Photoshop CC (v21) Workflow for Photography for Windows‣‣ Including Bridge and Adobe Camera RawBased on Tim Grey’s & Peter Bauer’s, and RC Concepcion’s booksBy Jim Lamb “Dummy, 3rd Class” at [email protected] words in italics are found on the Photoshop screen, or the keyboard. [ ] means type your stuff here.These procedures and techniques are not fixed; they a just a recommended starting point for a print photographer.Getting Started: (Installation/Preferences is the last section of this document.)Downloading and sorting: (Bridge launches if preference set: General Behavior ! When Camera is ) Download from a flash memory card reader using Adobe Bridge Photo Downloader. (Ps: File Browseor Alt Ctrl O): (I use a chronological folder system with year, year-month.) Connect a flash memory card reader and insert a card. (or: File Get Photos from Camera.) Select the device, Import to: Other. Find (or create New) Folder. Download All. [yyyy-mm] Copy all new images from the card reader to a backup device, such as a HDD/SSD. If the photos are properly saved, twice, use the camera to erase/format the memory card. To sort images in Bridge: Select Window Workspace. Try Essentials (Ctrl F1) to locate a folder. View List. Top right sub-panel to Preview. Rotate with ︎ ︎ on top bar, left. (clockwise: Ctrl ], CCW: Ctrl [ ). Discard bad images using right-click delete: Select keepers for project by color labeling (Ctrl 6-9) or star rating (Ctrl 1-5). Using the magnifying glass cursor, click point in image to use Loupe view. To stack images, select with click, then Shift/Ctrl click, then right click for Stack Group. Organize by moving keepers into a folder and renaming. Add metadata, if desired. Evaluate images in Photoshop: (Use Navigation Tools at the top left of the window.) Zoom in by selecting the Zoom Tool (Z) (magnifying glass), then, click the center point. Also use Ctrl Spacebar to activate the Zoom Tool. Use Alt click to zoom out. (or Ctrl - ) Click & drag will create a dashed box that will fill the window. Double-click the Zoom Tool for 100% view (or, press Z, or Ctrl Alt Spacebar). Double-click the Hand Tool to Enter to a fill view (or, press H, or Ctrl 0). Use Ctrl Alt 0 for 1:1 pixel zoom level. Use the Hand Tool (or hold Spacebar) to drag the image around within the window. Use the Navigator Palette at upper right of screen for combo Zoom/Hand. Use the !(s) or slider below preview to control main view (Zoom). Drag the red box in the preview to quickly control the main view (Hand). Click within the red box to center the main view. To open a saved image: (Make sure there is a copy of non-raw images before altering.) Double-click the raw file in Bridge to open Adobe Camera Raw (if preference set) or Ctrl R. Alternatively, right-click, select Open in Camera Raw, or select File Open in Camera Raw . For JPEGs, either right-click, Open With Photoshop CC, or File menu Open/Enter in/to Ps. In Ps, Filter menu Camera Raw Filter (more ************************************************As of January 13, 2020 at 12:02 PMPage 1

Adobe Camera Raw (v12)ACR is an included plug-in for the Photoshop and Bridge in the CC series. Your edits do not alter pixels, only internal metadata orXMP sidecar files. ACR works with JPEGs and TIFFs, too. Try to get maximum detail, not a final print. Some adjustments are easierhere than doing them in Photoshop. Adobe offers a free DNG Converter to convert any Raw negative to the universal format. Camera Raw can be the default for opening JPEGs & TIFFs if Camera Raw Preferences is set to Alwaysopen JPEG (TIFF) files in Camera Raw, & Ps, Preference, File Handling is Prefer.Raw Conversion can be initiated by double-clicking (an) image(s) while in Bridge (Ctrl R).Click on the underlined description below the image for the Workflow Options window: Space: Probably use Adobe RGB for 16 bits/channel color space (with Lightroom use ProPhoto RGB). Before printing to inkjet, Edit Convert to Profile, Adobe RGB, 8 bit. Depth: Generally start with 16 bit (except JPEGs, CMYK, or quantity is a problem). Size: If planning a large layout, interpolate up the Size here. Resolution: Should be between 180-360 ppi, with 240 or 300 ppi most common. Sharpen For: probably None here. Sharpen