Transcription

Outline ofON THE PREPARATION AND DELIVERY OF SERMONSby John A. BroadusFourth Edition, Revised by Vernon L. StanfieldJohn A. Battle, Th.D.Western Reformed Seminary (www.wrs.edu)2003

TABLE OF CONTENTSPagesIntroduction3Christian PreachingHomileticsThe PreacherGod’s Message1. Foundations of the Sermon3The TextThe SubjectThe TitleThe PropositionThe Objective2. The Classification of Sermons4Classification by Homiletical StructureClassification by SubjectClassification by Pattern3. Formal Elements of the Sermon6Importance of ArrangementThe DiscussionThe IntroductionThe ConclusionTransition4. Functional Elements of the . The Style of the Sermon3General Observations on StyleAttaining the Qualities of StyleBroadus Outline.2

The Writing of SermonsImagination in Preaching6. The Preparation of Sermons4General PreparationSpecial PreparationPreparation of Special Types of SermonsPlanning a Preaching Program7. The Delivery of Sermons5The Methods of DeliveryThe Voice in DeliveryThe Body in DeliveryContemporary Approaches to Sermon Delivery8. The Conduct of Public Worship4Planning WorshipThe Sermon in WorshipOther Parts of the Worship ServiceBroadus Outline.3

INTRODUCTIONForwardThe Unique position of Christian preachingChapter 1, Christian Preaching1. Nature of Christian preachingLinking personality and message with needs of people2. Central place of preachingJesus (Luke 4:16-21; John 7:28, 37)Apostles (Matt 28:18-20; Mark 3:14ff)Early church (cf. ch. 2)NT terms used:Kerussein, kerugmaEuangeliszesthai, euangelionDidaskein, didache3. Competition to preaching1) Other methods of communicationTypes of media: books, magazines, newspapers, movies, television, the InternetEffectiveness of the mediaActually: increase interest in people communicating2) Other duties of pastorTeaching, pastoring, administrating, counseling, community workNeed for priorities (Acts 6:2, 4, 7)Broadus Outline.4

Ceremonies (in 3rd ed. of Broadus)3) Loss of confidence in preaching(Cf. Heb. 4:12)4. Necessity for effective preachingRelation of preaching to welfare of church historicallyChristianity demands preaching: God’s interpretation of God’s own acting in human historyPreaching the Word as a means of grace (Rom. 10:17)Need to counteract false preachingChapter 2, Homiletics1. Development of homileticsGreek science of education and speaking:Grammatic, study of literatureDialectic, study of logic and reasoningRhetoric, study of public speaking and persuasionRhetoreuo, speak in publicRhetorike, art of speaking in publicJewish reactionHomily, familiar discourseHomileo, homilia, meet, converse, instructTriumph of Greek formConversion of Gentiles and rhetoriciansEarly great Christian preachers: Basil, Gregory, Chrysostom, Ambrose, AugustineBroadus Outline.5

“The science of preparing and delivering a discourse based on Scripture”2. Study of homileticsNeed for continued effort and studySources for study: books, sermons, criticism, later classesImmediate benefits for seminary students:Sermon materialSermon methodsSermon organizationSermon deliveryDangers of study of homiletics (in 3rd ed.):Overemphasis on rules and formsImitationArtificialityChapter 3, The PreacherPreacher not as source, but as channel1. Sense of divine callPersonal call, no stereotypes2. Vital Christian experienceConversion (Chalmers, John Wesley)Christian discipleship (personal life, tithing, etc.)3. Continuation of learningDisciplined, planned study4. Development of natural giftsBroadus Outline.6

Especially clear thinking, forceful speaking, deep feeling5. Maintenance of physical healthRest and/or study day6. Complete dependence upon the Holy SpiritOversees all aspects of sermon: selection, preparation, delivery, receptionJohn Calvin’s prayer before preaching: “Come, Holy Spirit, come.”Chapter 4, God’s MessageCentrality of the message to preachingBible the source of the messageNo need to invent messageReasons for using the Bible1. Makes a sermon truly homiletical (i.e., biblical)2. Makes sermon spiritually relevant3. Saves time in sermon preparation4. Causes the preacher to grow in grace and in knowledge5. Adds variety to preaching6. Enables preacher to treat delicate topics7. Helps people remember sermon8. Gives note of authority9. Pleases GodNecessity of accurate exegesis of the Bible passage Study text minutelyBroadus Outline.7

