Occupational Safety and Health AdministrationU.S. Department of LaborS AFETYH EALTHI NJURYP REVENTIONS HEETSandWorking with the Shipyard IndustryProcessHousekeeping SafetyG- 1 -

Establishing an Injury and Illness Prevention ProgramThe key to a safe and healthful work environment is a comprehensive injury and illness prevention program.Injury and illness prevention programs are systems that can substantially reduce the number and severity ofworkplace injuries and illnesses, while reducing costs to employers. Thousands of employers across the UnitedStates already manage safety using injury and illness prevention programs, and OSHA believes that allemployers can and should do the same. Thirty-four states have requirements or voluntary guidelines forworkplace injury and illness prevention programs. Most successful injury and illness prevention programs arebased on a common set of key elements. These include management leadership, worker participation, hazardidentification, hazard prevention and control, education and training, and program evaluation and improvement.Visit OSHA’s injury and illness prevention program web page at:formore information.How Can OSHA Help?OSHA has compliance assistance specialists throughout the nation who can provide information to employersand workers about OSHA standards, short educational programs on specific hazards or OSHA rights andresponsibilities, and information on additional compliance assistance resources. Contact your local OSHAoffice for more information.OSHA's On-Site Consultation Program offers free and confidential advice to small and medium-sizedbusinesses in all states across the country, with priority given to high-hazard worksites. On-site Consultationservices are separate from enforcement and do not result in penalties or citations. Consultants from stateagencies or universities work with employers to identify workplace hazards, provide advice on compliance withOSHA standards, and assist in establishing safety and health management systems. To locate the OSHA On-siteorConsultation Program nearest you, visit OSHA's website atcall 1-800-321-OSHA (6742).OSHA's Cooperative Programs: OSHA offers cooperative programs under which businesses, labor groupsand other organizations can work cooperatively with OSHA. To find out more about these programs, visit.Worker RightsWorkers have the right to: Working conditions that do not pose a risk of serious harm.Receive information and training (in a language and vocabulary they can understand) about workplacehazards, methods to prevent them, and the OSHA standards that apply to their workplace.Review records of work-related injuries and illnesses.Get copies of test results that find and measure hazards.File a complaint asking OSHA to inspect their workplace if they believe there is a serious hazard or thattheir employer is not following OSHA’s rules. OSHA will keep all identities confidential.Exercise their rights under the law without retaliation.For more information, see.G- 2 -

Contact OSHAFor questions or to get information or advice, to report an emergency, to report a fatality or catastrophe, to orderpublications, to file a confidential complaint, or to request OSHA’s free on-site consultation service, contact, or call OSHA at 1-800-321-OSHA (6742); TTY 1-877-889your nearest OSHA office, visit5627.Twenty seven states operate their own OSHA-approved plans. State Plans have and enforce their ownoccupational safety and health standards that are required to be at least as effective as OSHA’s, but may havedifferent or additional requirements. For a complete list of State Plans and their contact information, see.U.S. Department of LaborS AFETYH EALTHI NJURYP REVENTIONS HEETSandG- 3 -

U.S. Department of LaborOccupational Safety and Health AdministrationDisclaimerProcess: Housekeeping SafetyThis guidance document is not a standard or regulation, and it creates no new legalobligations. The information provided is designed to highlight safety and health hazardsassociated with poor housekeeping aboard vessels and during shipyard employment only.Suggested preventative measures as well as descriptions of mandatory safety and healthstandards are also included. The recommendations are advisory in nature, informationalin content, and are intended to assist employers in providing a safe and healthfulworkplace. The Occupational Safety and Health Act requires employers to comply withsafety and health standards and regulations promulgated by either federal OSHA orthrough an OSHA-approved State program. In addition, the Act’s General Duty Clause,Section 5(a)(1), requires employers to provide their employees with a workplace freefrom recognized hazards likely to cause death or serious physical harm.Standards Applicable to Housekeeping SafetyThe standards applicable to the hazards associated with housekeeping are:29 CFR 1915 Subpart C – Surface Preparation and Preservation29 CFR 1915 Subpart E – Scaffolds, Ladders and Other Working Surfaces29 CFR 1915 Subpart F – General Working Conditions29 CFR 1915 Subpart P – Fire Protection in Shipyard Employment29 CFR 1915 Subpart Z – Toxic and Hazardous SubstancesOther requirements contained in 29 CFR Part 1910 may apply (e.g., Subparts G – Occupational Healthand Environmental Control, and H – Hazardous Materials).Resource MaterialsOSHA’s Shipyard, dated April 1, 2014, provides guidance on the applicabilityof standards. See Appendix A for the application of 29 CFR Part 1910 standards where 29 CFR Part 1915 provisionsdo not address a recognized hazard in Shipyard Employment.See the Shipyard e-Tool for additional compliance guidance at.G- 4 -