just before final output. Smart Objects are like an alias in a Mac. They avoid losing data, and are reversible, but you cannot doanything to them itself that involves changing the content of the layer (e.g. Content Aware Fill). Use File Place to add a Raw file on a Photoshop document. Other than resizing, you may need to useEdit Contents from the Layers Menu. Leave unchecked unless resizing. To view the original image before adjustments in a panel, !Preview, or press P.The Tool Bar resides above the image. From left to right, the tools are: Zoom (Z), Hand (H), White Balance (I), Color Sampler (S), Target Adjustment Tool (T), Crop (C),Straighten (A), Transform (Shift T), Spot Removal (B), Red Eye Removal (E), Adjustment Brush (K),Graduated Filter (G), Radial Filter (J), Preferences (Ctrl K), Rotate CCW/CW (L/R). The Zoom Tool can be selected with Ctrl spacebar, then draw a box to expand. The Hand Tool can be selected with the spacebar. Hold down the mouse button on Crop icon for options, such as Clear. Use the Spot Removal Tool with ︎Visualize Spots (lower right). Either click or drag the area. Enter. Avoid using Crop (C), Straighten (A), Transform (Shift T), Spot Removal (B), Red Eye Removal (E),Adjustment Brush (K), until Raw converted.Camera Raw’s Histogram, up on the right, is far more important than the one in Photoshop itself. The five sections left to right are: Blacks Shadows Exposure Highlights Whites . Tip: when shooting Raw, try not to leave empty pixels near the right side, expose to the right (ETTR).Basic panel (Aperture icon on right panel and Basic palette below): Select Treatment for Color or Black & White. If you have some Profiles as presets, select and Browse. To reset a slider to its default value, double-click the slider pointer. To reset all, click Default, or Click either ! or on the working slider, all others reset, and it self-adjusts. Use White Balance to adjust the overall color. Calibrate your monitor to D65 (6,500ºK), Gamma 2.2. If As Shot is off, try Auto or one of the presets. Use Temperature & Tint for White Balance: Temperature is in Kelvin, lower is warmer, higher is cooler. Leave the White Balance drop-down on As Shot or Custom. Select the White Balance Tool (I) (half-full eye-dropper up on left). Click on something that should be neutral gray. (As Shot changes to Custom.) Adjust the Temperature and Tint as desired (or wait until later). The next eye-dropper (with aiming symbol) lets you click places to get RGB values. In the Tone sub-panel, try Auto for starting adjustments, or Default to reset the sliders. Use Exposure to bring out the details on the mid-tone portions of the image.As of January 13, 2020 at 12:02 PMPage 2

Use Contrast to spread the range of tones from dark to light. (Tone Curve is better.)Use Highlights to adjust the highlight details towards the right wall. Select the highlights/right ! (O) above the Histogram. Use Shadows to adjust the shadow details towards the left wall. Select the shadows/left ! (U) above the Histogram. Use Whites to regain detail in highlights at the right wall (White Point). Hold Alt key while adjusting right until some highlights appear in the black. Maximize the white point without clipping in the highlights. Use Blacks to regain detail in shadows at the left wall (Black Point). Hold Alt key while adjusting left until some blacks appear in the white. Maximize the white point without clipping in the shadows. Deselect shadows and highlights ! clipping warnings (U)(O). Use Clarity for useful mid-tone contrast, great for brick walls, - great for skin. Use Dehaze is magical for hazy scenes to add contrast and clarity. Use Vibrance for an intelligent, but subtler, version of Saturation, affecting least-saturated areas. Avoid heavy Saturation now, which affects the entire image. Use the Y box (below image, right) or press (or cycle) Q to compare adjustments to the original. Avoid using Tone Curve panel (graph icon) for now. Use it in Ps. One tab is Parametric. The sliders move the curve on the upper right side to the lower left side. Another tab is Point. Click on the curve where you want a(n) adjustment(s) and drag up/down. You also may use the Target Adjustment Tool (TAT) to click and drag up/down on