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Northeast Nebraska Master GardenersJanuary 2016The Green PatchA Tribute to the Master GardenerBy Vicki Rundell, Pierce County Master GardenerAnother "wonder of a year" in the garden has come to an end. Already the gardening books are arriving for next year. My fingers are dog-tagging pages and my mind is landscaping art in the areas to plant. Its dig, plant, mulch, and then wait for thatwondrous time the seeds pop and give birth to the beginning of beauty again. Like a parent we tend to the little ones. We delveinto the dirt and get it under our fingernails. There's watering, replanting, fertilizing, singing (play some Elvis and those plantswill dance), and of course weeding, as the art flashes into full bloom. We're addicted. We can't get enough. It's add another "12Volume 8, Issue 1by 6" raised bed and till up another circle flower bed. We can't let that last plant sit on the shelf. There's a spot for it too.Let us thank those fabulous master gardeners out there; the bees, bugs, and insects, along with birds, that work their marvelousmagic, bringing about flowers and produce. We thank the business people for seeds, plants, trees, spades and gadgets, fertilizer,mulch and composts, water hose, soaker hose, watering cans, walking tractor sprinklers, rain barrels, etc.Thank you to all theuniversity educators and leaders who guide us along at the master gardener meetings and newspaper articles they write.A big "Thank You" to our spouses, children, family and friends. You give us time to spend with the wonder of it all.This is dedicated to all striving gardeners out there, the master gardeners who study, work, share, volunteer their time, and to allthose who have shared their art, talent, and have gone on to that magnificent, eye-popping "WHOO" garden in the sky, with theMaster Mind of it all.Late Blooming IrisI was surprised to find thislittle iris blooming here lateOctober. It is very remarkable that it bloomedthough it is very short.Inside this issue:How to Re-Bloom Your Poinsettia2Pine Wilt3Hops in Nebraska3Blueberry Almond Coffee Cake4Gardening Word Search4Planting Day at Barnes Park52016 Spring Training Dates52016 Plant Fair5What is It?6I have never purchased reblooming iris and the irisshown here came with thehouse when I moved herein 1997.The yellow to the left is aclematis. Even in the Fall itis a lovely vine.By Jane Jensen, Pierce County Master Gardener

How to Re-Bloom Your PoinsettiaShared By Tom O’Gorman, Madison County Master GardenerWhen the poinsettia’s bracts age and lose their aestheticappeal, there’s no reason to throw it out. With proper care,dedication and a certain amount of luck, you too can rebloom your poinsettia!By late March or early April, cut your poinsettia back toabout 8” in height. Continue a regular watering program,and fertilize your plant with a good, balanced all-purposefertilizer. By the end of May, you should see vigorous newgrowth.Place your plants outdoors, where they can bask in thewarmth of spring and summer, after all chance of frost haspassed and night temperatures average 55 F or above.Continue regular watering during the growth period, andfertilize every 2 to 3 weeks.Pruning may be required during the summer to keep plants bushy and compact. Late June or early July is a good time for these steps, butbe sure not to prune your plant later than September 1. Keep the plants in indirect sun and water regularly.Around June 1, you may transplant your poinsettia into a larger pot. Select a pot no more than 4 inches larger than the origi nal pot. A soilmix with a considerable amount of organic matter, such as peat moss or leaf mold, is highly recommended. In milder climates, you maytransplant the plant into a well prepared garden bed. Be sure the planting bed is rich in organic material and has good drainage.The poinsettia is a photoperiodic plant, meaning that it sets buds and produces flowers as the Autumn nights lengthen. Poinsettias willnaturally come into bloom during November or December, depending on the flowering response time of the individual cultivar. Timing toproduce blooms for the Christmas holiday can be difficult outside of the controlled environment of a greenhouse. Stray light of any kinds,such as from a street light or household lamps, could delay or entirely halt the re-flowering process.Starting October 1, the plants must be kept in complete darkness for 14 continuous hours each night. Accomplish this by moving theplants to a totally dark room, or by covering them overnight with a large box. During October, November, and early December, poinsettias require 6-8 hours of bright sunlight daily, with night