Occupational Safety and Health AdministrationU.S. Department of LaborHousekeeping SafetyIntroductionGood housekeeping not only results in a cleaner workplace, but makes it safer as well. Good housekeepingreduces illnesses and injuries and promotes positive behaviors, habits, and attitudes. Employers are responsiblefor assessing each workplace before work begins to identify the potential hazards present, and determine waysto eliminate the hazards. An effective housekeeping program is an important element in workplace safety andhealth management systems.Uncluttered working conditions are essential to the safety of all workers and should be maintained at all times inboth work and office areas. Proper housekeeping management provides for an orderly arrangement ofoperations, tools, equipment, storage facilities, supplies, and waste material. Good housekeeping is evidencedby floors free from grease and oil spillage; properly identified passageways; unobstructed accesses and exits;neat and orderly machinery and equipment; well-nested hoses and cords; properly stored materials; removal ofexcess waste material or debris from the working area; walkways free from ice and snow; surfaces, includingelevated locations, free from accumulated dust; and adequate lighting. Maintaining these conditions contributessignificantly to lower incident rates.While OSHA regulations require that each working surface be cleared of debris, including solid and liquidwaste, at the end of each workshift or job, whichever occurs first, to fully realize the benefit of a cleanworkplace, it is recommended that good housekeeping be maintained throughout the course of the job andworkday. For example, consider the following consequences that can result from poor housekeeping: A trip or fall over lines and leads in walkways and work areas Illness due to the unsanitary conditions of restrooms Lacerations and amputations when poor maintenance results in inadequate lightingA slip or fall on an oily or slippery facility floor, vessel deck or other working surfaceA trip or fall from a dock or vesselAn allergic reaction to a spilled chemicalAn eye injury from falling grit left in the overhead of a work siteA fire as a result of oily rags left in an area where hot work is performed, or due to the accumulation ofcombustible dustElectrical shock as a result of poorly maintained equipment or energy sources, such as broken, crackedor damaged insulation and connections of wiringExposure to hazardous substances from poor storage and ineffective labeling of hazardous chemicalsSlip hazards where snow, ice, or standing-water is left on walkwaysIn shipyard employment, trip hazards and slippery walking surfaces are two of the most hazardoushousekeeping issues. In many of these instances, injury could have been prevented had the employer ensuredcleanup prior to the start of work, or required more effective storage of materials, rerouting of hoses and cords,and inspection procedures. Every effort should be made to run air, gas, and electrical lines overhead orunderneath walkways. However, such utilities may be placed on walkways, provided that they are covered bycrossovers or other means that will prevent injury to workers and damage to hoses and cords. FrequentG- 5 -