the image. Dismiss the TAT with Done, or select another tool.UsetheDetail panel (peaks icon) for sharpening and noise reduction. (Use Zoom Tool at 100 %.) Still, no Sharpening yet, so skip this slider, unless you are not going to Ps, then do after Noise Reduction adjustments. (For all sliders, hold the Alt key, pull left, then adjust right to get just edges.) Start with a high Amount ( 40), keep Radius low (0.5-1.0), Detail low ( 30), use Masking ( 15). Reduce Amount as desired, then sharpen if this is the final output. Noise Reduction sub-panel: The Luminance sliders are for tonal variations ( 50/50/0). (Double-click Zoom Tool) The Color sliders are for color noise ( 25/50/50). (To re-fit screen, Ctrl 0)(Q to compare.) Use the HSL Adjustments/Black & White Mix panel for Hue, Saturation, and Luminance. (Use Ps HSL) Click the Targeted Adjustment Tool (TAT)(5th on Tool Bar). Click on color to adjust, drag right to increase, left to decrease. Double-click the slider pointer to reset, or click Default to reset all sliders. Use the Split Toning panel (two bars) to separately adjust the highlights and shadows hue and saturation. If needed, apply Lens Corrections for Lens Profiles, Distortion, Chromatic Aberrations, & Vignetting. Again, apply Effects (fx icon) for Grain or Post Crop Vignetting. Use Presets to save adjustments by selecting the folded corner page, bottom right. (includes Lr’s presets) To complete Raw Conversion, do one of the following across the bottom: Click (Alt ) Save Image. to convert and save image (w/o dialog). Click the workflow options blue line and !Open in Photoshop as a Smart Objects. (see next page.) Open Image becomes Open [Smart] Object. (Alt ) Open Object becomes Open Copy. Open Image combines your changes and opens copy in Ps. Click Cancel to close Camera Raw without adjustments. Alt Cancel Reset restores the previous settings. Click Done to apply changes without opening. As of January 13, 2020 at 12:02 PMPage 3

Photoshop CC Anytime: Oops! To undo a step, use Edit Undo (Ctrl Z), or redo, use Edit Redo (Shift Ctrl Z). To use the History palette, select Window History. To revert an area to a previous state, select the History Brush (Y) on the Tools Panel. To reduce the effect of a filter or adjustment, select Edit Fade as your next step. Set level. Double-click a slider (") or title to reset it to its default value. In most dialog boxes, holding down the Alt key changes the Cancel button to Reset (all). To delete a layer on the palette, click on it, and then press delete. Understanding Smart Objects: Smart Objects are layers that contain image data from raster or vector images. Smart Objects preserve animage’s source content with all its original characteristics, enabling you to perform nondestructive editing to the layer. An “X” covers the image, drag & resize, then right-click Place. You can embed the contents of an image into a Photoshop document (Choose File Place Embedded)and also create Linked Smart Objects whose contents are referenced from external image files (ChooseFile Place Linked). Linked documents do not add to the file size. The contents of all Linked Smart Object are updated when its source image file changes. Linked Smart Objects are distinct from duplicated instances of a Smart Object within a Photoshop document. With Linked Smart Objects, you can use a shared source file across multiple documents. With Smart Objects, you can: Perform nondestructive transforms, scale, rotate, skew, distort, perspective transform, or warp a layerwithout losing original image data or quality because the transforms don’t affect the original data. Perform nondestructive filtering. You can edit filters applied to Smart Objects at any time. Edit one Smart Object and automatically update all its linked instances. Apply a layer mask that’s either linked or unlinked to the Smart Object layer. Try various designs with low-res placeholder images that you later replace with final versions. You can’t perform operations that alter pixel data—such as painting, dodging, burning, cloning,or Content Aware Fill—directly to a Smart Object layer, unless it is first converted into a regular layer, which will be rasterized. To perform those operations, you can edit the