Meaning of words and phrases Figures of speech Study immediate context Study larger context Teaching of whole book or large section Historical context General teaching of ScriptureNote on progressive revelation (questionable exegesis on p. 26) Cross referencesBroadus Outline.8

PART 1FOUNDATIONS OF THE SERMONChapter 5, The Text1. Meaning of the term“Weave, fabric”; cf. “textile”Early method of preachingShortening of text, lengthening and formalizing of comments2. Use of the textToo long? No text? Moderation3. Rules for the selection of a textFinding & remembering texts for sermons1) The text should be clear.2) Rarely use texts with especially eloquent language.3) Caution should be exercised in choosing texts that will seem odd.4) Do not avoid a text because it is familiar.5) Do not habitually neglect any portion of Scripture.6) Let the needs of the congregation determine the choice of texts.7) Let the text select the person.Chapter 6, The Subject1. The relationship of subject and textPrinciple applicationGeneral particularBroadus Outline.9

Indirect suggestionSuggestive or starting-point texts2. The significance of the subjectFrom text to subject, or from subject to text3. A definition of the subject“What is the sermon about?” — focal point4. Statement of the subjectDifficult, but necessary in preparationUnifying the ideas (e.g. on p. 39)Clearly and simply stated5. The qualities of a good subjectClearSpecificBriefChristianChapter 7, The Title1. The function of the titleAttention, interest, announcement, advertising2. The definition of the titlePurpose: to advertise the sermon3. The statement of the titleVarieties of expression4. The qualities of a good titleInteresting, not sensationalHonestNot vulgar, good tasteBroadus Outline.10

Chapter 8, The Proposition“A statement of the subject as the preacher proposes to develop it.”“Its form should be one complete declarative sentence, simple, clear, and cogent. It should containno unnecessary or ambiguous words.”Helpful to congregation at beginning of sermonImportant to preacher during preparationChapter 9, The Objectiveresults: how should sermon change lives?Sermon must end in imperative.General objectives:please Godsalvation of soulsedify the churchRules in preparation of objectives:objective should be well definedobjective should be limitedBroadus Outline.11

PART 2THE CLASSIFICATION OF SERMONSChapter 10, Classification of Homiletical Structure1. The textual sermonShort text, provides its own divisions1) Find a specific subject.2) Seek for exact divisions.3) Follow best order (not necessarily natural order).4) Need not use all of text.2. The topical sermonDivisions derived from the subjectAdvantages:Better insures unityTrains mind in logicMore convincing and pleasingFits occasionsDangers:Tend to emphasize subjects not emphasized in BibleGood oration unduly importantPreacher’s personal interestExamples of methods — p. 563. The textual-topical sermonDivisions arise from both topic and textSome advantages of #1 and #24. The expository sermonShould be the most common, but is the most neglectedBroadus Outline.12

Increasing use since early in centuryA sermon occupied mainly with exposition of Scripture; divisions arise from the passageUsually longer portion, not necessarilyPrimary requisite: unity and orderly structureChapter 11, Classification by Subject1. The theological sermonPrimary typeDoctrine: general, and denominationalEmphasis on great doctrinesUnpopular doctrines: faithful, fearless, skillful, affectionatecf. Jonathan Edwards’s farewell sermonShould be:Comprehensive over timePositive rather than polemicalClear2. The ethical sermonImportance of moral preaching in Jesus, apostles, etc.Not contradictory to doctrines of graceSuggestions: positive, with answers; constructive; win love and confidence first; one step ata time; preacher also striving3. The church program sermonBest infrequentlyRules:1) Be sure of motive2) Church not an end in itself3) Strong biblical baseBroadus Outline.13

