Transcription

Instructions for data-entry and data-analysis using Epi Info After collecting data using the tools for evaluation and feedback available in the Hand HygieneImplementation Toolkit (available at http://www.who.int/gpsc/5may/tools/evaluation feedback/en/index.html), data can be processed using EpiInfo data-entry filesdeveloped specifically for these tools. These files can be downloaded from the website above. Toenable their use, the Epi Info software also needs to be downloaded.Using Epi Info in 5 steps1. Download Epi Info 2. Learn the basics on how to use Epi Info 3. Create a directory for your files on your PC4. Enter data from the completed evaluation tools into your PC5. Export data or do analyses in Epi Info 1. Download Epi Info The objective of using Epi InfoTM is to allow for concise electronic data processing to support analyses, and to providevaluable information for accurate and timely reporting. To use Epi InfoTM, you must have easy access to a workingcomputer. If you do not have access to a computer, we still encourage the use of the evaluation tools and to find otherways to process data and present results.Epi InfoTM is free statistical software developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for data entryand data analyses. You will find the Epi Info webpage on the CDC website at the following address:http://www.cdc.gov/epiinfo/ . (Accessed: October 2009.) On the Epi Info main page you will find the links to downloadthe software and links to user support, including tutorials (that we encourage you to use!), and a web board. Thiswebpage also lists the system requirements to be able to run Epi Info on your computer. You can access thedownload area by clicking on the download links or by going directly to the following address:http://www.cdc.gov/epiinfo/epiinfo.htm . On this page, click the “install” link of the "Web Install" and follow theinstructions. The link to the Epi Info tutorials is: http://www.cdc.gov/epiinfo/communityhealth.htm .Page 1 of 11Published October 2009 World Health Organization 2009. All rights reserved.All reasonable precautions have been taken by the World Health Organization to verify the information contained in this document. However, the published material is being distributed without warrantyof any kind, either expressed or implied. The responsibility for the interpretation and use of the material lies with the reader. In no event shall the World Health Organization be liable for damagesarising from its use.

2. Learn the basics on how to use Epi Info After installing Epi Info and starting the programme, the following screen will be displayed:Click to exit theprogrammeClick here to startentering your dataClick for information ofthe Epi Info websiteClick here to exportdata and to analyzedata in Epi InfoThe buttons on this screen give access to the different functions of the programme. Those important for your data entryand data analysis are: Enter data: Click here to enter the data; Analyze data: Click here to either export the data to a Microsoft Excel file or to analyze data using Epi Info ; Exit: Click here to exit the programme; Epi Info website: This is a link to the Epi Info website for further support. We encourage you to use thetutorial to get familiar with the use of the programme.Page 2 of 11Published October 2009 World Health Organization 2009. All rights reserved.All reasonable precautions have been taken by the World Health Organization to verify the information contained in this document. However, the published material is being distributed without warrantyof any kind, either expressed or implied. The responsibility for the interpretation and use of the material lies with the reader. In no event shall the World Health Organization be liable for damagesarising from its use.

3. Create a directory for your files on your PCTo start the data entry you need to create a directory on the PC in which you run the Epi Info programme, for example"C:\.\WHO hand hygiene". Copy the files provided by WHO to this map. (Please find the files at:http://www.who.int/gpsc/5may/tools/evaluation feedback/en/index.html). Two types of files are provided:1. Project files for each of the evaluation tools (see details below), including the data-entry screen and the datatable. The extension of these files is ".mdb".2. Programme files to be used for simple data analysis using Epi Info . The extension of these files is ".pgm".WHO provides project files (.mdb) for the following evaluation tools: the hand hygiene observation tool; the ward infrastructure survey; the hand hygiene knowledge questionnaire for health-care workers; the perception survey for health-care workers at baseline; the perception survey for health-care workers to follow-up; the perception survey for senior managers; the protocol for evaluation and comparison of tolerability and acceptability of different alcohol-based handrubs; the soap/handrub consumption survey.4. Enter data from the completed evaluation tools into your PCTo get started, follow the next steps:1. From the Epi Info main screen click "Enter Data";2. Select "File" and click on "Open";3. Select the directory (created by you, see instructions above) and choose the project file (.mdb) you want to workon;4. Select a table and click "OK" on the screen "Select a table". In most project files there is only one table tochoose from. For two evaluation tools, you can choose from two tables. For these tools, refer Data-entry detailsof the evaluation tools, found on page 5.Step 2: Click on " file"and then " open"Step 3: Select the map and the project.Step 4: Select the tableand click " OK"Page 3 of 11Published October 2009 World Health Organization 2009. All rights reserved.All reasonable precautions have been taken by the World Health Organization to verify the information contained in this document. However, the published material is being distributed without warrantyof any kind, either expressed or implied. The responsibility for the interpretation and use of the material lies with the reader. In no event shall the World Health Organization be liable for damagesarising from its use.