contents of a Smart Object, clone a new layer above the Smart Object layer, edit duplicates of the Smart Object, or create anew layer. Note: When you transform a Smart Object that has a Smart Filter applied to it, Ps turns off filter effectswhile the transform is being performed. Filter effects are applied again after the transform is complete. Understanding Layers: Layers are like looking at an old overhead projector with transparencies. You can mask off parts or hidethem. Each adds to the size of the file, hence the importance of RAM. View the layers from the top down. The top layer covers all layers below, with masks selecting whichparts are not visible. You may drag layers to change the order, except to go below the Background layer. About layer and vector masks. You can use masks to hide portions of a layer and reveal portions of thelayers below. You can create two types of masks: Layer masks are resolution-dependent bitmap images that are edited by painting or selecting. Vector masks are resolution independent and are created with a pen or shape tool. Layer and vector masks are nondestructive, which means you can go back and re-edit the masks laterwithout losing the pixels they hide.As of January 13, 2020 at 12:02 PMPage 4

Both the layer and vector masks appear as an additional thumbnail to the right of the layer thumbnail.For the layer mask, this thumbnail represents the grayscale channel that is created when you add the layer mask. The vector mask thumbnail represents a path that clips out the contents of the layer.To hide a layer mask, to see the entire layer, Shift click the mask thumbnail (red “X” appears).To delete a layer mask, drag it down to the Trash icon.To create a layer or vector mask on the Background layer, first convert it to a regular layer (Layer New Layer from Background). Other Nondestructive Editing Techniques (besides Smart Objects): Nondestructive editing allows you to make changes to an image without overwriting the original imagedata, which remains available in case you want to revert to it. Because nondestructive editing doesn’tremove data from an image, the image quality doesn’t degrade when you make edits. You can performnondestructive editing in Photoshop in several ways: Working with Adjustment Layers. Adjustment layers apply color & tonal adjustments to an imagewithout changing pixel values. Filtering with Smart Filters. Clone Stamp, Healing Brush, and Spot Healing Brush tools let youretouch nondestructively on a separate layer. Be sure to select Sample All Layers from the optionsbar (select Ignore Adjustment Layers to ensure that adjustment layers won’t affect the separate layertwice). You can discard unsatisfactory retouching, if necessary. Editing in Camera Raw. Adjustments to batches of raw, JPEG, or TIFF images preserve the original image data. Camera Raw stores adjustment settings on a per-image basis separately from theoriginal image files. Opening Camera Raw files as Smart Objects. Before you can edit Camera Raw files in Photoshop, you must configure settings for them with Camera Raw. Once you edit a Camera Raw file inPhotoshop, you can’t reconfigure Camera Raw settings without losing the changes. Opening CameraRaw files in Photoshop as Smart Objects enables you to reconfigure Camera Raw settings at anytime, even after you edit the file. Cropping Nondestructively. After you create a cropping rectangle with the Crop tool, select Hidefrom the options bar to preserve the cropped area in a layer. Restore the cropped area anytime bychoosing Image Reveal All or by dragging the Crop tool beyond the edge of the image. The Hideoption is unavailable for images that contain only a background layer. Masking. Layer and vector masks are nondestructive because you can re-edit the masks withoutlosing the pixels they hide. Filter masks let you mask out the effects of Smart Filters on Smart Object layers. Understanding the Interface: The Tool Bar is down the left edge (click for two columns). The Tool Options Bar is on top horizontally. The Panels section are on the right column. Common choices for Panels are Adjustments and Layers. You might Close the top Tab Group via the pull-down menu. At the bottom of the Panels are create and delete layers icons. Basic Adjustments: Rotate and Crop: If needed, rotate using Image Image Rotation. To View menu Fit on Screen, press Ctrl 0 (zero).As of January 13, 2020 at 12:02 PMPage 5

