1.16).- Link to Common Names Guide- Return to Contentsb.IGBO (IBO) – South Eastern regions1.9personal name(s) family namee.g. Chinua ACHEBE1.10Many Igbo names are compound words, frequently using the following elements:amaka, mma, nma, chi, chukwu, nna, nne, nwa, new, ek, olisae.g. Chukwuemeka.Unique characteristics1.11The following naming practices should also be noted:a.long Igbo names are often abbreviated. However, as names are often builtfrom common elements, the same abbreviation may be used for several fullnames:e.g. ‘Emeka could be short for Nnaemeka, Chiemeka,Chukwuemeka, Olisaemeka, etc;b.many Igbo names are not gender-specific, e.g. Chibueze;c.individuals may also have a Western nickname or an additional Westernpersonal name. These are quite often biblical names, e.g. Joseph, Samson,Moses, but can be other Western names, e.g. George:e.g. Chukwuma Moses CHINEDU.- Link to Common Names Guide- Return to Contentsc.HAUSA – Northern regions1.12personal name family namee.g. Ahmad TAHIRe.g. Abubakar KANO6

1.13 Hausa names are heavily influenced by Islam, e.g. the personal name Ahmad, andmany compound personal names begin with Abdul (‘servant of’) followed by one of theattributes of Allah, e.g. AbdulRahman, Abdulsalam, Abdulmalik, Abdulaziz.1.14Family names can be compound, e.g. BABBA-INNA.1.15 Some family names come from names of local communities, e.g. KANO, SOKOTO,to show clan affiliation.Titles1.16 Hausa names can include the title Al-Hajj(i) / Hajj(i) to indicate that the person hasundergone the Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca.Unique characteristics1.17The following naming practices should also be noted:a.see Variations in Arab Muslim (17.15) for variations in the transliteration, andtherefore spelling, of Muslim names, e.g. Muhammad, Mohammed.- Link to Common Names Guide- Return to Contents7

2. SOMALI2.1personal name father’s personal name paternal grandfather’s personal namee.g. Omar Elmi Dihoud(no family name)2.2In order to identify a given Somali, all three names must be used, although Somalistraditionally use only the first and second names to address someone.Familial relationships2.3Women do not traditionally change their names upon marrying; they keep theiroriginal names from their father and grandfather.2.4A typical Somali family may therefore be named as follows:e.g. (father)Omar Elmi Dihoud(mother) Waris Abdi Duale(son)Ali Omar Elmi(daughter) Roda Omar Elmi2.5In Western societies, women may adopt their husband’s last name (that of hispaternal grandfather) to adapt to local customs:e.g. the wife of Omar Elmi Dihoud may be known as Waris Abdi Dihoud.2.6There is a custom of naming first children Faduma in the case of girls andMuhammad for boys. Male twins are traditionally named Hassan and Hussein.Titles2.7Titles such as Mr. and Mrs. do not exist in the Somali language.Unique Characteristics2.8The following naming practices should also be noted:a.Somalis commonly use nicknames (‘naanays’), as many Somalis have similarnames. As there no distinct family names, all names come from the same‘pool’ of personal names. There are generally two types of nicknames:i.overt: those used to address the person so named, e.g. Raage (‘hewho is delayed at birth’) and Gaal (‘foreigner–one who has livedabroad’);ii.covert: those used in conversation about a person, but rarely face-toface, e.g. Laba sacle (‘man with only two cows’) and Wiil Waal (‘crazyboy’);b.Somali personal names are typically of Cushitic or Arabic origin. The letter h isoften exchanged for x in names, e.g. Mohammad / Maxammed.c.common Somali Cushitic personal names include:8

d.i.male: Awaale, Waabberi, Arale / Caraale, Gutaale, Guleed;ii.female: Awa / Cawo, Ambro / Cambro, Haweeya, Ubah / Ubax;common Somali Arabic personal names include:i.male: Mohammad / Maxammed / Maxamud / Muxumed,Ahmed / Axmed, Hussein / Xusseen, Omar;ii.female: Faadumo, Aasha, Fawzia, Sahra.- Link to Common Names Guide- Return to Contents9

