Marzano Causal Teacher Evaluation ModelBased on the Art and Science of TeachingDr. Robert Marzano, CEO, Marzano Research LaboratoryMichael Toth, CEO, Learning Sciences International

The Widget Effect, 2009Districts using binary ratings for teacher evaluation: More than 99% of teacher receive satisfactory ratings indistricts using binary ratings (satisfactory/unsatisfactory)Districts using a broader range of ratings for teacherevaluation: 94% of teachers receive one of the top two ratings Less than 1 percent are rated unsatisfactory Inflation of ratings is pervasive in many district evaluationsystems

The Importance of Effective Teachingand LeadershipResearch tells us that the role of the teacher is the singlegreatest factor on student learning. (Sanders, et al)Research also tells that one of the greatest factors centraloffice can contribute is to maintain a singular focus onimproving instruction. (Marzano and Waters, 2009)

Why do we need to change?

Value-Added ExampleTeacher X500400The difference between thepredicted performance and theactual performance represents thevalue-added by the teacher’sinstruction.The predicted performancerepresents the level of performancethe student is expected todemonstrate after statisticallyaccounting for factors (for example,prior performance and studentattendance) through a value-addedmodel.3002001000Student EPrior PerformanceCurrent PerformancePredicted Performance5

Teacher Evaluation ReformStudent Achievement/Growth and Instructional ional Practicemust improve in orderto raise studentgrowth measures/student achievement6

Purposes of Teacher e, formor improveteacherpracticeQualityAssuranceSources of Evidence7

Here’s What We Know Student achievement will not improveunless teaching improves Teachers working alone without feedbackwill not be able to improve no matter howmuch professional development theyreceive The challenge of Teacher Evaluation is tocreate a system of continuousimprovement of instruction, professionaldevelopment, and feedback Supervision needs to be frequent andfocused on the improvement of instructionwithin a common language of Instruction

Doing Teacher EvaluationDifferentlyWhat is the goal?

Marzano Causal TeacherEvaluation ModelThe Goal: An expectation that all teachers canincrease their expertise from year to yearwhich produces gains in student achievementfrom year to year with a powerful cumulativeeffect

Marzano Causal TeacherEvaluation Model 4 Domains describing levels of teaching performance 60 Elements Validation studies– Correlation analysis– Causal links using experimental/control studiesThis is unique in the sense that these studies aredesigned to establish a direct causal link betweenelements of the model and student achievement.

Framework ComparisonMarzanoTraditional 4 Domains (60 elements) More broadly describesinstruction Emphasis on instruction– 41 elements in ClassroomStrategies and Behaviors(68%)– Difficulty to achieveobserver accuracy andinter-rater reliability– Research indications ofhigher levels of observeraccuracy due to specificity– Teachers could rateeffective due toperformance in noninstruction domains– Greater clarity for acommon language ofinstruction 2010 Learning Sciences

Traditional ConstructPerformance Levels: Key WordsUnsatisfactoryNeedsImprovementEffectiveHighly EffectiveUnsafeLack entativeLeadershipAlways

Marzano ConstructResearch-Based Strategies Developmental continuum for teachers to implementresearch-based strategies– Specific guidance for teachers to improve instruction– Evidences of sufficient implementation to raisestudent learning– Guidance on the appropriate instructional context(when) to use each strategy to have the highestprobability to raise student learning

Effective teacher student achievement(use of research-based strategies to achieve studentlearning results)Effective Principal Effective TeachersStudent achievement learning results are laggingindicators.Teacher and student behavior is a leading indicator(effective use of research-based instructional strategies)

Marzano Model Causal ning Gains

Deliberate Practice Involves:FeedbackPractice

When these strategies are used, here is the typical effect onraising student achievement (percentile gain corrected):Note Taking17%Practice14%Setting Goals/Objectives25%Building Vocabulary20%Effort and Recognition14%Graphic Organizers13%Homework15%Identifying Similarities andDifferences20%Interactive Games20%Student Discussion/Chunking17%Summarizing19%Tracking Student Progressand Using Scoring Scales 2010 Learning Sciences nlinguistic Representations17%

Research-basedstrategies have a highprobability of raisingstudent achievement ifthey are used: In the part (segment)or type of lesson that isappropriate for thestrategy At the appropriate levelof implementation

Are Your Teachers Using these strategies at a sufficient level ofimplementation to raise student achievement?Using the appropriate strategies for different typesof lessons or parts of a lesson?

Common Language of Instruction AlignsMisaligned SystemsMISALIGNED SYSTEMALIGNED SYSTEMNo Common Language or Model of InstructionCommon Language or Model of Instruction

Marzano Causal TeacherEvaluation ModelSTUDENTACHIEVEMENTDomain 4:Collegiality andProfessionalism(6 Elements)Promoting aPositiveEnvironment(2 Elements)PromotingExchange of Ideas(2 Elements)PromotingDistrict andSchoolDevelopment(2 Elements)Domain 1: Classroom Strategies and Behaviors (41 Elements)Routine Segments (5 Elements)Content Segments (18 Elements)On the Spot Segments (18 Elements)Domain 2: Planning and Preparing (8 Elements)Lesson and Units (3 Elements)Use of Materials and Technology (2 Elements)Special Needs of Students (3 Elements)Domain 3: Reflecting on Teaching (5 Elements)Domain 4:Collegiality andProfessionalism(6 Elements)Promoting aPositiveEnvironment(2 Elements)PromotingExchange of Ideas(2 Elements)PromotingDistrict andSchoolDevelopment(2 Elements)Evaluating Personal Performance (3 Elements)Professional Growth Plan (2 Elements)22

Marzano Causal TeacherEvaluation ModelDemonstrationDomain 1: Classroom Strategies and Behaviors

Marzano Teacher EvaluationFrom:To: Compliance focused, annualreviews that are inflated andlack specific guidance forinstructional improvement Formative and summativeprocess that is timely, specific,and honors growth over time Misaligned system withoutspecificity in the commonlanguage of instruction Ambiguity and subjectivity dueto the lack of specificity Lacks connections to studentachievement gains Coherent research-basedcommon language of instructionwith clear and objectivemeasures and teacher andstudent evidences Clarity and consistency, from thenewest teacher to the mostveteran practitioners andsupports accuracy for observers Causal links to raising studentachievement

Implementation Services fromLearning Sciences International: Review of teacher evaluation procedures and policies toreflect the causal model Observer and scoring training program for bothevaluators and informal feedback loops with coachesand teacher leaders iObservation instructional improvement data system forteacher growth, development and evaluation Certified staff developer program Observer certification program

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Marzano Causal Teacher Evaluation Model Based on the Art and Science of Teaching Dr. Robert Marzano, CEO, Marzano Research Laboratory . Purposes of Teacher Evaluation Formative/Growth Shape, form or improve teacher practice Summ