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M I N I S T R Y O F E D U C AT I O NRepublic of GhanaTEACHING SYLLABUS FOR GOVERNMENT(SHS 1- 3)Enquiries and comments on this syllabus should be addressed to:The DirectorCurriculum Research and Development Division (CRDD)P. O. Box 2739AccraGhana.Tel: 0302-6836510302-683668September, 2010i

TEACHING SYLLABUS FOR GOVERNMENT(SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL)RATIONALE FOR TEACHING GOVERNMENTGovernment refers to the study of the dynamics of politics, the structure of the state and its processes and the relationship between the ruler and the ruled. Thesubject helps citizens to understand and participate meaningfully in the government and politics of the state. In modern times, government affects the life of everycitizen in diverse but significant ways. Citizens therefore need the type of education that will encourage them for popular participation in government and politics tobe able to influence government decision-making toward promoting the collective well-being of society. To achieve this, the student requires a form of educationthat will raise the level of their political consciousness and civic responsibility. Such an education should include knowledge of the nature of government andpolitics in general, as well as an understanding of the past and present forms and processes of government and politics of this country.GENERAL AIMSThe syllabus is designed to help students to:1.2.3.4.5.Understand the basic concepts relevant to the analysis of government.Understand the machinery of government operations.Analyse the constitutional development and processes of government.Become active participants in the political processes of the country.Appreciate the importance of the relations among nations.SCOPE OF CONTENTGovernment at the Senior High School level is concerned with equipping the student with knowledge, skills and attitudes to develop a broad perspective of politicaladministration. The subject deals with the past and present political and administrative development in Ghana and West Africa to provide students with requisiteknowledge and understandings that will enable them to participate responsibly in the political administration of their country. The syllabus focuses on two broadareas namely:1. Elements of Government2. Political and Constitutional Development in West Africa and International RelationsPRE-REQUISITE SKILLS AND ALLIED SUBJECTSThe pre-requisite skills needed for effective study of Government at the Senior High School level are knowledge and understanding of Citizenship Education at thePrimary School Level, Social Studies at the Junior High School level, observational skills, analytical skills, positive attitudes towards political issues and tolerancetoward opposing views in matters of politics and national administration. Good reading, writing and numeracy skills are also important for success in this subject.ii

ORGANIZATION OF THE SYLLABUSThis syllabus has been structured to cover the three year Senior High School Course. Each year‟s work has been divided into sections, with each sectioncontaining a number of units. The structure and organization of the syllabus is presented on the next page.STRUCTURE AND ORGANIZATION OF THE SYLLABUSYEAR ONE (SHS 1)YEAR TWO (SHS 2)YEAR THREE (SHS 3)SECTION 1: GOVERNMENT: SCOPE,CONCEPTS AND PRINCIPLESSECTION 1: EVOLUTION OF THE GHANAIANSTATESECTION 1: INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS ANDORGANISATIONSUnit 1: Meaning and Scope of GovernmentUnit 2: Basic Concepts and Principles ofGovernmentUnit 3: Citizenship, Rights and ResponsibilitiesUnit 1: Traditional Governance in GhanaUnit 2: British and French Colonial RuleUnit 3: Nationalism in West AfricaUnit 1: International Systems and ActorsUnit 2: International OrganisationsUnit 3: Ghana‟s Foreign PolicySECTION 2: ORGANS OF GOVERNMENT, STATESTRUCTURE AND CONSTUTITONSSECTION 2: POLITICAL AND CONSTITUTIONALDEVELOPMENT IN GHANAUnit 1: Organs of Government, Separation ofPowers, Checks and BalancesUnit 2: State Structure and Types/Forms ofGovernmentUnit 3: ConstitutionsUnit 1: Pre-Independence Political andConstitutional Development in Ghana(1916-1946)Unit 2: Post Independence Political andConstitutional Development in Ghana(1957-1979)Unit 3: The Military in the Political Process(1966-1991)SECTION 3: POLITICAL PROCESSESSECTION 3: THE FOURTH REPUBLIC OFGHANA AND PUBLICADMINISTRATIONUnit 1: Political PartiesUnit 2: Pressure GroupsUnit 3: Public OpinionUnit 4: The MediaUnit 5: Electoral Systems and ProcessesUnit 6: Electoral Management BodyUnit 1: The 1992 ConstitutionUnit 2: Local Government AdministrationUnit 3: The Public ServiceUnit 4: Public Co-operationsiii