inspections and assessment of walkways and working surfaces should be conducted to address hazards beforethey become a danger to workers. Spilled materials, such as oil, grease, and water, must be immediatelycleaned from walkways and working surfaces to eliminate slip hazards.Even with a dedicated effort to keeping work areas clean, ship construction and repair requires that work beperformed in tight and congested areas. A key to protecting workers from such obstacles and preventing injuryis early detection and immediate action. Employers can keep workers safe by training all workers to: Take time to stack materials, boxes and packages properly. Avoid stringing cords, hoses or lines across walkways. Use “S” and “J” hooks and cable trees to keeplines out of walkways. If lines must cross walkways, cover the lines.Clean up messes. Never let safety be someone else’s job.Remove, repair, and/or report housekeeping hazards.Never jeopardize someone else’s health and safety by obstructing the access to exits, electrical panels, orfire extinguishers.In addition, provisions contained in 29 CFR 1915.81 outline OSHA’s minimum housekeeping requirements toprotect workers. Employers must:1. Establish and maintain good housekeeping practices.2. Eliminate slippery conditions, such as snow, ice, and grease, from walkways and working surfaces asnecessary. Where removal is not possible, access to such areas must be restricted and an alternate routeestablished, or slip-resistant footwear provided.3. Store materials in a way that does not create hazards for workers.4. Ensure easy and open access to all exits (including ladders, staircases, scaffolds, and gangways), firealarm boxes, fire extinguishing equipment and fire call stations.5. Dispose of oils, paint thinners, solvents, rags, scraps, waste, or other flammable and combustiblesubstances, or store them in covered fire-resistant containers, at the end of each workshift or when thejob is complete, whichever occurs first.6. Maintain walkways so that they provide adequate passage and are: Free from debris, including solid and liquid waste;Clear of tools, materials, equipment, and other objects; andFree from trip hazards as a result of the improper storage or placement of hoses and electrical servicecords. Hoses and cords must be placed above or underneath walkways or covered.7. Cordon off any portion of a walkway that is being used as a working surface.8. Make sure working surfaces are free from all tools, materials, and equipment not necessary to performthe job in progress. All debris, including liquid and solid waste, must be cleared at the end of the job orworkshift, whichever occurs first.G- 6 -

9. Keep working surfaces dry, when possible. If a wet process is used, drainage must be maintained anddry standing places made available, or workers provided with protective footgear when such means arenot practicable.G- 7 -

Occupational Safety and Health AdministrationU.S. Department of LaborHousekeeping SafetyBenefits of Good Housekeeping PracticesGood housekeeping implies that a workplace is kept in an organized, uncluttered, and hazard-free condition.While this is a relatively simple concept, the benefits that can be realized from good housekeeping practices arefar reaching, and affect not only workers’ safety but also their health and productivity. Improvements in workerhealth and productivity, in turn, lead to lower operating costs thereby providing benefits to both the workers andthe employer.Good housekeeping is not just about cleanliness; it lays the basic foundation for accident and fire prevention. Itrequires attention to details, such as the layout of the worksite or facility, identification and marking of physicalhazards, ensuring the adequate number of storage facilities, and routine maintenance. Here are some of themany benefits that can be gained when implementing good workplace housekeeping:Improved Worker Safety Fewer trip and slip incidents where walkways and working surfaces are free of clutter and spills.Decreased fire hazards as a result of the reduction or elimination of waste, dust, debris, and otherflammable materials. Reduced number of workers being struck by objects through organized and careful storage of materials,tools, and equipment. Fewer worker injuries as a result of defective or malfunctioning parts through timely maintenance ofmachinery, equipment, or systems.Improved Worker Health Reduced worker exposure to hazardous substances, such as dust and vapor buildup, by following aregular cleaning schedule. Improved working conditions and worker health through regular servicing, cleaning, and supplyingsanitation facilities.Increased Worker Productivity/Reduced Costs Safe work environments lead to healthier workers, higher worker morale, and increased productivity. Tidy and clean work areas allow for more effective use of space.Workplace cleanup and maintenance, including worker training, will ensure better control over tools andmaterials as well as the inventory of supplies.Improved preventive maintenance can reduce property damage.Increased worker participation in general housekeeping helps reduce the workload and cost of janitorialstaff.The U.S. Department of Labor reports that slips, trips, and falls (STFs) account for approximately 15 percent ofall accidental workplace deaths and are second only to motor vehicle accidents as a cause of worker fatalities.Good housekeeping practices can substantially reduce the underlying causes of STFs in shipyard employment.G- 8 -