3. BULGARIAN3.1personal name(s) patronymic family namee.g. Emil Petrov CHRISTOV3.2Bulgarian family names often have the following endings, with an -A ending forfeminine use:MaleFemale-OV-OVA-EV-EVA-SKI / -SKY-SKA-IN-INA3.3A patronymic is used, derived from the father’s personal name. The endings forpatronymics are the same as the above for family names:e.g. Emil Petrov CHRISTOV’s father would have been Petr. The –ov endingforms the patronymic.3.4Some children are given their grandfather’s name as a surname in place of the familyname, meaning that the family name is lost. As a first born son is often named after hisgrandfather, this can lead to a person having a personal and family name derived from thesame name:e.g. Stefan Georgiev STEFANOV (with his grandfather Stefan’s personalname as a personal name and turned into a surname);e.g. Stefan Georgiev STEFANOV’s son will then be called Georgi StefanovGEORGIEV (named after his grandfather and with his grandfather’spersonal name as a surname).3.5Bulgarians often drop their family name and use the patronymic as a surname:e.g. Stefan Georgiev STEFANOV may be known as Stefan Georgiev.N.B. The patronymic is not always written so it is also possible that the name ‘StefanGeorgiev’ is Stefan GEORGIEV, with Georgiev as the family name and nopatronymic written.Familial relationships3.6Wives typically take their husband’s family name, with the feminine ending, althoughmany continue to use their maiden name:e.g. Emil Petrov CHRISTOV’s wife may be Iva Stefanova CHRISTOVA.3.7If a patronymic is used as a surname by the husband, wives can also use this name,with a feminine ending, as a surname:e.g. Stefan Georgiev’s wife may be known as Nevena Georgieva(husband’s patronymic).10

3.8In Western societies, women may keep the same ending as their husband on thesurname:e.g. Nevena Georgiev or Iva Stefanova CHRISTOV.Titles3.9The following titles are used with family names:MrMrsMissGospodinGospozhaGospozhitza- Link to Common Names Guide- Return to Contents11

4. CZECH & SLOVAK4.1personal name(s) family namee.g. Karel CAMEKe.g. Marie MAJEROVÁ4.2Czech female family names are often their male equivalents with the ending -OVÁattached:e.g. (m) CAMEK, (f) CAMKOVÁ(note ‘E’ is removed before the female ending)(m) NOVÁK, (f) NOVÁKOVÁ4.3Family names ending in –SKÝ or –NÝ will end in –SKÁ and –NÁ for women:e.g. (m) NOVOTNÝ, (f) NOVOTNÁ.4.4Family names can have the prefix ‘z’ (meaning ‘of’):e.g. Karel z ZEROTINA.Familial relationships4.5Upon marriage, women typically take their husband’s family name (with feminineending) or add his family name to their own:e.g. if Adela LANDOVÁ married Jakub ŠTYCHKOV, she may be knownas Adela ŠTYCHKOVÁ or Adela LANDOVÁ-ŠTYCHKOVÁ.4.6In Western societies, women may use the same form of the family name as theirhusband:e.g. Adela ŠTYCHKOV.Titles4.7The following titles are used in conjunction with the family name:MrMrsMissPanPaniSlečnaUnique Characteristics4.8The following naming practices should also be noted:a.diminutives are often used for personal names. These are often longer thanthe original name, e.g. Vĕra becomes Vĕruška, Petra becomes Petruška.Some also look different from the original name, e.g. Jan may becomeHonza, Josef may become Pepík.- Link to Common Names Guide- Return to Contents12

5. GREEK5.1personal name(s) patronymic family namee.g. a son whose father’s name was Georgios might be calledSpyros Georgiou KYPRIANOS.5.2Some family names have a masculine and feminine form:e.g. (m) KYPRIANOS, (f) KYPRIANOU.N.B. Some Greek men may have a feminine ending on their family name, i.e. –OU(e.g. due to adoption of their mother’s family name).5.3Traditionally, a patronymic is used as a middle name, derived from the father’spersonal name, usually with the ending –ou, meaning ‘of’, i.e. Spyros Georgiou means‘Spyros (the son) of Georgios’. This can help to distinguish between family members withthe same personal name and family name. The patronymic can often be given as an initial:e.g. Spyros P. KYPRIANOS.5.4A person may also have a second personal name (a middle name):e.g. Spyros Constantinos Georgiou KYPRIANOS.Familial relationships5.5Wives and children typically take their husband’s family name.5.6Wives and daughters will typically take the female form of the male name, e.g. thewife of Mr MARCOS will be Mrs MARCOU. However, some modern Greek women take thefamily name in the same form as their husband/father, i.e. Mrs MARCOS.5.7A wife also traditionally takes her husband’s personal name (with the patronymicending) in place of the patronymic in her name:e.g. if Ekaterini Nikou MARCOU married Spyros Georgiou KYPRIANOS,she would be known as Ekaterini Spyrou (husband’s personal name)KYPRIANOU.5.8In Greek tradition, the first son is named after his paternal grandfather and the firstdaughter is given the maternal grandmother’s personal name:e.g. Spyros Georgiou KYPRIANOS’s grandfather may be named Spyros.Titles5.9The following titles may be used with family names:MrMrsMissKyriosKyriaDespinis / Despinida13