temperatures between 60-70 F. Temperatures outside of this range could alsodelay flowering.Continue the normal watering and fertilizing program. Carefully following this regime for 8-10 weeks should result in a colorful display ofblooms for the holiday season!The Do’s and Don’ts of Poinsettia Care DO place your plant in indirect sunlight for at least six hours per day. If direct sun can’t be avoided, diffuse the light with ashade or sheer curtain. DO provide room temperatures between 68-70 F. Generally speaking, if you are comfortable, so is your poinsettia. DO water your plant when the soil feels dry to the touch. DO use a large, roomy shopping bag to protect your plant when transporting it. DO fertilize your plant AFTER THE BLOOMING SEASON with a balanced, all-purpose fertilizer. DON’T place plants near cold drafts or excessive heat. Avoid placing plants near appliances, fireplaces or ventilating ducts. DON’T expose plants to temperatures below 50 F. Poinsettias are sensitive to cold, so avoid placing them outside during the winter months. DON’T over water your plant, or allow it to sit in standing water. Alwaysremove a plant from any decorative container before watering, and allowthe water to drain completely. DON’T expose your plant to chilling winds when transporting it. DON’T fertilize your plant when it is in bloom.January 2016Page 2

Pine WiltBy Wayne Ohnesorg, Nebraska Extension EducatorPine wilt is a devastating disease of non-native pine species. The primary species of pine affected are Scotch and Austrian pine. The diseaseoccurs throughout Nebraska. There are two organisms that are responsible for pine wilt: the pine sawyer beetle and the pinewood nematode. Without the beetle, the nematode would not be able to move from one tree to another.The beetles utilize dead and dying pine trees. That includes trees infected with pinewood nematode. Larvae (immature stages) of the beetlefeed underneath the bark. Once beetles reach the adult stage, the nematodes crawl into the breathing tubes of the beetle. Adult beetles willchew their way out from underneath the bark. The adult beetles can emerge from pine trees from May through October. Adult beetles feedon twigs of live pine trees. It is through these openings that the nematodes will “jump ship” from the beetle and enter a new tree. If thepine tree is an acceptable host the nematodes will reproduce rapidly. Once the tree is dying or dead it will attract female adult beetles thatwill lay their eggs underneath the bark and start the cycle over again.The pinewood nematode is about 3/100 inch in length. Pine species that allow this nematode to reach disease-causing levels are Scotch pineand Austrian pine as mentioned earlier. Trees that have been infected can be killed in the course of a summer. When symptoms appear, thetree will die soon afterwards.Summer is the primary time that we notice pine wilt. The warmer temperatures accelerate the growth and reproduction of the nematode.Large numbers of the nematode clog the transport tissues of the tree and prevent transport of water from that point on up. The loss of water causes the branches and needles above to die. They turn a characteristic rusty orange color.To date there are not any effective or reasonable means for treating infected trees with pesticides. Some try to control the adult beetleswith insecticides, but the large window of activity (May-October) makes this extremely difficult. An additional problem is that it only takesone twig to be nibbled on by the beetle to allow the nematodes into the tree. Even if the tree had been sprayed prior, a visi ting beetlewouldn’t die from the insecticide fast enough.The best method to help prevent the spread of pine wilt is through sanitation. Remove trees that died during the summer, so that they donot serve as a reservoir of pine sawyer beetles, as soon as reasonably possible during summer months. Diseased trees should be chipped orburned to kill any pine sawyer beetle larvae or adults. Timing is key to prevent beetles from exiting the dead trees. Trees that die during thewinter need to be removed before temperatures warm up in the spring. Saving wood from pine wilt-killed trees for firewood is not recommended as adult beetles can still emerge from the wood. Wood chips from pine wilt-killed trees can be used as mulch only if they have beenallowed to sit for 6 weeks during summer before they are used. They can be used sooner if they are going to be used in plantings that donot include Scotch or Austrian pines.Hops in NebraskaBy Jane Jensen, Pierce County Master GardenerFarmers markets are abundant in Nebraska during the Summer months. Folks sell quantitiesof