TIME ALLOCATIONTime allocation for Government over the three year period is indicated as follows:Year 1: 6 periods a weekYear 2: 6 periods a weekYear 3: 6 periods a weekSUGGESTIONS FOR TEACHING THE SYLLABUSGeneral ObjectivesGeneral Objectives have been listed at the beginning of each section of the Syllabus, that is, just below the theme of the Section. The General Objectives specifythe skills and behaviours students should acquire as a result of instruction in the units of a section. The General Objectives form the basis for the selection andorganization of the themes and their Unit topics. Read the General Objectives very carefully before you start teaching. After teaching all the Units, go back andread the General Aims and General Objectives again to be sure you have covered both of them adequately in the course of your teaching.Sections and UnitsThe syllabus has been planned in Sections and Units. Each year‟s work has been divided into Sections. A Section consists of a fairly homogeneous body ofknowledge within the subject. Within each Section are Units. A Unit consists of a more related and homogeneous body of knowledge and skills. The teacher isexpected to consider the total number of Sections and associated number of Units prescribed for each year and to plan the scheme of work and lessons for eachterm such that the work in all the Sections and Units for each particular class will be completed by the end of the school year.Each Section of the syllabus is structured in five columns: Units, Specific Objectives, Content, Teaching and Learning Activities and Evaluation. A description ofthe contents of each column is as follows:Column 1 – Units: The Units in Column 1 are divisions of the major topics of the section. You are expected to follow the Unit topics according to the linear order inwhich they have been presented. However, if you find at some point that teaching and learning in your class will be more effective if you branched to another Unitbefore coming back to the Unit in the sequence, you are encouraged to do so.Column 2 – Specific Objectives: Column 2 shows the Specific Objectives for each Unit. The Specific Objectives begin with numbers such as 1.3.5 or 2.2.1.These numbers are referred to as “Syllabus Reference Numbers”. The first digit in the syllabus reference number refers to the section; the second digit refers tothe Unit, while the third digit refers to the rank order of the Specific Objective. For instance, 1.3.5 means: Section 1, Unit 3 (of Section 1) and Specific Objective 5.In other words, 1.3.5 refers to Specific Objective 5 of Unit 3 of Section 1. Similarly, the Syllabus reference number 2.2.1 simply means Specific Objective number1 of Unit 2 of Section 2. Using Syllabus reference numbers provides an easy way for communication among teachers and other educators. It further provides aneasy way for selecting objectives for test construction. For instance, Unit 2 of Section 2 has five Specific Objectives: 2.2.1 – 2.2.5. A teacher may want to basehis/her test items/questions on objectives 2.2.3 and 2.2.4 and not use the other three objectives. In this way, a teacher would sample the objectives within unitsand within Sections to be able to develop a test that accurately reflects the importance of the various skills taught in class.You will note also that Specific Objectives have been stated in terms of the student i.e., what the student will be able to do after instruction and learning in the Unit.Hence each Specific Objective starts with the following, “The student will be able to.” This in effect, means that you have to address the learning problems of eachindividual student. It means individualizing your instruction as much as possible such that the majority of students will be able to master the objectives of each Unitof the Syllabus.iv