In the data-entry screen you have several options to navigate, save, delete, change to another project file, etc. Thescreen has three parts where you can select actions; the menu at the top of the page, the panel on the left and the dataentry field (please see image below). In the menu at the top of the page, use the options in File to manage project files - open, close, save, print, orexit. In Options you can maximize the size of the screen by selecting “full screen”. Choose Edit to find specificrecords or to delete records.In the panel on the left side, you have options to navigate pages in the data-entry. From this panel you can goto the next record, save data, delete a record, find a record or create a new record. This also gives access to goback to previously saved records for possible changes.In the data-entry field you can go to the items by either using the mouse or the keyboard. To move from onefield to the next when entering the data, press the Enter or Tab key or use your mouse. At the end of a page youwill go to the next page by answering the last question, possibly followed by an "Enter", or use the "Next" buttonat the bottom of the page."next" button to go to thenext page in thequestionnaireUse the options in File to save,exit, and change project file toenter data from another toolGo directly to anew recordClick to go to the next page in thisrecordNavigate here togo to recordsWhen you want to stop your data entry, follow these steps:1. Go to File in the menu at the top of the page;2. Choose "Save".If you want to stop all data-entry:3a. Choose "Exit" from the File menu and you will return to the main Epi Info page.If you want to continue data-entry for another evaluation tool:3b. Choose "Close" and then "Open" and select the project file you want to do data-entry for. If the window Select atable appears, click on "Change project" and select the project file for that evaluation tool.Page 4 of 11Published October 2009 World Health Organization 2009. All rights reserved.All reasonable precautions have been taken by the World Health Organization to verify the information contained in this document. However, the published material is being distributed without warrantyof any kind, either expressed or implied. The responsibility for the interpretation and use of the material lies with the reader. In no event shall the World Health Organization be liable for damagesarising from its use.

Please take note of the following when entering the data: In text fields, letters or numbers can be freely entered. Therefore, take good care to be consistent. Use thesame orthography and type of characters;When there is a down arrow in the field, always use this because there you will find the options for the answersyou can select;The date pattern to use is DD-MM-YYYY (day-month-year).The time pattern to use is HH-MM-SS (hours-minutes-seconds) with 24 hours format. There is no need to enterseconds.Data-entry details of the evaluation toolsAll questionnaires are designed the same way. However, some features may differ from one project file to another andkey descriptions are presented here to guide you.Hand hygiene observation toolThis Epi Info .mdb file enables entry of data on the session and the data on hand hygiene observation recorded byusing the Observation Form. These are linked as shown on the graphic below. Within each session there are multipleobservations.After selecting "WHO HAND HYGIENE OBSERVATION.mdb",two tables named “Observation” and “SESSION” are displayed.To start, select "SESSION" “Start time” and “End time” are time fields and Epi Info will automatically calculate the duration of the session inminutes. There is no need to enter seconds into theObservationtime fields.n 1 Some information, like country, will be copiedautomatically in subsequent entries of sessions afterentry the first time. "Period number" is important to be able to analyze trends in time.SessionObservationn 2Observationn iAt the bottom of the data-entry page on "SESSION" there is a button called “Observation”. By clicking this button, youwill open the “Observation” file. This questionnaire is for entering data on hand hygiene observation. Next to the checkbox for profession you may add the code in the drop down list for WHO category (e.g. 1.1). The number of observations that can be linked to a session is unlimited. The "number of indications" is a separate field when entering the data for "Observations". This field is notpresent on the paper registration form. Please fill in this field by taking the total of the number of indications youhave indicated in the tick boxes. If you for example ticked two moments within an opportunity, fill in "2" as thenumber of indications. The number of professionals that was observed is indicated at the top of each column of the hand hygieneobservation form. In the data-entry forms, this information should be filled in the "SESSION" screen.Once the data about the observations have been entered, by clicking the blue arrow in the left column, you will return tothe "Session" file.Ward infrastructure surveyAfter selecting "WHO WARD INFRASTRUCTURE.mdb", select the only table presented "wardinfrastructureWG2009". On page 3 of the data-entry, enter the total number of the three tables, as filled in at the bottom row of eachtable. The three tables relate to the observations made in A) Patient rooms, B) Treatment rooms, and C)Page 5 of 11Published October 2009 World Health Organization 2009. All rights reserved.All reasonable precautions have been taken by the World Health Organization to verify the information contained in this document. However, the published material is being distributed without warrantyof any kind, either expressed or implied. The responsibility for the interpretation and use of the material lies with the reader. In no event shall the World Health Organization be liable for damagesarising from its use.