Chapter 12, Classification by Pattern1. The diamond outlineOne main point viewed from various angles2. The ladder outlineEach point builds on previous point3. The label outlineDifferent items, people, etc. classified4. The contrast outlineTwo-point sermon; positive and negative5. The question and answer outlineRaise question(s) and give answer(s)6. The chase outlineRaise question; give false answers, finally true answer7. The diagnosis-remedy outlineTwo parts: problem, solution8. The “Hegelian” outlineThesis, antithesis, synthesisAdds to understanding9. The analogy outlineComparison of spiritual and natural truth10. The proof outlineOffers proof for preacher’s affirmation11. The rebuttal outlineBroadus Outline.14

Opposite of proof outline; to disprove a false view or wrong practice12. The refrain outlineTheme or refrain running through all points13. The “series of statements” outlinePropositions about a single subject14. The “dog fight” outlineSimilar to rebuttal outline, sharper attacks15. The interpretation-application outlineTwo parts; interpret Scripture, apply to life16. The “subversive” outlineAppear to take opposite position, with “damaging admissions”Importance of variety of outline patternsBroadus Outline.15

PART 3FORMAL ELEMENTS OF THE SERMONChapter 13, Importance of ArrangementPreacher as architect, not same as invention or style1. Values of a plan1) Aid to preacher’s development—mental powers, organization of ideas, extemporaneousspeaking, memory, proper use of emotion in speaking2) Effect on audience—discouse intelligible, understood correctly, pleasing, interesting,persuasive, easily remembered2. Qualities of good arrangement1) UnityA single propelling idea2) OrderPoints naturally follow one anotherPoints don’t overlap (“Mutually Exclusive and Jointly Exhaustive”)Points move toward a climax3) ProportionProper allocation of time to each pointPoints fairly symmetrical4) ProgressOpposite of “revolving” sermons3. Study of arrangementAlways room for learning; not an exact scienceSimilar to study of painting; skill necessary before successful inventionBroadus Outline.16

Chapter 14, The DiscussionThree parts of sermon: introduction, discussion, conclusion1. The planSeek the best plan of division possibleSimple, fresh, strikingBut not sensational or odd or greatly formalNot stiff, uniform, predictable, monotonousNeed of a good over-all proposition2. The question of divisionsExtremes: no division vs. minute analysisUsually best to have divisions: for preacher, for audienceFrequently subdivisions also helpfulMinimum of two, three or four better for variety, five or six hard to remember oftenThree points the most used and serviceable3. Character of the divisions1) Taken together, coextensive with the subjectExhaust the subject proposed with general completeness2) Taken separately, distinct and symmetricalPoints should be “Mutually Exclusive and “Jointly Exhaustive”Avoid needlessly repeating ideas under separate headsEach point with same kind of relation to the subject, parallel, but not unnatural4. Problems of order and management1) Order of divisionsBroadus Outline.17

Designed to lead to feelings and will often good to apply at end of each point2) Statement of divisionsExact, concise, suggestiveNot too brief for comprehension, not overly longBe natural; note on alliterations3) Divisions announced beforehand?Good idea when sermon (1) difficult, (2) argumentation to be remembered, (3)needs awakened interestOtherwise, better not to pre-announce headsChapter 15, The IntroductionIntroductions necessary for audience, for preacher.1. Objectives of the introduction1) Gain interest of the hearers2) Prepare hearers for understanding2. Sources of introduction1) The textPerhaps some background to the text2) The subject to be discussed3) The occasionPerhaps local conditionsAvoid apologies for health, ill preparation, etc.4) The problem5) The objectiveBroadus Outline.18

6) The life situationIllustration from common life7) The storyNot isolated from subject, “jokes”8) Striking statementQuotation, sign, placard, song, etc.9) ImaginationMake up story, etc.3. Qualities of a good introduction1) Must be related to sermon subject2) Should be a single thought3) Avoid vague generalities4) Not highly argumentative or emotional; personal and official modesty5) Should be exclusively adapted to the sermon6) Must not be long7) Should be carefully preparedChapter 16, The ConclusionImportance of a good conclusion, brings congregation to point of decision and action; temptation tooverlook in preparation1. Guiding principles1) Careful preparation2) Natural and appropriate terminationNot additional materialBroadus Outline.19