Unique Characteristics5.10The following naming practices should also be noted:a.Greek family names can often be abbreviated. The name PAPPAS is a goodexample of this. PAPPAS can be a family name in itself; however, it is RISTODOULOPOULOS;b.lengthy personal names are also often katerinito Thanasis /Thanosto Takis / Dimosto Costas / Dinosto Katrina / KatiaGreek CypriotGreek Cypriot names typically follow the same practices as Greek names.Variations5.11 Variations in the spelling of Greek names often occur in English rendering of Greekletters. Common variations include: D THPH FY GIB VMB MP BK CU I YKH CHU OUNT DP R (from a transcription error)e.g. Yannis Giannis- Link to Common Names Guide- Return to Contents14

6. HUNGARIAN6.1family name(s) personal name(s)e.g. KOVÁCS János6.2If there is more than one personal name, they come in order of importance after thefamily name:e.g. KOVÁCS János Aladár.6.3There can be more than one family name, which can be written fully or abbreviatedinto initials:e.g. SEGESDY KOVÁCS JánosSEGESDY-KOVÁCS JánosS.KOVÁCS JánosSEGESDY K. JánosFamilial relationships6.4Married Hungarian women have many name options, usually using the ending né:e.g.if TÍMÁR Katalin married KOVÁCS János, she may be known as:a.TÍMÁR Katalin: keeping her maiden name;b.KOVÁCS Jánosné: using her husband’s full name with a né ending on herhusband’s personal name;c.KOVÁCS Jánosné TÍMÁR Katalin: using her husband’s personal name witha né ending plus keeping her whole maiden name;d.KOVÁCSNÉ TÍMÁR Katalin: using her husband’s family name with the néending plus using her whole maiden name;e.K. TÍMÁR Katalin: using only the initial of her husband’s family name andkeeping her whole maiden name;f.KOVÁCS Katalin: using her husband’s family name with her personal name.Titles6.5The following titles are used after the full name or family name (for ‘Mrs’ see use ofné, 6.4):MrúrMisskisasszonye.g. KOVÁCS János úr / KOVÁCS úr6.6A widow may add özvegy / özv. before her married name:e.g. özv. SZABO Istvánné would be the widow of SZABO István.- Link to Common Names Guide- Return to Contents15

7. LATVIAN7.1personal name(s) family namee.g. Janis KALNINŠ7.2There are normally different endings to family names for men and women:e.g. (m) KALNINŠ, (f) KALNINA.7.3Male Latvian personal and family names typically end in -s (-š). Some may bederived from Russian names, with an -s ending:e.g. Vladislavs KAZANOVS.7.4Female Latvian personal and family names typically end in -a or -e.e.g. Jelena GALANTE.Familial relationships7.5Married women typically take their husband’s family name with the feminine ending:e.g. the wife of Janis KALNINŠ would be Ilga KALNINA.7.6Some Latvian women in Western societies will not change the ending of their familyname to a feminine form:e.g. Ilga KALNINŠ rather than Ilga KALNINA.Titles7.7The following are titles used with the family name:MrMrsMissKungsKundzeJaunkundze- Link to Common Names Guide- Return to Contents16