Column 3 - Content: The “content” in the third column of the Syllabus presents a selected body of information that you will need to use in teaching the particularUnit. In some cases, the content presented is quite exhaustive. It is important however, to add more content to what is already provided in this Column.Column 4 – Teaching and Learning (T/L) Activities: T/LA that will ensure maximum student participation in the lessons is presented in Column 4. Avoid rotelearning and drill-oriented methods and rather emphasize participatory teaching and learning in the cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains of knowledge inyour instructional system wherever appropriate. You are encouraged to re-order the suggested teaching and learning activities and also add to them wherenecessary in order to achieve optimum student learning. The major purpose of this subject is to enable students use their knowledge in dealing with nationalissues while they are still in school and later as workers and professionals in the country. The emphasis is to assist your students to develop analytical thinking,practical problem solving techniques on government and the acquisition of positive attitudes and values toward their nation.Column 5 – Evaluation: Suggestions and exercises for evaluating the lessons of each Unit are indicated in Column 5. Evaluation exercises can be in the form oforal questions, quizzes, class assignments, essays, structured questions, project work etc. Try to ask questions and set tasks and assignments that will challengeyour students to apply their knowledge to issues and problems as we have already said above and that will engage them in developing solutions, and developingpositive attitudes as a result of having undergone instruction in this subject. The suggested evaluation tasks are not exhaustive. You are encouraged to developother creative evaluation tasks to ensure that students have mastered the instruction and behaviours implied in the Specific Objectives of each Unit.Lastly, bear in mind that the Syllabus cannot be taken as a substitute for lesson plans. It is therefore, necessary that you develop a Scheme of Work and lessonplans for teaching the Units of this Syllabus.PROFILE DIMENSIONSA „dimension‟ is a psychological unit for describing a particular learning behaviour. More than one dimension constitutes a profile of dimensions. ProfileDimensions describe the underlying behaviours or abilities students are expected to acquire as a result of having gone through a period of instruction. Each of thespecific objectives in this syllabus contains an action verb that specifies the type of learning or skill that the student should acquire by the end of the instructionalperiod. A specific objective as follows: The student will be able to describe etc. contains an action verb "describe" that indicates what the student will be able todo after teaching and learning have taken place. Being able to "describe" something after the instruction has been completed means that the student has acquired"knowledge". Being able to explain, summarise, give examples, etc. means that the student has understood the lesson taught. Similarly, being able to develop,plan, construct, etc. means that the student has learnt to create, innovate or synthesize knowledge. Each of the action verbs in the specific objectives of thesyllabus describes the behaviour the student will be able to demonstrate after the instruction. "Knowledge", "Application", etc. are dimensions that should be theprime focus of teaching, learning and assessment in schools.In government, the three Profile Dimensions that have been specified for teaching, learning and testing are:Knowledge and UnderstandingUse of KnowledgeAttitudes and Values40%40%20%Each of the Dimensions has been given a percentage weight that should be reflected in teaching, learning and testing. The weights, indicated on the right of theDimensions, show the relative emphasis that the teacher should give in the teaching, learning and testing processes. Combining the three Dimensions in theteaching and learning process will ensure that Government is taught and studied not only at the cognitive level, but will also lead to the acquisition of positiveattitudes and values.v

The explanation of the key words involved in each of the Profile Dimensions is as follows:Knowledge and Understanding (KU)Knowledge -The ability to remember, recall, identify, define, describe, list, name, match, state principles, facts and concepts. Knowledge is simply theability to remember or recall material already learned and constitutes the lowest level of learning.Understanding -The ability to: explain, summarize, translate, rewrite, paraphrase, give examples, generalize, estimate or predict consequences basedupon a trend. Understanding is generally the ability to grasp the meaning of some material that may be verbal, pictorial, or symbolic.Use of Knowledge (UK)The ability to use knowledge or apply knowledge, as implied in this Syllabus, has a number of learning/behaviour levels. These levels include Application,Analysis, Synthesis, and Evaluation. These may be considered and taught separately, paying attention to reflect each of them equally in your teaching. TheDimension “Use of Knowledge” is a summary dimension for all four learning levels. Details of each of the four sub levels are as follows:Application -The ability to apply rules, methods, principles, theories, etc. to concrete situations that are new and unfamiliar. It also involves the abilityto produce, solve, operate, plan, demonstrate, discover etc.Analysis -The ability to break down a piece of material into its component parts; to differentiate, compare, distinguish, outline, separate, identifysignificant points, recognize unstated assumptions and logical fallacies, recognize inferences from facts etc. Analytical ability underliesdiscriminant thinking.Innovation/CreativityThe ability to put parts together to form a new whole. It involves the ability to synthesize, combine, compile, compose, devise, suggest anew idea or possible ways, plan, revise, design, organize, create, and generate new solutions. The ability to create or innovate is thehighest form of learning. The world becomes more comfortable because some people, based on their learning, generate new ideas,design and create new things.EvaluationThe ability to appraise, compare features of different things and make comments or judgments, contrast, criticize, justify, support, discuss,conclude, make recommendations etc. Evaluation refers to the ability to judge the worth or value of some materials, ideas etc., based onsome criteria. Evaluation is a constant decision making activity. We generally compare, appraise and select throughout the day. Everydecision we make involves evaluation. Evaluation is a high level ability just as application, analysis and innovation or creativity since itgoes beyond simple knowledge acquisition and understanding.A number of examination questions at the Secondary School level begin with the word “Discuss”. Discuss belongs to the Evaluation thinking skill and implies theability to analyze, compare, contrast, make a judgement etc. The word “discuss” asks for a variety of thinking skills and is obviously a higher order thinkingbehaviour. Students consequently do poorly on examination questions that start with “Discuss”. For this reason and also for the reason that discussion of issues,discussion of reports etc., are some of the major intellectual activities students will be engaged in, in work situations and at higher levels of learning after they haveleft Secondary School, it will be very helpful if you would emphasize discussion questions etc. both in class and in the tests you set.vi