3) Unmistakably personal in aimImportance of “you” in conclusionDifference between sermon and lecture4) Alive and energetic5) Clear, definite, precise in expression2. Methods of conclusionRecapitulationApplicationDirect appeal (invitations?)Not artificially emotionalPastoral exhortation, encouragement, warningSpecificFinal words of conclusionComprehensive and impressive statementConclude with text itselfPoem, hymn, storyNot all the timeTransition right into benediction3. Relevant questions1) How long?Moderate, usually too briefSometimes drawn out2) Announce the conclusion?Broadus Outline.20

Usually better“In conclusion”—better ways to say itExamples, p. 1173) Conclusion always positive?In most casesNegative elements handled earlier in sermon4) When prepared?General character of conclusion near beginning of preparationComposed in detail at end of preparationChapter 17, TransitionImportant:Saves preacher from obscurityKeeps attention of congregationHelps preacher remember points as he goesKeeps sermon movingTests unity of sermonLike joints in body, should not bring attention to themselvesMethods:Relation method (points flow naturally)Connecting word (first, second, etc.; other connectives)Connecting phraseThird idea, “bridge”Summary of previous point(s)Broadus Outline.21

Use of questionRhetorical devices (pause, gesture, voice, etc.)Broadus Outline.22

PART 4FUNCTIONAL ELEMENTS OF THE SERMONChapter 18, ExplanationFunctions classified as evangelistic, theological, ethical, devotional, inspirational, actionalUse made of explanation, argument, application, illustrationDifferent amounts of above four items, depending on type of sermon1. Explanation in generalImportance of explaining to congregationIgnorance often the problem, more than unwillingnessChildren growing up in churchMake sure you can explain what you set out to explain!Don’t over-explain2. Explanation of texts (as Paul in Thessalonica, Acts 17:3)1) Present results of own exegesis.Not repeating details of workUsing other relevant verses2) Present narrations in manner to reach desired end.Not exhaustive (unless not much material)Not elaboratedIntroductory narration not too long3) Use description to set scene of narrative or sermon.“He is the best speaker who can turn an ear into an eye.”Broadus Outline.23

Must see scene first (in mind at least)Detailed information necessaryUse imagination to picture scene or object in mindDescription not an end in itself—be briefer than a novel would beElaborate descriptions distracting3. Explanation of subjects1) Explaining by definitionDifference between definition and descriptionDefinition may be by contrast or antonymsCareful of difficult-to-follow precision2) Explaining by division(As a topical sermon)3) Explaining by examplesExcellent for fine distinctionsMany sources for examples (esp. Bible stories)4) Explaining by comparisonExamples of Jesus’ parablesChapter 19, ArgumentOften must justify a judgment relating idea presented to other ideas already accepted.Aristotle’s complaint! (p. 142)1. Importance of argument in preachingEncourages those who already “believe”Broadus Outline.24

Replaces mindless acceptance with real faithGood antidote to errorHonesty demands preacher to argue properly2. Principal varieties of argument1) Argument from testimony.One’s own experience and observationsExperiences and observations of othersa) Concerning matters of fact, character and number of witnesses, and character ofthing attested.Witnesses: veracity, intelligence, opportunity for knowledge, personalinclinationsNumber of witnesses importantUnintentional testimony of adversariesThing attested: degree of improbability (note on miracles), nature ofChristian experienceb) Concerning matters of opinion, note “authority” of witness (note on the Fathers)Scriptures as absolute authorityGenerally accepted opinions must be weighed.2) Argument from InductionTruth arrived at through experienceMost common form of argument, often faultyProblems of imperfect observation and hasty inductionDistinguish causes from frequent circumstances3) Argument from AnalogyBroadus Outline.25