For example, good housekeeping practices can reduce the risk of tripping on equipment, tools, and other itemsthat have been left on the floor or misplaced. One study published in the International Journal of IndustrialErgonomics found that incidents in a shipyard were reduced 70-90% once steps were taken to improvehousekeeping practices conducted at the facility (Saari et al., 1989).Good housekeeping can also improve the health and safety of shipyard workers by reducing exposure tohazardous chemicals and unsafe conditions, including fires or explosions. Good housekeeping practices helpensure that containers used for hazardous substances are not only returned to their appropriate storage areas, butare also properly closed and sealed so that dust, fumes, or vapors are not released. Combustible dusts, whenknocked from elevated surfaces or otherwise made present in the air, can result in fires and explosions. Certainmaterials or substances can pose a fire hazard when spilled or combined unintentionally; it is important to avoidleaving such materials unattended or in close proximity to ignition sources. Clutter in the workplace canobstruct walkways, which could make it more difficult to exit during a fire or other emergency.The improvement of workers’ attitudes is another advantage to maintaining good housekeeping. Goodhousekeeping practices help ensure neat, organized, and safe workspaces, which can reduce stress and improvemorale. An increase in productivity and lower operating costs may also result when workers spend less timetracking down a needed tool or other item.Reducing workplace injuries will also help lower costs. Workplace injuries result in substantial expenditures.Worker injuries lead to missed days at work, higher workers’ compensation premiums, and increased spendingon the hiring and training of new or temporary workers. See OSHA’s Safety Pays website to assess informationon the impact of occupational injuries and illnesses on business profitability.References:Saari, J., Nasanen, M., The effect of positive feedback on industrial housekeeping and accidents;a long term study at a shipyard, International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Volume 4, Issue3, November 1989, pages 201-211.Dufort, V., Infante-Rivard, C., Housekeeping and Safety: An Epidemiological Review, SafetyScience, Volume 28, Issue 2, March 1998, pages 127-138.G- 9 -

Occupational Safety and Health AdministrationU.S. Department of LaborHousekeeping SafetyEstablishing a Housekeeping ProgramAs discussed in the previous sections, Introduction and Benefits of Good Housekeeping Practices, goodhousekeeping is a necessary component of maintaining a safe work environment in shipyard employmentactivities. Housekeeping practices are among the easiest and most visible safety measures to implement in theworkplace. Operations that are neat and organized help reduce potential hazards. Employers are responsiblefor establishing and maintaining good housekeeping practices as required by 29 CFR 1915.81(a)(1); they shouldhave a written housekeeping plan or program that includes the following key elements: Worker trainingRoutine maintenance and housekeeping scheduleAssignment of worker responsibilitiesWorker TrainingIn addition to training workers on the type, appropriate use, and care of PPE, workers should understand thepotential hazards associated with poor housekeeping. A written housekeeping plan or program should include atraining schedule for all workers at each facility including contractors. The schedule should include initialtraining and any refresher training that may be necessary due to a change in facility operations or change inworker assignment. Training records should be maintained at the facility and include the name of the worker,the date of training, and the material covered.Important training topics for workers should include general housekeeping procedures, safe work practices, andhazard reporting. General housekeeping includes ensuring that all trash (e.g., recyclables and food items) isplaced in proper receptacles during the work shift and at the end of the day. Safe work practices include suchelements as ensuring that walkways and working surfaces are free of debris, including solid and liquid wastes,and other items such as tools that are not in use (29 CFR 1915.81(b) and (c)). Employers should ensure thatworkers understand that any potential hazards discovered should be reported to supervisors as soon as possible.Management and workers can implement corrective actions such as relocating items that are causing anobstruction, or making repairs to damaged equipment or machinery.Routine Maintenance/Housekeeping ScheduleDeveloping and implementing a schedule for routine maintenance and housekeeping activities promote a safeworking environment by incorporating safe practices into day-to-day activities. Safety meetings and workertraining can also be used to engage workers and identifying areas that may need development or improvementfor routine maintenance and housekeeping.Areas to include in a routine housekeeping schedule include sanitation (29 CFR 1915.88), storage areas (29CFR 1915.81), and maintenance of equipment and machinery (29 CFR 1915.89 and Subparts G, J and L).Routine cleaning and restocking of supplies in common areas (such as kitchens and bathrooms) reduce the riskof exposure to harmful contaminants (e.g., germs and hazardous or toxic substances) that could cause injury,illness and loss of work days.Organized storage areas are also important to the safety of workers because they reduce physical hazards suchas slips, trips, falls, or falling objects. Where it is not possible to eliminate slippery conditions on walkways andworking surfaces, employers must restrict worker access to those areas or provide slip-resistant footwear (29G- 10 -