8. LITHUANIAN8.1personal name(s) family namee.g. Eduardas MIEZELAITIS8.2Common Lithuanian endings for male family names are diminutive forms (ending in-S) such as:-AITIS, -UTIS, -YTIS, -ENAS, -UNAS, -INIS, -YNIS, -ONIS, -IUS, -ELIS8.3There are differences between male family names and those of married andunmarried women:a.the family names of married women are formed by dropping the ending of themale family name and adding the suffix -IENE. The suffix -IENE thereforedenotes a married woman;b.the family names of unmarried women are formed by adding the suffixes-AITE, -YTE, -UTE, -TE;e.g.8.4MaleMarried womanUnmarried ITEZUJUSZUJIENE / ZUJUVIENEZUJUTELithuanian male personal names typically end in –s:e.g. Eduardas, Egidijus.Familial relationships8.5Married women typically take their husband’s family name, with the endings formarried women (8.3.a).8.6A child’s family name is traditionally inherited from the father.Titles8.7The following titles are used with Lithuanian names:MrMrsMissPonasPoniPanele- Link to Common Names Guide- Return to Contents17

9. POLISH9.1personal name family namee.g. Piotr MALINOWSKI9.2The below table shows common endings of Polish family names. The masculineplural ending is used to describe two or more persons with at least one man in the group.The feminine plural is used for two or more women, with no men included:Masculine-SKI-CKIe.g. KOWALSKIFeminine-SKA-CKAPlural (masculine)-SCY-CCYPlural other common family name ending (with no changes) is –WICZ, e.g.IWASZKIEWICZ.Familial relationships9.4Wives and children typically take on the husband/father’s family name or can useboth family names (often hyphenated). However, a wife and daughter may have thefeminine, ending to the name (see 9.2):e.g. the wife of Piotr MALINOWSKI might be Danuta MALINOWSKA.9.5Some women living in Western societies, or who marry abroad, use the same familyname ending as their husband/father, e.g. Danuta MALINOWSKI.Titles9.6The following are courtesy titles to be followed by a personal name or family name:MrMrsMissPanPaniPani / PannaUnique characteristics9.7The following naming practices should also be noted:a.Polish does not contain the letter ‘V’, it instead uses ‘W’ (with the sound ofEnglish ‘v’). This can often be a way to distinguish between Polish and otherSlav family names, although is not always foolproof due to incorrecttransliterations from Polish:e.g. NOWAK is Polish, but NOVÁK would be Czech or Slovak;e.g. KALINOWSKI is Polish, KALINOVSKI / SKY would be Russian;18

b.Polish has two versions of the letter ‘L/l’, namely ‘L/l’ and ‘Ł/ł’. The latter isoften replaced by the standard English ‘L/l’, but can also be confused with theletter ‘T/t’:e.g. MICHATOWSKI could be mistakenly written for MICHAŁOWSKI.- Link to Common Names Guide- Return to Contents19

10. PORTUGUESE(also for 20. Brazilian)10.1personal name(s) mother’s paternal family name(s) father’s paternal family name(s)e.g. Luiz João PAZOS SILVA10.2 Portuguese often have two personal names, although the first may at times be used onits own:e.g. Luiz João may be known as Luiz.Family names10.3 The family name from the father will often be used alone, but the mother’s familyname will rarely be used in isolation:e.g. Luiz João PAZOS SILVA may be known as Luiz João SILVA, but veryrarely as Luiz João PAZOS.10.4Family names can be written separately or joined by ‘e’ (‘and’):e.g. Joana Filipa SANTOS CUNHA / Joana Filipa SANTOS E CUNHA.10.5 A Portuguese family name can have more than one word, e.g. SANTA RITA (‘SaintMargaret’). It is also common to use ‘do’, ‘dos’ and ‘da’ (meaning ‘of the’) as part of thefamily name, e.g. DOS SANTOS or DA SILVA.10.6 The same rules apply in Brazil, however it is now common for a Brazilian to haveonly one family name, the father’s paternal family name.Portuguese / Spanish10.7 Many Portuguese family names end in -ES, e.g. LOPES, and, where applicable,personal names usually end in -z, rather than -s, e.g. Luiz. This is the reverse of names inSpanish, which have family name endings of -EZ and personal names with -s:e.g. Luis GONZALEZ would be Spanish and Luiz GONZALES would bePortuguese.10.8.Portuguese family name ordering is the reverse of that in Spanish names (see 13).Familial relationships10.9 Upon marriage, women from Portuguese cultures have different options, althoughalmost always keep their maiden names:e.g.if Ana Marίa GONCALVES GORGUIERA married Luiz PAZOS SILVAshe might be known as:a.Ana Marίa GONCALVES GORGUIERA: keeping her maiden names;b.Ana Marίa GONCALVES GORGUEIRA SILVA: adding her husband’spaternal family name to her own. A woman may add both her husband’s20