Not resemblance, but “proportion”Relation two objects bear to a thirdLeads to probable proof, not absolute4) Argument from Deduction.From general truth to particular caseFormally: syllogistic reasoningPrimarily, deductions from teaching of ScriptureCompare deductions also with Scripture.For preaching, concrete examples more powerful than abstract ideas3. Certain forms of argument1) A prioriFrom cause to effect (deductive)2) A posterioriFrom effect to cause (inductive)Cf. Luke 7:47; 1 Cor 10:53) A fortioriFrom stronger to weakerCf. Matt 6:30; 7:11; Luke 23:31; Rom 8:32; Heb 2:2-4; 1 Pet 4:17-184) Progressive approach (form of induction)5) Dilemma, two assumptions, one being true, both leading to same conclusionCf. Acts 5:38-396) Reductio ad absurdumConclusions drawn out to point of absurdityBroadus Outline.26

Cf. Calvin’s reply to the Faculty of the University of Paris7) Ex concessoConceded by opponent8) Ad hominem“To the man,” considers source of opposing argument; may use his reasoning4. Order of argumentsshould be kept separate & distinctFirst cover proofs necessary to explain proposition.Generally have deductive proofs before inductive verifications.Usually best to put strongest arguments last.If audience unfriendly, better to start with strongest.5. General suggestions for the argument1) Work on improving logical work of one’s own mind2) Seek to prove only what you believe to be true3) Start argument with something people agree with4) Make arguments intelligible and persuasive to common mind5) Depend primarily upon Scriptural arguments6) Don’t use all the arguments, just the best ones7) Avoid formality8) Strive for clarity, precision, force. Eloquence may come if subject exalted enough.Chapter 20, ApplicationBroadus Outline.27

Charles Haddon Spurgeon: “Where the application begins, there the sermon begins.”Should appear in various parts of sermon, not just conclusion1. Focusing the claims of truthSpecific areas of life to be affectedPractical “remarks” as you go alongAvoid “hitting at” individualsLessons: truths that “we” can learn2. Suggesting ways and meansUse good judgment, experience, tactCase of public, political issues; emphasize human responsibility3. Persuasion to responseAfter showing duty, persuade to do it1) Not just urging, but supplying motives: happiness, goodness or holiness, personalworth, security, love, admiration2) Exciting appropriate emotions (from appropriate emotions in speaker—not for itsown sake)Strong use of imagination; terms of sensation, well-chosen detailsUse of comparisons from human lifeChapter 21, IllustrationAuxiliary function, to support any part of the sermon.“Throw light” on the subject; “windows of the sermon”1. Various uses of illustration1) To explainBroadus Outline.28

2) To proveArgument from analogy3) To ornamentMake truth attractive and pleasing4) To gain attention5) To excite emotion6) To persuade or move to actionDescribe person performing desired action7) To provide for various hearers8) To help people rememberCompare Jesus’ parables2. The kinds of illustration1) One-word illustrationsFigures of speech, metaphors2) Brief combinations of wordsSimilies and other metaphors3) Quotations4) Detailed example3. Sources of illustration1) ObservationNature, human life and relations, common pursuits, children, religious experiences2) Pure inventionBroadus Outline.29

3) Science4) HistoryEsp. biography; also current events; anecdotes5) Literature and artEsp. Christian classics, and hymns6) ScriptureImportance of regular Bible reading for preacher4. Building the illustration into the sermon1) Do not be in a hurry to use an illustration; wait for the appropriate sermon2) Be sure it really illustrates; it shouldn’t require its own explanation3) It should not draw attention to itself4) Do not over-illustrate5) Be sure of accuracy of each illustration6) Seek for variety of illustrations; don’t repeat5. Parts of the illustration1) Climax (punch line)2) Beginning or introductionAvoid jerkiness in introducing illustrationIntroduce brieflyDon’t say, “to illustrate . . .”3) Action or movementStory should move quicklyBroadus Outline.30

4) ConclusionAfter the climax; leads back into sermon5) The illustration in deliveryBe familiar with illustration; practice itWait for climax before revealing emotionBroadus Outline.31