Attitudes and Values (AV)Attitudes and values belong to the affective domain of knowledge and behaviour. The dimension consists of a number of learning and behavioural levels such asreceiving, responding, valuing, and organizing.Receiving- follows directions, listens, shows awareness and sensitivity, accepts, asks questions, gives, points to, replies etc.Responding - greets, participates, assists, conforms, enjoys, presents, shows interest, volunteers for duties, respects the rights of others.Valuing- demonstrates attitudes, beliefs, initiates, invites, proposes, reports, shares, works, and reads.Organizing - ability to assimilate new and different values to form a new and consistent value system. It refers to the ability to accept, alter, defend, arrange,formulate, generalize, modify and defend a belief or good cause.The action verbs provided under the various profile dimensions should help you to structure your teaching such as to achieve the effects needed. Select from theaction verbs provided for your teaching, in evaluating learning before, during and after the instruction. Use the action verbs also in writing your test questions.This will ensure that you give your students the chance to develop good thinking skills, and the capacity for excellent performance in examinations and in practicallife situations. Check the weights of the profile dimensions to ensure that you have given the required emphasis to each of the dimensions in your teaching andassessment.FORM OF ASSESSMENTIt must be emphasized again that it is important that both instruction and assessment be based on the Profile Dimensions of the Subject. In developingassessment procedures, select Specific Objectives in such a way that you will be able to assess a representative sample of the Syllabus Objectives. Each SpecificObjective in the Syllabus is considered a criterion to be achieved by the student. When you develop a test that consists of items or questions that are based on arepresentative sample of the specific objectives taught, the test is referred to as a “Criterion-Referenced Test”. In many cases, a teacher cannot test all theobjectives taught in a Term or in a Year. The assessment procedure you use i.e. class tests, home work, projects etc. must be developed in such a way that it willconsist of a sample of the important objectives taught over a period.The example below shows an examination consisting of two papers, Paper 1, Paper 2 and School Based Assessment. Paper 1 will usually be an objective-typepaper; Paper 2 will consist of structured questions or essay questions essentially testing “Use of Knowledge” but also consisting of questions on “Knowledge andUnderstanding”. School Based Assessment (SBA) will essentially focus on “Use of knowledge” and will also consist of some assignments on “Knowledge andUnderstanding” and “Attitudes and Values”. The distribution of marks for the test papers and SBA should be in line with the weights of the profile dimensionsalready indicated and as shown in the last Column of the table below.The West African Examinations Council (WAEC) generally sets about 50 objective test items at the West Africa Senior Secondary Certificate Examination(WASSCE). Emulate this by developing an objective test paper (Paper 1) that consists of 50 items. Paper 2 could consist of some structured questions and essayquestions. In general, let students answer five essay questions from a list of 7 – 12 questions.In the Examination Structure presented on the next page, Paper 1 is marked out of 60; Paper 2 is marked out of 100, and SBA is marked out of 90, giving a total of250 marks. The last row shows the weight of the marks allocated to each of the three test components. The three papers are weighted differently. Paper 2 is amore intellectually demanding paper and is therefore weighted more than Paper 1.vii