CFR 1915.81(a)(2)). Furthermore, there must be easy and open access to fire-alarm boxes, fire-call stations,fire-fighting equipment, and exits (including ladders, staircases, scaffolds, and gangways) (29 CFR1915.81(a)(4)). Another concern is the improper storage of items such as flammable and combustiblesubstances. Paint thinners, solvents, rags, scrap, and waste must be disposed of, or stored in a covered fireresistant container, at the end of each workshift or when the job is complete, whichever comes first (29 CFR1915.81(a)(5)).Also, properly maintained machinery, equipment, and systems prevent malfunctions and ensure continued safeuse. It is important that the proper lockout and/or tags-plus procedures are followed when servicing machinery,equipment, or systems (29 CFR 1915.89). For more detailed guidance on safety procedures during servicingactivities, see SHIPS Documents - Control of Hazardous Energy Lockout/Tags-Plus and Shipboard Electrical.Assignment of Worker ResponsibilitiesHousekeeping should be a team effort. Designated worker responsibilities will help engage all workers in goodhousekeeping practices. An established maintenance program should identify the responsibilities of each job orwork area, and assign a frequency for conducting those tasks. For example, workers should be responsible forkeeping their work areas tidy during their normal shift, as well as at the end of their shift, to ensure that thework area is clean, organized, and free of debris or obstructions. This is particularly important in areas whereroutine maintenance or cleaning may be conducted after regular working hours. It is also important that unusedmaterials are returned to their proper storage location as soon as possible, but no later than the end of the workshift. Further, hazardous materials and waste products should be stored or appropriately discarded when theyare no longer in use. Employers or their representatives should also inspect the facility at regular intervals andat the end of the work day to ensure that good housekeeping practices are effective.Areas of ConcernBefore employers can effectively establish a housekeeping program, they should first determine where potentialhazards may exist for workers. Some areas of concern may include: dust and dirt removalsanitation facilitiesvermin controlwalkways and working surfaces lighting hazardous waste and emergency response material storageG- 11 -

Occupational Safety & Health AdministrationU.S. Department of LaborHousekeeping SafetyAreas of Concern – Dust and Dirt RemovalDusts are a common byproduct of shipyard activities and when given the proper conditions, can result in a fire,flash fire, or explosion. Dusts produced from sandblasting activities, if allowed to accumulate, can ignite andburn when airborne. Also, metal dusts that result from cutting and grinding work can be particularly energetic,burning at high temperatures and at a quick rate. When finely divided solid materials dispersed or suspended inair result in a fire, flash fire, or explosion, this is called a combustible incident. The U.S. Chemical Safety andHazard Investigation Board (CSB) identified 281 combustible dust incidents between 1980 and 2005 that led tothe deaths of 119 workers and injured 718 others. Such incidents occur depending on which of the followingconditions (or elements) are present at the same time and location.For a fire to occur, elements 1 through 3, described below, must exist simultaneously. The term fire triangle iscommonly used to describe these three elements.1. Fuel, consisting of small dust particles (finely divided). Some examples of dustsfound in shipyards that are combustible are paint particles, iron, hemp, epoxy,aluminum, and zinc coatings.2. Oxygen or another oxidizing agent is present in substantial quantity.3. Heat or ignition source with enough energy to ignite the dust (above the minimumignition energy). Potential ignition sources may include temporary electricequipment, welding and other hot work.A fourth element, which is dispersion, must exist in addition to fuel, oxygen, and heat for a flash fire ordeflagration (a type of flash fire with a strong pressure wave) to occur.4. Dispersion of dust particles, suspending them in the air, can result fromshipyard processes that include pneumatic air, welding gas and pressurescarfing.Flash fires are much more dangerous to workers than an ordinary fire because it spreads too quickly to outrun.Workers can sustain burns and other injuries immediately or while attempting to escape. Depending on whetherthe flash fire spreads, damage can range from minimal to severe. Workers can sustain severe injuries even ifproperty damage is minimal.The fifth and final element needed for an explosion to occur is confinement.5. Confinement of accumulated and suspended dust particles sufficient to create sudden and dramatic pressureeffects. This may consist of any enclosure—equipment, ductwork, dust collectors, compartments, or spaces.Explosions are extremely fast and can result in flying shrapnel and collapsing structural members over alarge area. Workers often sustain burns or traumatic injuries in explosion incidents.Together, these five elements (fuel, heat, oxygen, dispersion, and confinement) makeup the Explosion Pentagon (shown to right).Poor housekeeping practices, where various types of dust are allowed to accumulate,are aG- 12 -