PART 5THE STYLE OF THE SERMONChapter 22, General Observations on Style1. Nature and importance of styleStyle not over-all arrangement, but manner in which ideas expressedStyle important—expresses personality; makes truths acceptable and forceful to hearers2. Styles and styleIndividual style should follow general guidelines.1) Stay within bounds of proprietyGrammarSuited to the timesAppropriate for the place and occasion2) General requirements of styleClearnessEnergyElegance3. Faults of styleLack of effortSpacious style (grandeur)Polished style (tailored and kempt)Fine style (mellifluous words)Flowery style (highly ornamental)Broadus Outline.32

Classroom styleCareless, conversational styleCombative or ingratiating styleChapter 23, Attaining the Qualities of StyleQualities to seek:Clarity ClearnessEnergy ForceElegance BeautyWay to achieve good style: work and practiceBegin with own thinking—know you understand what you meanFollow Strunk & White, The Elements of StyleUse short sentences (cf. chart on p. 213)Use plain, active words (cf. chart on p. 214)Chapter 24, The Writing of SermonsAdvantages to writing of some sermons:1) Helps preparation by forcing concentration2) Requires more careful preparation3) Aids development of better style4) Other advantages: publication, reuseDisadvantages:1) Slows thinking to writing speed2) Becomes merely extemporaneous writingBroadus Outline.33

3) Time consumed in mechanics of writingSuggestion: Not write all sermons, but some on a regular basis, perhaps one a weekIf not write whole sermon, then write introduction & conclusionIf not written, use recording to evaluate laterIf written, revise later to improve styleChapter 25, Imagination in Preaching1. The nature of imaginationImagination thinking by seeing, without reasoning(“Right-brain” activity)Best used when seeing reality more clearly (not unreality)2. The role of imagination in preaching1) Vital in organizing and arranging material2) Makes ideas vivid; effective imagery3) Makes Bible stories and background real to audience, also unseen future realities4) Enables us to sympathize with others3. Means of cultivating the imagination1) Keen observation and study of nature and art2) Study of imaginative literature (drama, poetry, fiction)3) Keeping close to people, especially congregation4) Strong devotional life: prayer, meditation, Bible5) Practice while preaching (using good taste and judgment)Broadus Outline.34

PART 6THE PREPARATION OF SERMONSChapter 26, General PreparationInverse relation of general and immediate preparation for same resultsNecessity of constant study; a place to study; time scheduled (B. recommends 20 hrs/week); aregular schedule of subjectsChapter 27, Special PreparationEach sermon needs fresh material.Note procedures of Buttrick, Coffin, Cadman, Prichard (pp. 241-42)Jowett’s suggestions:1) Use own sermons2) Don’t preach on good idea too soon3) Condense sermon into good sentence4) Imagine how other preachers would handle sermon5) Think of individuals in congregation during preparation6) Write sermons, avoiding clichés7) Keep prayerful attitude during preparationSteps in immediate preparation:1. Keep a “garden” of verses for preaching; growing in mind2. Early in week, choose two texts3. Write down everything possible about these two subjects4. Gather materials from various sources (commentaries, dictionaries, etc.)Broadus Outline.35

5. Make tentative outlines6. “Speak through” the material7. Change and refine outlines8. Write sermon; at least, introduction and conclusionChapter 28, Preparation of Special Types of Sermons1. Funeral sermonsA spiritual opportunityObligation to preach gospel and invite sinners to salvationComments on eulogizing the departed and comforting the bereavedEulogizing non-Christian departedThe sermon: biblical in content, brief (ca. 10 minutes), variety of content2. Academic and anniversary sermonsKeep sermon spiritual and evangelistic3. Revival sermons(includes evangelistic sermons)1) Keep sermons short (especially if every day)2) Vary the content and character of sermons3) Topics and sentiments should follow natural sequence(Note p. 252—avoiding superficial “decisions”)4) Keep sermons sound, with a complete gospel4. Sermons to childrenBroadus Outline.36