tomatoes, onions, and all sorts of vegetables. Fruit in season is another example of folksearning a buck. Apples, strawberries and cherries are delicious for canning and baking; andmany are growing grapes for wine production on a small scale at home.Recently I read a short piece on hops and beer production in Nebraska. It proved to be a veryinteresting subject. I do not care for beer but learned that people are actually making gonthehop.Hops are a herbaceous perennial started from rhizomes that are planted near tall poles. Somepoles are 25 feet tall and the bine needs a substantial support as each plant can weigh in at 20pounds. Hops need room so these poles are six to eight feet apart. From the root comes abine or shoot that climbs around the pole. (Not vine which uses tendrils or suckers to climb)The plant needs six to eight hours of sunlight and plenty of water, sometimes watering each day is required in our Nebraska heat. It doesn'tdo well in heat over 100 degrees F and is more suited to the weather of the Pacific Northwest.There are however, six or seven growers in Nebraska, trying to keep up with the demand for this fragrant, green flower that looks like pinecones when harvested in late Summer. Only female plants are grown in hop fields to prevent pollination. The cones grow high on the bineand are harvested at the end of summer. The bines are pulled down and the flowers taken in for drying. These flowers are spread out evenly and heat is applied underneath. Hops are dried for 24 hours at 130 degree F heat. Higher heat cooks the hops rendering them unusable.Big operations bale the hops. Oils in this product give flavor and aroma to the beer and also have antibiotic properties which inhibit bacterialgrowth.FUN FACTS In 2012, the Brewer's Association rated Nebraska as 16th in the United States for per capita breweries with 19. The leader in hop growing is Washington state with some 29,000 acres. A Nebraska bill in the legislature would help promote more hop growth by providing a tax credit to breweries that use Nebraskagrown hops and barley. Hops have been around for a long time. The first documentation of hop growing was in the year 736 in Germany. Documentation for brewing has been recorded as far back as the year 1079. A Google search of Nebraska grown hops produced well over 2000 hits making for some very interesting reading. Fremont, Fort Calhoun and Papillion are some of the areas where hops are grown in Nebraska. Nebraska hop growers cannot keep up with the demand for this product by home and commercial brewers.January 2016Page 3The Green Patch

Blueberry AlmondCoffee CakeGardening Word eat oven to 350 BVXNLJTFSRNRXTIBeat sugar and eggs for 5 minutes on medium speed, addbutter and extracts and beat 2 more CTQRGZAJPFTIWJRUVPTLOJVJPKRFThe delicious dish Bonnie Smith served at the Decembermonthly meeting.2 cups granulated sugar2 cups all purpose flour3 large eggs ( room temp)12 ounces fresh blueberries3/4 cup salted butter (room temp)1 teaspoon almond extract1 cup sliced almonds2 teaspoons vanilla extractSlowly add flour, mix until combined. Fold in blueberries. Using a spatula pour and smooth batter in 9X13sprayed pan. Sprinkle almonds on top. Bake 40-45 ERTILIZERRAKEGLOVESSEEDSArticles and informationThe Green PatchContributorsfor the April issue of ThePublisherPam GreunkeGreen Patch are due toEditorDeb DaehnkePam GreunkeContributorsDeb DaehnkeJane Jensen([email protected])by March 2, 2016.Wayne OhnesorgTom O’GormanVicki RundellJanuary 2016Page 4Denise Trine

Planting Day at Barnes Park in MadisonBy Denise Trine, Madison County Master GardenerThe new Barnes Memorial Park Arboretum in Madison finallyhas some trees! On Friday November 13, we received treesfrom the Nebraska Statewide Arboretum, Great Plains Nursery and Forrest Keeling Nursery. With the help of some greatvolunteers, an assortment totaling 54 trees was planted inthe Arboretum by the swimming pool on South LincolnStreet.Aspens, Elms, Sycamore, Catalpa, Buckeye, Birch,Black Walnut, Kentucky Coffeetree and a dozen differentkinds of Oak were among the varieties planted.An augeroperated by a City of Madison employee and guided with thehelp of a volunteer, made quick work of digging the holes forthe trees. The trees were then taken out of their containers,placed at the proper level, filled with dirt, watered and covered with mulch. Many thanks to Bob Henrickson and JustinEvertson (Nebraska Statewide Arboretum), Gary Zimmer(Gillman Arboretum in Pierce), Ruth Oswald (Master Gardener), Darol Ellwanger (PrairieLand RC&D),and other volun-teers for helping to plant the trees. More volunteers hauled water to all the trees, staked and tiedthe trees that