Corridors and other areas. The analysis will focus on the total numbers of the registration, hence the dataentry of the last rows only, indicating the totals.Hand hygiene knowledge questionnaire for health-care workersAfter selecting "WHO KNOWLEDGE QUESTIONNAIRE.mdb", select the only presented table "HANDHYGIENE". The correct answer to the questions is indicated with " * " as a symbol added at the end of the answer. Thiswill be used in the data analyses, as described later in this document.Perception survey for health-care workers at baseline and follow-upAfter selecting "WHO PERCEPTION QUESTIONNAIRE BASELINE.mdb" or "WHO PERCEPTION QUESTIONNAIREFOLLOW-UP,mdb", select the only presented table "HANDHYGIENE". Please note that the baseline and the follow-up questionnaires are different. There are additional questions inthe follow-up questionnaire. Although there are separate questionnaires for baseline and follow-up, it is useful to pay attention to theassigning of the "Period number". Period number can be used in longitudinal analyses and should thereforebe defined explicitly in order to structurally examine changes over time.Perception survey for senior managersAfter selecting "WHO PERCEPTION QUESTIONNAIRE FOR SENIOR MANAGERS.mdb", select the only presentedtable "HANDHYGIENE".Protocol for evaluation (and comparison) of tolerability and acceptability of alcohol-based handrubs:Method 1 and Method 2.The data entry for tolerability of alcohol-based handrubs contains two parts (tables):1. “Participants” is used to enter information on the health-care workers and;2. "Products" is used to enter the results of the product evaluation.The field “Participant number” will be used in analysis to link each participant to the product evaluations. The number ofproduct evaluations that can be linked to a participant is unlimited.The structure of the data-entry forms of Method 1 and Method 2 are comparable.After selecting "WHO EVALUATION TOLERABILITY HANDRUBS.mdb", select the table "Participants". After filling indetails of the participant, click the button "product evaluation" to enter the results of the product evaluation. Please make sure that "participant number" is a unique identifier of the health-care worker and is used correctlyin all data entry. This is to assure that the person and the results are correctly linked, however still maintainsanonymity.Soap/ handrub consumption surveyAfter selecting "WHO SOAP HANDRUB CONSUMPTION SURVEY.mdb", select the only presented table"consumption". The narrative parts of the questionnaire describing the process of purchase cannot be entered. At the end of page 1 you are asked for which product you want to enter data: handrub, soap, or both. Dependingon the answer you will be directed further in the data entry. The evaluation forms are designed for monthly registration during a six-month period. However, in practice thismay not happen with these time intervals. Make sure that you fill in the dates correctly, so you can makeanalyses over time.Page 6 of 11Published October 2009 World Health Organization 2009. All rights reserved.All reasonable precautions have been taken by the World Health Organization to verify the information contained in this document. However, the published material is being distributed without warrantyof any kind, either expressed or implied. The responsibility for the interpretation and use of the material lies with the reader. In no event shall the World Health Organization be liable for damagesarising from its use.