Interest, instruct, impressEmphasize the beautiful, the humorous, but not overdoneAppeal to affections more than to fearsChildren not innocent, need to repentMethods of having children’s sermons in church schedule5. Sermons for other special classes1) Select text and subject to be appropriate, without being forced.2) Don’t be too pointed in application; even small groups have variety3) Always preach the gospelChapter 29, Planning a Preaching ProgramAdvantages of planning preaching topics in advanceTypes of plans:1. Consecutive exposition of Scriptures2. Use objectives of preaching (evangelistic, theological, ethical, devotional, inspirational,actional)3. Church or denominational plan4. National holidays5. Christian year calendarMethod of planning:1. Set year boundaries (suggests Sept. – Aug.)2. Determine which services included in plan3. Use file folder for each sermon to be preachedBroadus Outline.37

4. Prepare the general plan; include shorter and longer series5. Fill in specific texts and subjects when possible6. Try to stay at least three months ahead with specific texts and subjects7. Be planning for the following year8. Vary the plan from year to year9. Don’t announce plan; keep flexible for possible changesBroadus Outline.38

PART 7THE DELIVERY OF SERMONSChapter 30, The Methods of DeliveryImportance of being possessed by the subject when preaching1. ReadingJonathan Edwards, Thomas Chalmers, Horace Bushnell, Peter MarshallAdvantages: control, ease from worryDisadvantages:1) Deprives use of on-the-spot ideas & inspiration2) Less effective means of speaking; colder3) Often harmful to the voice4) Makes other speaking more fearsome stillDon’t disguise it if you read2. RecitationMore common in Europe1) Advantages of reading for completeness and finish; but capable of failure; more naturalthan reading; develops the memory2) Disadvantages: more difficult than reading to interject thoughts; more time forpreparation; dread of failure; still somewhat artificialPerhaps useful for special or extraordinary occasions3. Extemporaneous preachingDifference between “extemporaneous” and “impromptu”Broadus Outline.39

Advantages:1) Encourages rapid thinking2) Saves preparation time for other work3) Advantages during delivery: ease & effectiveness4) Delivery interacts with content, leading to greater power and exaltation of soul5) Awareness of congregation’s response6) Delivery more natural, warmer7) Helps for cases when impromptu speaking necessary8) Normally the expected method by congregations9) People like eye contact with ministerDisadvantages:1) Tendency to neglect preparation2) Tendency to block ability to write3) Tendency to dull and sloppy style4) Danger of making misstatements5) Can be too dependent on feelings at the time4. Free deliveryPreaching without notes or manuscriptNeeds for this method:1) Careful preparation2) No manuscripts or notes in the pulpit3) No effort to memorize the sermonAdvantages:Broadus Outline.40

1) Develops the memory2) All the advantages of written sermons; detailed outline or manuscript left instudy; later revision or publication3) All advantages of extemporaneous preaching4) People like directness, eye contact5) Best suits minister’s calling: preach the gospel(cf. Peter’s and Paul’s preaching)6) Gives the fullest joy and satisfaction in preachingDisadvantages:1) Might leave out something important or choice2) Danger of forgetting3) Requires real work4) Many believe themselves incapable mentallyMethods to learn the technique:1) In immediate preparation . . .Use ideas that have developed in your own mind and maturedKeep plan of sermon simple and logicalCarefully plan transitionsKeep sermon material as concrete as possible2) In rehearsing the sermon . . .Spend ½ to 1 hour practicing, reading through, etc.But don’t try to duplicate rehearsal exactly during sermon3) Learn to use and depend on the memoryBroadus Outline.41

4) Keep physically fit5) Strengthen faith by trusting in Holy Spirit to guide.Chapter 31, The Voice in Delivery1. The voice—i

2. Study of homiletics Need for continued effort and study Sources for study: books, sermons, criticism, later classes Immediate benefits for seminary students: Sermon material Sermon methods Sermon organization Sermon delivery Dangers of study of homiletics (in 3rd ed.)