needed it, and tied the tree protectors on and put mulch on the trees. The mulchwas donated by D&D Industries.Cinnamon rolls, coffee and hot cider, sandwiches, cookies &brownies kept the volunteers nourished and happy! Ruth Oswald and others did a great job highlighting and marking the planting diagram so everyone knew where to place the trees.Many, many thanks to Superintendant Jim Lewis and his City of Madison utility crew for all of theirhard work preparing and placing the walkway around this new park.The trees will need to be watered again this fall and we welcome all volunteers to help with thisproject. The project is partially funded with a grant from the Lower Elkhorn NRD and matched bythe City of Madison. Please contact Denise at 402-920-3761 if you would like to help with thisnew project.Pictures:Top left– Justin Evertson, Betty Ray, and Ruth OswaldTop right– Naomi HemphilBottom right– Phyllis Trine2016 Spring Training Dates:Northeast Nebraska Master GardenerPlant Fair and Market6:30-9:00pm Lifelong Learning Center, NorfolkFebruary 2 – Selection and Care of Evergreen Trees and ShrubsTodd Faller, Faller Nursery and LandscapingFebruary 9 – Putting Perennials to WorkScott Evans, Extension AssistantFebruary 16 – Basic Botany/Plant IdentificationStacy Adams, UNL Associate ProfessorFebruary 23 – Weed Identification and ControlNatalia Bjorklund, Extension EducatorMarch 1 – Polarizing Yard and Garden IssuesKelly Feehan, Extension Educator;Tamra Jackson-Ziems, Extension Plant PathologySpecialist; and Nicole Zoner, Extension EducatorMarch 8 – Efficient Landscape IrrigationJohn Fech, Extension EducatorMark your calendars!Friday, April 29 and Saturday, April 30, 2016 Vendors are invited to rent a space to display/sell their products. 500 visitors attend this annual event.Larger location— NECC Chuck Pohlman Ag Complex.Guest speakers present on various horticulture related topics.The Master Gardeners volunteer their time to make this PlantFair and Market a success. Proceeds help fund a scholarshipto Northeast Community College students in Horticulture.Free Admission, Great Plants, Vendors, Speakers, Door Prizes,Lunch Stand and a Children’s Activity Corner all make thisPlant Fair a special must attend event!New Master Gardener Interns can begin (or continue) their education certification while current Master Gardeners can recertify. Fornon-Master Gardeners, there will be a charge of 5 per person foreach training session attended. All six training sessions can beattended for 25. All members of the Northeast Nebraska MasterGardeners do not have to pay.Any questions, contact Wayne Ohnesorg, Extension Educator at402-370-4040.January 2016Page 5The Green Patch

Northeast Nebraska Master GardenersMeetings held at:Nebraska Extension in Madison County601 E Benjamin Ave, Suite 105Norfolk NE 68701NEBRASKA EXTENSION in WAYNE COUNTY510 N PEARL ST, STE CWAYNE NE 68787Master Gardeners are people who love plants,gardening, landscaping, and teaching others.Phone:402-370-4040 Madison County402-563-4901 Platte County402-375-3310 Wayne CountyWe’re on the web ershttp://madison.unl.edu/mastergardenerhomeWhat is It?By Wayne Ohnesorg, Extension EducatorTammy Furstenau was first to correctly respond for what the October What is it?.Jane Jensen also answered correctly. The spider in question is a fishing spider.There are a number of species, but this is one of the larger ones. This one isDolomedes tenebrosus. These spiders are commonly found near water. The pictured species is one that will wander further from water than the others. As theirname suggests, they do occasionally catch small fish, but they do feed on otherarthropods.I found this object attached to the globe of an outsidelight at my house in 2014. An insect did build this outof mud.If you think you know, you can give me a call at (402)370-4044orshootmeanemail([email protected]). Please be as specific as youcan. The first person to contact me with the correctanswer will be awarded one (1) training hour. Everyone that submits an answer will be entered into an endof the year drawing for a free Extension Circular suchas the Landscape Diagnostic Guide for Problems Affecting Woody Ornamentals and Herbaceous Perennials.For every What is it? column you provide an answer foryou will receive one entry. This offer is available forboth the Platte County and Northeast Nebraska MasterGardener groups.

Hops in Nebraska 3 Blueberry Almond . plants, trees, spades and gadgets, fertilizer, mulch and composts, water hose, soaker hose, watering cans, walking tractor sprinklers, rain barrels, etc. Thank you to all the university educators and leaders who guide us along at the master gardener mee