family names to her own, therefore having six family names in total. Thepreposition ‘DE’ may sometimes appear in front of the husband’s familyname;c.Ana Marίa GORGUEIRA SILVA: some married woman may drop their ownmaternal family name and add their husband’s paternal family name (possiblywith ‘DE’).10.10 A person can adopt both paternal and maternal family names from each parent, andtherefore have four family names within their own name. If only one family name from eachparent is inherited, it will be the paternal name. Maternal family names are always placedbefore those from the father:e.g.the son of Marίa CUNHA SANTOS and José PEREIRA ABREU may be:a.Carlos João SANTOS ABREU;b.Carlos João SANTOS PEREIRA ABREU;c.Carlos João CUNHA SANTOS PEREIRA ABREU;d.he may be known as simply Carlos ABREU (see 10.2 & 10.3).Titles10.11 The following titles are used in Portuguese:MrMrsSeñor / SenhorSeñora / Senhora10.12 The terms Filho (‘son’), Junior, and Neto/Netto (‘grandson’) are sometimes usedfollowing a Portuguese family name to indicate a familial relationship. They should berecorded as part of a person’s name.Unique Characteristics10.13 The following naming practices should also be noted:a.see Spanish 13.14.a for the use of the personal name Marίa in compoundpersonal names;b.diminutives are often used in Portuguese, formed by adding –inho for men or–inha for women:e.g. João becomes Joãzinho, Teresa becomes Terezinha.- Link to Common Names Guide- Return to Contents21

11. ROMANIAN11.1personal name(s) family name – in either ordere.g. Mihai EMINESCU / EMINESCU Mihai11.2Romanian names can be given in different orders on different occasions:a.the ordering personal name family name is typically used in conversation,particularly in Western societies;b.the ordering family name personal name is typically used in officialdocuments.11.3 A Romanian will often introduce himself with his family name first, particularly in anyofficial context.11.4Common endings for Romanian family names include:-ESCU (originally from patronymic, ‘son of’) e.g. IONESCU, POPESCUe.g. TARICEANU-EANU-ARUe.g. GRADINARUFamilial relationships11.5 A wife most often takes her husband’s family name; very few retain their maidenname:e.g. if Catalina IONESCU married Dinu POPA, she would become Catalina POPA.11.6Children usually inherit the father’s family name.Titles11.7The following titles are commonly used in front of the family name:MrMrsMissDomnul / DlDoamna / D-na / DnaDomnisoara / D-soara / Dsoara- Link to Common Names Guide- Return to Contents22

12. RUSSIAN12.1personal name patronymic family namee.g. a Russian man whose father’s personal name is Ivan may beMikhail Ivanovich KARLOV12.2 The patronymic is derived from the father’s personal name and applies equally tochildren of both genders, but with different endings:12.3a.for a man, it will usually end -OVICH (‘son of’), -EVICH, or -YEVICH, e.g.Ivan’s son will have the patronymic Ivanovich;b.for a woman, it will be -OVNA (‘daughter of’), -EVNA, or -YEVNA, e.g. Ivan’sdaughter will have the patronymic Ivanovna.The personal name and the patronymic is often used as a standard form of address:e.g. Mikhail Ivanovich KARLOV may be addressed as Mikhail Ivanovich.12.4 Russian family names also have masculine and feminine variants. The most commonfamily name endings include:Masculine-OV-EV-IN-IY-OY-UY-YN-SKI / -SKY / -SKIYFeminine-OVA / -OVNA-EVA / -EVNA-INA-AYA, -OYA, -EYA, -IAYA-YNA-SKAYAe.g. Ivan’s children’s full names will be (f) Alexandra Ivanovna KARLOVA(m) Mikhail Ivanovich KARLOV (note different endings to the KARLOVfamily name).Familial relationships12.5Married Russian women are most often known by their husband’s family name, withthe feminine ending to the name:e.g. if Alexandra Ivanovna KARLOV married Mikhail SergeyevichBORISOV, then she would become Alexandra Ivanovna BORISOVA.12.6An example of another Russian family might be:(father)(wife)(son)(daughter)Vladimir Ivanovich KARLOVNatasha Mikhaylovna KARLOVAAlexandr Vladimirovich KARLOVAnna Vladimirovna KARLOVA23