DISTRIBUTION OF EXAMINATION PAPER WEIGHTS AND MARKSDimensionsPaper 1Paper 2SBATotalMarks% Weight ofDimensionKnowledge andUnderstanding40402010040Use of Knowledge10405010040Attitudes and Values1020205020Total Marks506090250-%Contribution of Papers205030100You will note that Paper 1 has a contribution of 20% to the total marks; Paper 2 has a contribution of 50% to the total marks, and SBA has a contribution of 30% tothe total marks. The numbers in the cells indicate the marks to be allocated to the items/questions that test each of the dimensions within the respective testpapers.GUIDELINES FOR SCHOOL-BASED ASSESSMENT (SBA)A new School Based Assessment system (SBA) will be introduced into the school system in 2011. The new SBA system is designed to provide schools with aninternal assessment system that will help schools to achieve the following purposes:oooooooStandardize the practice of internal school-based assessment in all Senior High Schools in the countryProvide reduced assessment tasks for subjects studied at SHSProvide teachers with guidelines for constructing assessment items/questions and other assessment tasksIntroduce standards of achievement in each subject and in each SHS classProvide guidance in marking and grading of test items/questions and other assessment tasksIntroduce a system of moderation that will ensure accuracy and reliability of teachers‟ marksProvide teachers with advice on how to conduct remedial instruction on difficult areas of the syllabus to improveclass performance.viii

The arrangement for SBA may be grouped in categories as follows: Project, Mid-Term test, Group Exercise and End of Term Examination.1. Project: This will consist of a selected topic to be carried out by groups of students for a year. Segments of the project will be carried out each term towardthe final project completion at the end of the year. Projects may comprise the following:i.ii.Case StudyPractical work2. Mid-Term Test: The mid-term test following a prescribed format will form part of the SBA3. Group Exercise: This will consist of written assignments or practical work on a topic(s) considered important or complicated in the term‟s syllabus4. End-of-Tem Examination: The end-of-term test is a summative assessment system and should consist of the knowledge and skills students have acquiredin the term. The end-of-term test for Term 3 for example, should be composed of items/questions based on the specific objectives studied over the threeterms, using a different weighting system such as to reflect the importance of the work done in each term in appropriate proportions. For example, ateacher may build an End-of-Term 3 test in such a way that it would consist of the 20% of the objectives studied in Term 1, 20% of objectives studied inTerm 2 and 60% of the objectives studied in Term 3.Marking SBA ProjectsStudents are expected to undertake written assignments that may involve investigations, surveys, interviews etc. as Term‟s project or part of group exercise. Thefollowing guidelines are provided for marking assignments of such nature.1.2.3.4.IntroductionData analysisConclusionsAcknowledgements and References10%50%20%20%GRADING PROCEDURETo improve assessment and grading and also introduce uniformity in schools, it is recommended that schools adopt the following WASSCE grade structure forassigning grades on students‟ test results. The WASSCE structure is as follows:Grade A1:Grade B2:Grade B3:Grade C4:Grade C5:Grade C6:Grade D7:Grade D8:Grade F9:80 - 100%70 - 79%60 - 69%55 - 59%50 - 54%45 - 49%40 - 44%35 - 39%34% and below-ExcellentVery GoodGoodCreditCreditCreditPassPassFailix

In assigning grades to students‟ test results, you are encouraged to apply the above grade boundaries and the descriptors which indicate the meaning of eachgrade. The grade boundaries i.e., 60-69%, 50-54% etc., are the grade cut-off scores. For instance, the grade cut-off score for B2 grade is 70-79% in the example.When you adopt a fixed cut-off score grading system as in this example, you are using the criterion-referenced grading system. By this system a student mustmake a specified score to be awarded the requisite grade. This system of grading challenges students to study harder to earn better grades. It is hence a veryuseful system for grading achievement tests.Always remember to develop and use a marking scheme for marking your class examination scripts. A marking scheme consists of the points for the best answeryou expect for each question, and the marks allocated for each point raised by the student as well as the total marks for the question. For instance, if a questioncarries 20 marks and you expect 6 points in the best answer, you could allocate 3 marks or part of it (depending upon the quality of the points raised by thestudent) to each point , hence totaling 18 marks, and then give the remaining 2 marks or part of it for organization of answer. For objective test papers you maydevelop an answer key to speed up the marking.x

SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL - YEAR 1SECTION 1GOVERNMENT: SCOPE, CONCEPTS AND ORGANSGeneral Objective: The student will understand the scope, concepts and principles of Government.UNITSPECIFIC OBJECTIVESCONTENTTEACHING AND LEARNINGACTIVITIESEVALUATIONUNIT 1The students will be able to:MEANING ANDSCOPE OFGOVERNMENT1.1.1explain Government.Government- as an institution of state- as an art or process- as an academic fieldStudents brainstorm on the meaning ofGovernment in groups.Discuss students‟ response to further explain theconcept.1.1.2discuss the functions ofgovernment.The functions of government fallunder the following broad areas.- Political- Economic- Cultural and Social WelfareStudents in groups to discuss the functions ofgovernment and make presentations.Examine the functions ofgovernment.1.1.3give reasons forstudying Government.Government is universal andaffects the life of every individualClass discussion on reasons why students choseto study Government.Write an essay to justify thestudy of government as asubject.Other reasons may include- It helps students to understandand appreciate the processesand functions of government.- It also helps to comparedifferent systems of government.- It is a source of enlightenmentetc.1Class Exercise:Explain Government