5. Export data or do analyses in Epi Info After entering the data you may want to do analyses with other software like Windows Excel or statistical packages. Forthis purpose you can export the data files that were entered in Epi Info .1. In the main page of Epi Info , click "Analyze data";2. Click on "Read (import)" in the panel at the left side of the screen, a new window appears (see picture below);3. Go to the "change project” at click;4. Go to your directory and select the project file from which you want the data to be exported and click "Open";5. Select the table within the project file you want to open;6. Click "OK".In the central panel it is shown which document is open, and the number of records.Step 3: Click on "change project"to go to the directory with yourproject files (.mdb), and select theproject from which you want toexport dataStep 2: Click Read (import)Step 4: Select the project inyour directory from which youwant to access the dataStep 5: Select the relevanttable shown under "views",and click " OK"Subsequently, to do the export:1. Click on "Write (export)" in the panel on the left (also check the screen displayed below);2, Select the type of file (e.g. Excel 4.0) in Output formats;3. Click on the browse button to go to your directory;4. Type a name for the file you are exporting (e.g. observation.xls) in the field File name;5. Do not change the setting to "Replace" in the "output mode" section of the window;6. If you want to limit the variables to be exported, you can make a selection, if not, all variables are exported;7. Click "OK".Page 7 of 11Published October 2009 World Health Organization 2009. All rights reserved.All reasonable precautions have been taken by the World Health Organization to verify the information contained in this document. However, the published material is being distributed without warrantyof any kind, either expressed or implied. The responsibility for the interpretation and use of the material lies with the reader. In no event shall the World Health Organization be liable for damagesarising from its use.

The active data (opened data table) is now saved as a Windows Excel file. To access the exported Excel file, start theExcel programme and open the file.You may now continue analyzing the active data in Epi Info or close (click "quit" to return to the main page Epi Info ).Type of fileIf desired, selectvariablesClick to browse anddefine exported fileAfter browsing, type filename and press " OK"Using the Analyze data moduleYou may wish to do analyses using the exported files in other software, or you may choose to do analyses in Epi Info .The Analysis screen in Epi Info is divided into three different areas (see image below): the Analysis Command Tree,on the left side of the screen containing a list of commands such as Frequencies, Tables, Means or Graph; the AnalysisOutput Window on the top right side of the screen, which acts like a browser and displays the results of analyses; andThe Program Editor on the bottom right side of the screen where you can run and create programmes.The Command tree contains commands used to analyze data. Here are some of the most useful commands: DISPLAY: This command, found in the "Variables" folder, shows information about the variables in the project; SELECT: This command specifies a condition that must be true for a record to be processed. This is useful ifyou want to do an analysis of part of the data, for example only for respondents under 25 years of age. LIST: This command allows you to display a listing of the current data table; FREQUENCY: This is one of the most useful commands in analysis. The use of this command produces afrequency table showing the number of selected events, characteristics or occurrences (for example: frequencyof variable "gender" gives the number and percentage of females and males); TABLES: This command enables you to compare proportions by making 2 by 2 or n x n tables. Relative risks,odds ratio (both with 95% Confidence Interval) as well as Chi-square and Fischer exact tests are computed; MEANS: This command enables you to calculate average values and to compare continuous variables such asage.Page 8 of 11Published October 2009 World Health Organization 2009. All rights reserved.All reasonable precautions have been taken by the World Health Organization to verify the information contained in this document. However, the published material is being distributed without warrantyof any kind, either expressed or implied. The responsibility for the interpretation and use of the material lies with the reader. In no event shall the World Health Organization be liable for damagesarising from its use.

The analysiscommand treeAnalysis output buttonsAnalysis-outputwindowProgram EditorTo analyze the data you need to: 1) open a data table, and 2) open or create commands/programme for the analysis.Opening a project file is equal to the procedure described and illustrated in the paragraph above:1. In the main page of Epi Info , click "Analyze data";2. Click on "Read (import)" in the panel at the left side of the screen, a new window appears (see picture below);3. Go to the "change project” at click;4. Go to your directory and select the project file from which you want the data to be exported and click "Open";5. Select the table within the project file you want to open;6. Click "OK".The name of the data table appears in the Output Window as well as the number of records in the view. The AnalysisOutput buttons allows navigation through the programmes, printing the results and maximizing the screen.With the active dataset, i.e. the file currently open, you can now start the analysis by selecting a command from the leftpanel and selecting the variable(s) and other conditions as requested by the programme after selection of the command.The "Help" option in the programme and documents on the Epi Info website can help you to do the analyses.To help you to analyze the data, if you are not familiar with Epi Info , we have developed simple analysis programmes.These programmes have the .pgm extension and are text files. These files are provided on the website as previouslymentioned.Page 9 of 11Published October 2009 World Health Organization 2009. All rights reserved.All reasonable precautions have been taken by the World Health Organization to verify the information contained in this document. However, the published material is being distributed without warrantyof any kind, either expressed or implied. The responsibility for the interpretation and use of the material lies with the reader. In no event shall the World Health Organization be liable for damagesarising from its use.