12.7 Patronymics can be a guide to try to establish relationships between individuals withina family, e.g. in the above family, Vladimir’s father was called Ivan, and Anna and Alexandrcan be identified as children of Vladimir by their patronymics.Titles12.8The following titles are used in Russian:MrMrsGaspodin / GospodinGaspazhah / GospozhaUnique Characteristics12.9The following naming practices should also be noted:a.a diminutive is often used to address friends and family:e.g. Misha for Mikhail, Sasha for Alexandr, Kostya for Konstantin.Variations12.10 Russian names are originally written in the Cyrillic script. There are different methodsof transliterating this script into the Western alphabet, which can lead to some variation inspelling Russian names in English:e.g. V FFJ YH KHC TSCH TCH TSCHSH CH SCHI YYU JUYA JAU OUe.g. USTINOV OUSTINOFFe.g. the Russian name ШОСТаКОВИЧ could be transliterated as:SHOSTAKOVICH(transliterated in the UK)SCHOSTAKOWITSCH (transliterated in Germany)CHOSTAKOVICH(transliterated in France)SZOSTAKOWICZ(transliterated in Poland)SJOSTAKOVITSJ(transliterated in the Netherlands);12.11 There are some differences in the endings of names from the independent states ofthe former Soviet Union that can help to establish origin. However, there arecrossovers and these endings cannot be a definitive sign of an individual’s nationality:a.Ukrainian: see 15.2;b.Armenian: -YAN, -IAN, -YANTS, -YUNTS, -ANI;c.Georgian: -ADZE, -IDZE, -SHVILI, -IA.- Link to Common Names Guide- Return to Contents24

13. SPANISH(also for 21. Colombian)13.1personal name(s) father’s paternal family name mother’s paternal family namee.g. Jesús Marίa GONZALEZ LÓPEZ13.2 Hispanic names often have two personal names, although the first may at times beused on its own:e.g. Jesús Marίa may be known as Jesús, but never just Marίa.Family names13.3The two family names can be written separately or joined by ‘y’ (‘and’):e.g. Juan ROMERO CONDE / Juan ROMERO Y CONDE.13.4 The family name from the father will often be used alone, but the mother’s familyname will rarely be used in isolation:e.g. Juan ROMERO CONDE may often be known as Juan ROMERO, butrarely as Juan CONDE.13.5The family name is not always only one word, it can be a compound.e.g. Juan Luis LÓPEZ DE ARRIORTUA GARCÍA.13.6 The preposition ‘de’ with ‘el’, ‘la’, ‘los’ or ‘las’ appears in a number of Spanishnames, e.g. DE LA TORRE. The prefix ‘de’ can also be used to mark a family name thatcould be misunderstood as a personal name:e.g. in Juan de MIGUEL LÓPEZ, the ‘de’ marks that MIGUEL is the firstfamily name, not a second personal name.Spanish / Portuguese13.7 Many Spanish family names end in -EZ, e.g. LÓPEZ, and personal names, whereapplicable, usually end in -s, rather than -z, e.g. Luis. This is the reverse of names inPortuguese, which have family name endings of -ES and personal names with -z:e.g. Luis GONZALEZ would be Spanish and Luiz GONZALES would bePortuguese.13.8Spanish family name ordering is the reverse of that in Portuguese names (see 10).Familial relationships13.9 Upon marriage, women from Hispanic cultures have several options, but usuallyretain their paternal (first) family name:e.g.if Marίa ARROYO GARCÍA married Miguel GONZALEZ LÓPEZ, she mightbe known as:25

a.Marίa ARROYO GARCÍA: keeping her original family names. This will mostoften be used on official documents;b.Marίa ARROYO DE GONZALEZ: replacing her maternal family name with herh

1.13 Hausa names are heavily influenced by Islam, e.g. the personal name Ahmad, and many compound personal names begin with Abdul (‘servant of’) followed by one of the attributes of Allah, e.g. AbdulRahman, Abdulsalam, Abdulmalik, Abdulaziz. 1.14 Family names can be compound, e.g.BABBA-INNA.