major cause of combustible incidents. Whenever work processes produce dust, good housekeeping is extremelyimportant in reducing the accumulation to a safe level. Below are tips for addressing combustible dust buildup:Do: Ensure dust-handling systems (such as exhaust ducts, dust collectors, vessels, and processingequipment) are designed to prevent fugitive dust in the work area (i.e., there is no leakage from theequipment). Use electrical grounding and bonding for dust systems. In some cases, inert atmospheres should beused. Dry powders can build up static electricity charges when subjected to the friction of transfer andmixing operations. Use a vacuum cleaner that is listed for use in Class II hazardous locations, or use a fixed-pipe systemwith a remotely located exhaust and dust collector to clean areas where dust may fall. Perform regular cleaning on horizontal surfaces, floors, decks, walls, and bulkheads, includingequipment, ducts, pipes, hoods, ledges, beams, stair rails, and above suspended ceilings and otherconcealed surfaces. At a minimum, this should be performed at a frequency sufficient to prevent dustaccumulations of 1/32 inch or greater. Ensure that dust control equipment, such as local exhaust ventilation and material transport systems forhandling dust and dirt, contains either explosion relief vents or an explosion suppression system, orindicates an oxygen-deficient environment.Do Not: Allow dust layers to accumulate to hazardous levels. The NFPA identifies dust accumulations of as littleas 1/32 of an inch to be hazardous. Use compressed air or steam to blow down surfaces unless there is no other practical alternative. Ifcompressed air or steam must be used, it is vital to first ensure that potential ignition sources in thevicinity are eliminated and apply the air or steam only under low pressure to avoid disbursing clouds ofdust to other areas.For more information on combustible dust see 13 -

Occupational Safety & Health AdministrationHousekeeping SafetyU.S. Department of LaborAreas of Concern – Sanitation FacilitiesThe absence of appropriate sanitation facilities can lead to adverse health effects in workers. A lack of suitablesanitation facilities can lead to communicable diseases, heat-related illnesses, health effects related to delay inusing the restroom, and the effects of ingesting or absorbing hazardous substances not properly removed fromthe workplace. The unique working conditions associated with shipyard work often involve performing tasks inextreme weather conditions, as well as in locations where access to sewered toilets is not always possible.These conditions present a challenge for employers to ensure that they meet the sanitation needs of workers.Sanitation FacilitiesSanitation facilities, including supplies, must be maintained in a clean, sanitary, and serviceable condition forworkers’ personal and health needs. Sanitation facilities include potable drinking water, toilet facilities, handwashing and drying facilities, showers, changing rooms, eating and drinking areas, first-aid stations, and on-sitemedical service areas. Sanitation supplies include soap, waterless cleansing agents, single-use drinking cups,drinking water containers, toilet paper, and towels (29 CFR 1915.80(b)(24)). A schedule must be establishedfor servicing, cleaning, and supplying each facility (29 CFR 1915.88(a)(2) and (d)(1)(iii)).Toilet FacilitiesA minimum number of toilets must be made available for workers at each worksite. These toilets must provideprivacy, be separate for each gender, and kept in a clean, sanitary, and serviceable condition. If a toilet facilityis designed to be occupied by only one worker at a time, separate toilets for each gender are not required as longas it can be locked from the inside and contains at least one toilet. Urinals may be substituted for toilet facilitiesdesignated for men; however, the number of toilets cannot be reduced to less than 2/3 of the minimumspecified. Employers must also ensure that toilet facilities are readily accessible to workers, taking intoaccount the size and location of worksites, and the physical characteristics of the shipyard. For example,workers wh

An effective housekeeping program is an important element in workplace safety and health management systems. Uncluttered working conditions are essential to the safet