To use these .pgm programmes:1. Click "Open" in the Program Editor (see screen displayed above)2. Click "Change Project" to go to your directory;3. Change the type of file from .mbd to *.* (see illustration below) and select the programme file (.pgm.txt) you want towork with (which matches the active data set);4. Click "OK" and the programme will appear in the window of the "Program Editor"5. Press "Run" in the Program Editor to run the analysisStep 2: Click and browseWhen browsing, change the type of file to *.*, andsearch for the programme files (.pgm.txt) in yourdirectory. Subsequently select the relevantprogramme file and click "OK"Running the programme produces output in the Analysis-Output Window (see example in screen displayed below). Ingeneral the analysis aims for two types of information:- General descriptive information;- Changes over time.To achieve this, many variables can be examined in relation to the period number. This then produces a table in whichinformation on a certain variable is calculated for each period number, providing the opportunity to analyze changes overtime (see screen below for example).Please note the following: To help you correlate the name of the variable with the question, the number of the question has been put at theend of the variable name; It is essential to avoid missing the entry of data, as well missing the collection of data in the first instance. Boththese may hinder the full interpretation of the results; For the knowledge questionnaire the " * " character has been added to the variable name for the correct answer.Page 10 of 11Published October 2009 World Health Organization 2009. All rights reserved.All reasonable precautions have been taken by the World Health Organization to verify the information contained in this document. However, the published material is being distributed without warrantyof any kind, either expressed or implied. The responsibility for the interpretation and use of the material lies with the reader. In no event shall the World Health Organization be liable for damagesarising from its use.

The hand hygiene observation file includes two tables with the information "SESSION" and "Observation". Eachsession has multiple observations. The unique linking is through the variable "FKey" in the Observation table,which matches the variable "UniqueKey" in the Session table. These linking variables have been assigned bythe programme, and are essential to link the information of the session to the observation. This can be used forfurther analysis.The results will be sent by default as a HTML file into the Epi Info directory on the C-drive of your computer. Ifyou want to send the results to a specific directory, write the following command with the name of the directory:ROUTEOUT 'C:\Documents and Settings\name of the directory\name of the file.htm' (or do this by selecting the"RouteOut" command in the Output directory in the Command Tree of Analysis.The output HTML files can be edited in MS-Word.In the programme (the .pgm file) for Hand Hygiene Observation, messages are included to better understandthe results. The message is starting and ending with "*".The provided analyses are simple descriptive analyses only.Variable nameInformation per period(Period number)Information on the scores,irrespective of period numberProgramme(.pgm.txt)The results of the analysis should be used to support the implementation process of the WHO Multimodal Hand HygieneImprovement Strategy. It provides information about hand hygiene progress in your facility. The results can be fed backto the staff in your facility. You can present information from Epi Info or Excel files or use this to inform an MS Worddocument report aimed at highlighting compliance rates, knowledge, perceptions and structural issues to a range ofhealth-care and administrative/management staff. The provided Data Summary Report Framework slides, for presentingresults, can be used to structure the information. These can be found athttp://www.who.int/gpsc/5may/tools/evaluation feedback/en/index.htmlPage 11 of 11Published October 2009 World Health Organization 2009. All rights reserved.All reasonable precautions have been taken by the World Health Organization to verify the information contained in this document. However, the published material is being distributed without warrantyof any kind, either expressed or implied. The responsibility for the interpretation and use of the material lies with the reader. In no event shall the World Health Organization be liable for damagesarising from its use.

When you want to stop your data entry, follow these steps: 1. Go to File in the menu at the top of the page; 2. Choose "Save". If you want to stop all data-entry: 3a. Choose "Exit" from the File menu and you will return to the main Epi Info page. If you want to continue data