To preserve the original image, make a copy: File Save As, and rename the file.Corrective Cropping: (Cropping should be first, after rotating, to use the History Brush/Palette.) Select Crop Tool from Tools Panel (4th down)(C). (The Options Bar appears on top, click Clear.) Click Straighten on the Options Bar. Click on end of a line that should be horizontal/vertical, drag to the other end, release. Enter. Or, move the cursor outside the cropped area. A curved two-way arrow appears (and a center-point target appears, click to move). Click and drag to correct. Enter Width & Height entries on the Options Bar, if desired. A ratio can be set by entering it as W 4, H 3, for 4:3 ratio, etc. " Reverses numbers. Adding a Resolution causes interpolation. If constraining for printing, try 300 ppi, or a similar fraction of printer resolution. Click the (#) on the right of the Crop icon for preset dimensions. Photoshop Preferences General Image Interpolation: Bicubic Automatic. Otherwise, Bicubic Sharper, if reductions. If large size increases are made, use Bicubic Smoother. Uncheck Delete Cropped Pixels. If empty areas are created by straightening, etc, try Content-Aware. To reset the crop box and settings, click the ︎ icon. Click and drag a box. ( / key disables shield shading outside the crop box.) Use mid point handles to adjust only one side. Hold Shift key while dragging a corner to retain aspect ratio. Hold Alt key while clicking center post and drag out. Select View Show Grid. Cycle with Ctrl ’. When complete, right-click image to Crop/Cancel, or select Commit button (!) on the Crop ToolBar (right end), or double-click in the cropped image, or press Enter. Cancel is (#) on the Crop Tool Options Bar, or press Esc. When you select a tool from the Adjustments panel, a new layer is created. If Alt click Properties.Transform selections: With the selection made, go to the Select menu Transform Selection. A box with handles appears around it. (Shift ) Drag the handles to transform (and constrain aspect ratio), or click outside one to rotate. Or, resize from the center point, hold Alt while you drag. To inverse the selection, go to Select menu Inverse (Ctrl Shift I). To save the selection, go to Select menu Save Selection (in .PSD), or Layer New Layer Via Copy.Tone and Color Adjustments: (If you have not, yet; calibrate your monitor.) Auto corrections are available for Tone, Contrast, at Image Adjustments, after creating a layer. (If converting 16 bit images to 8 bit, first flatten. Layer Flatten Image.) Avoid Image Adjustments controls, and Image Adjustments controls because they are permanent and destructive, use the New Adjustment Layer on the Layer menu. Brightness/Contrast control: (Provides control over shadows and highlights.) Select Adjustments panel Brightness/Contrast (sun/1st) icon on the panel. 2nd Icon for Masks. Leave ! Use Legacy box unchecked. Try the Auto Tone button, if the colors are good. Adjust Contrast first, then Brightness. OK. (Ignore effect on colors.) As of January 13, 2020 at 12:02 PMPage 6

To reset either slider, double-click on the title:. To reset all, click the CCW arrow. Adjustments Levels control: (Provides Brightness/Contrast control over shadows or highlights.) Avoid Image Adjustments Levels (Ctrl L). Select Adjustments panel Levels (fire/2nd) icon on the panel. Try Auto Levels. Hold Alt while clicking Auto to get more options. Clipping in the highlights (right) is more of a problem than the shadows (left). Gapping may occur in 8 bit images where little/no pixels exist (Posterization). Improve posterization with Edit Fade, Mode to Luminosity. OK. Eye Droppers are available for the black, gray, and white points. Select and click. Move the Black & White pointers ( %) inwards to the start of the climbing graph. The Middle Tone slider is effectively a brightness control (left lightens). OK. For low contrast images, use clipping preview, by double-clicking the Layer. Hold the Alt key while sliding the White pointer left until pixels show. Repeat for Black (right). Re-adjust the Middle Tone (w/o Alt key) for brightness. OK. Click the eye icon below to view the previous state. Curves can do everything that Levels does, and more. (See Advanced Tonal Adjustments ahead.)Color Adjustments (overall): Vibrance: for low saturated colors. 