UNITSPECIFIC OBJECTIVESUNIT 2The students will be able to:BASIC CONCEPTSAND PRINCIPLES OFGOVERNMENT1.2.1 explain the basic conceptsof government.1.2.2 compare basic conceptsof government.CONTENTTEACHING AND LEARNINGACTIVITIESSome of the concepts ofgovernment include Society,Nation, State, Sovereignty, Power,Socialism, Communism, Oligarchy,Democracy, Aristocracy,Capitalism, Liberalism, etc.Students read on the concepts and do abrainstorming exercise in class.Comparison of concepts in termsof: Features, merits and demerits ofthe various concepts.Students in groups compare the variousconcepts and present for class discussion.EVALUATIONExplain Democracy,Socialism and Capitalism.Discuss students‟ responses.AssignmentLet students in groupsresearch on the merits anddemerits of the variousconcepts citing countriesthat are using or have usedthem.Students present thefindings as group exercises.1.2.3 state and explain theprinciples of government.The principles of governmentinclude: Rule of Law, Separation ofPower, Fundamental HumanRights, Constitutionalism, Politicalparticipation etc.Lead a class discussion on the various principlesof government.State some of the basicprinciples of government asenshrined in the 1992Constitution.Features, relevance and limitationsof the basic principles ofgovernment, i.e.Groups select particular principles, research onthem and outline their features, relevance andlimitations.Rule of Law- Supremacy of the law- Equality before the law- Fundamental Human Rights- Socio-economic amenitiesLet groups present their findings for classdiscussion.What are the features of theFundamental HumanRights as enshrined in the1992 Constitution ofGhana?2

UNITSPECIFIC OBJECTIVESUNIT 3The students will be able to:CITIZENSHIP,RIGHTS ANDRESPONSIBILITIES1.3.1 explain the terms:- Citizenship- Rights- ResponsibilitiesCONTENTTEACHING AND LEARNINGACTIVITIESEVALUATIONA citizen is a person who has fullrights as a national of a countryeither by birth or by being grantedthat status by the state.Lead a class discussion on the terms citizenship,rights and responsibilities in Ghana.Individual Write-upA foreigner wants tobecome a Ghanaian.Educate him on the processhe has to go through.Rights are those conditions whichenable the individual to live freelyand enjoy the social order.Guide students to brainstorm on the conditionsunder which their rights could be curtailed.Under what conditions canone‟s right be curtailed?Discuss students‟ responses.Responsibility refers to theobligations of citizens and visitorsto the country.1.3.2 explain how citizenship isacquired.Citizenship can be acquired by- Birth- Descent- Naturalisation, etc.Guide students to read and discuss relevantsections of the 1992 Constitution on theacquisition of citizenship.1.3.3 examine the rights andresponsibilities of acitizen.The right of citizens are classifiedinto:Based on their readings students in groupsengage in a discussion under the followingareas:- Acquisition of citizenship- Rights of a citizen- Limitations on the rights- Obligations of a citizen-LegalPoliticalNatural Rights, etc.The responsibility of citizensinclude:-Payment of taxesMilitary Service, etc.3Examine the issue of DualCitizenship in Ghana.

UNITSPECIFIC OBJECTIVESUNIT 3 (CONT’D)The students will be able to:CITIZENSHIP,RIGHTS ANDRESPONSIBILITIES1.3.4 evaluate the activities ofinstitutions that safeguardthe rights of citizens.CONTENTTEACHING AND LEARNINGACTIVITIESInstitutions that safeguard therights of citizens:- Commission on Human Rightsand Administrative Justice(CHRAJ)- Domestic Violence and VictimsSupport Unit (DOV

Government refers to the study of the dynamics of politics, the structure of the state and its processes and the relationship between the ruler and the ruled. The subject helps citizens to understand and participate meaningfully in the government and politics of the state. In modern tim