2nd Icon for Masks. Hue/Saturation/(Lightness): Select Adjustments panel Hue/Saturation (2nd row) on the panel or Layers Hue/Saturation. (opt) Name the new layer (“Hue/Saturation 1”). Add/Subtract Eyedroppers can be used to adjust the range of colors (or change Master to a hue). Drag right/left to increase/decrease saturation. (Ctrl drag to change hues.) Do not overdo Saturation ( 20 or more). OK. Color Balance: (think color wheel) Select Adjustments panel Color Balance (scales icon), or Layers Color Balance. (opt) Name the new layer (“Color Balance 1”). Select a Tone. !Preserve Luminosity to prevent the image from darkening Select a red, green, or blue channel (opposites are on the left side). Start with the biggest problem first, using the slider, then with values &. Warmth is sometimes desirable, so add red, magenta, or yellow. Sometimes adjustments are desired in the Shadows and Highlights ", repeat. OK. Black & White: Select Adjustments panel Black & White (B&W box, duh!), or Layers panel Black & White. (Optional) Name the new layer (“B&W 1”). Try the Preset: filters. Try the Targeted Adjustment Tool and drag left/right to darken/lighten colors. Try Auto for a start, or if skin tones, try the Red Filter. Photo Filter: Select Adjustments panel Photo Filter (camera icon), or Layers panel Photo Filter. (Optional) Name the new layer (“Photo Filter 1”). !Preserve Luminosity to prevent the image from darkening. Select at Filter effect, or use the Color picker. Text: Select the Text tool (Horizontal or Vertical)(T).As of January 13, 2020 at 12:02 PMPage 7

On the Tool Bar, select the font, style, point, alignment, and color choices.To commit to the text, press Ctrl Enter to apply to layer. (Enter starts new paragraph.)Cleanup Adjustments: (Clean up before enhancing.) (The following is in no order:) Create a New Layer first: Layer New Layer (# Ctrl N), or (Alt ) click the sheet with a folded backcorner on the bottom of the Layers Palette. Type a layer name (opt). OK. (It should go just above the Background Layer, and if any AdjustmentsLayers, they go above this one.) The Clone Stamp Tool (No blending done.) (S) (Rubber stamp icon on left side.) The Clone Stamp is for copying color & texture. For texture only, use Patch Tool. To improve dark spots, try Mode:Lighten (& visa versa), then reduce Opacity. Click the # after Brush and start with a hardness of 50%- (# [ down, # ] up). Avoid using Flow and Airbrush controls. Leave Opacity at 100% & Aligned !. You must select Current & Below (or All Layers if a composite image) option. Turn off (darken) the Include Adjustment Layers When Cloning icon ". Select a clone source by Alt click. Place the cursor over the area to fix. Press the [ key to reduce size, ] to increase. Either click, or click & drag areas (renew clone areas often if long fixes). To undo fixing, select the Eraser Tool (E), and paint over the bad fix. (If the layer has not beenclosed, you can use Ctrl Z, or click on the state on the History palette.) The Healing Brush Tool (J) (plain band-aid icon on left, if n/a, right click on 4th icon.) Repeat above New Layer steps (opt.). Select the Healing Brush icon (J). Use the bracket keys to adjust the brush size ([ narrower, ] wider). Click the ' by Brush to insure Hardness is 100% (softening in done automatic). Leave Normal and # Sampled set (Replace Clone Stamp tool). Aligned box unchecked, probably. In the Sample box, select All Layers. The icon ( ) should be set to Turn on to ignore adjustment layers while using . Select a healing source by Alt click. Place the cursor over the area to fix. Either click, or click hold drag areas. To avoid completely replacing spots, set Opacity at about 50% (i.e. skin lines). The Spot Healing Brush Tool (J)(band-aid w/halo) does not need a distant source. Normally, Type: Proximity Match (w/Diffusion), unless contrast are adjacent, then Create Texture. Keep the brush small. Foe skin spots, Hardness: 0%, Opacity: 100%. The Patch Tool (J or Shift J)(hairy square) is a Healing Brush you draw a loop around the spot. The Patch Tool is for copying texture only; use Clone Stamp for color & texture. Create a Duplicate Layer of your Background. Click & drag the thumbnail for the Background layer (right side) down to the Create a New Layer icon ( ), next to the Trash Can. It goes highlighted. Or, from the Menu, click Layer Duplicate Layer (“Background copy”). Select the repair area by click hold drag a loop. (Loop closes upon click release) Check that Source is displayed on the Options Bar. Click & drag the area to an area that is your source, then release. Do not use the Transparent option on photos. Content-Aware can clean up imperfections.As of January 13, 2020 at 12:02 PMPage 8

The Puppet Warp Tool The Puppet Warp Tool is for moving/distorting subjects parts (such as bending an elbow). Use any tool, such as the Lasso or Color Range, to select an area to modify. Create a layer with Layer New Layer via Copy (Ctrl J), or double-click layer. Hide the selection layer by clicking the eye on the upper layer. Click on the lower layer to make it active. Clone or copy/paste over the select pixels. Click on the upper layer’s eye, then title or thumbnail. Select Edit Puppet Warp. Click on the pivot points to place pins. On the Options Bar, choose a Mode, such as Normal. Click then drag the pins. Click and Delete/Backspace to remove a pin. Enter. To finesse the image, try the Liquify filter with a large brush Forward Warp.The Red Eye Tool replaces red with black when flashes reflect in the eye. Select the Red Eye Tool (crosshairs with eye). Click on the red eye, if unsatisfactory, undo, then: Adjust Pupil Size to 50%. Adjust Darken Amount to 50%. If other than red eye, use the Brush Tool. Set foreground color to black. On the Alts Bar, select Luminosity blending mode and Opacity to about 50%-. Use a Brush diameter slightly larger than the pupil. Adjust hardness to about 75%. Click on the eye.The Dust and Scratches Tool. Select the Lasso Tool (L), select a small Feather. Draw a loop around the imperfection. Select Filter Noise Dust & Scratches. (Ctrl H to hide the marching ants.) Increase Radius until the grain is lost, then back off. Increase Threshold until imperfection disappears. Drag the loop to similar imperfections, then press Ctrl F to fix more. Press Ctrl D to Deselect.Content-Aware Scale and Fill: To fill empty space, make a selection using one of the selection tools. The Polygonal Lasso Tool can be clicked outside the image to fill and automatically align the edge. To change to a new aspect ratio and fill in the empty space, create a new document (and tab), selectthe Move Tool, drag the image onto the new document (tab), Zoom to see white space, resize (FreeTransform). Enter. Go to the Edit menu Fill (Shift F5 or Shift delete). Content: Content-Aware. OK. Content-Aware Scaling: (For re-sampling an aspect ratio, preserving subject while distorting background.) Make a selection if only a portion of the image will be affected. Double-click the background layer (before flattening), then rename. Click Image Canvas Size (if increasing the size of the image). Click Edit Content-Aware Scale. Drag the center side anchor points to resize. Enter. If people are in the image, on the Options Bar change Protect to skin tones. Hold the Alt key while scaling from the center. (Optional, but not necessary if saving in PSD format.) Layer Flatten Image.As of January 13, 2020 at 12:02 PMPage 9

Advanced Tonal Adjustments: (If you have not, yet; calibrate your monitor.) For tonal adjustments, create a duplicate layer (not adjustment layer) of the Background Layer, either: Click & drag the thumbnail for the Background layer (right panel) down to the Create a New Layericon ( ), next to the Trash Can. It goes highlighted, or: Layer menu Duplicate Layer (Ctrl J) or right-click. The Shadow/Highlight control is good for high contrast or weak details in shadows, such as in backlighting pr

Also use Ctrl Spacebar to activate the Zoom Tool. Use Alt click to zoom out. (or Ctrl - ) Click & drag will create a dashed box that will fill the window. Double-click the Zoom Tool for 100% view (or, press Z, or Ctrl Alt Spacebar). Double-click the Ha