USER GUIDE FOR SAMPLEREADING LESSONSAPRIL 2018Zachary Weingarten, Ed.D., Tessie Rose Bailey, Ph.D., and Amy Peterson

User Guide for Sample Reading LessonsZachary Weingarten, Ed.D., Tessie Rose Bailey, Ph.D., and Amy Peterson,National Center on Intensive Intervention at American Institutes for ResearchThis document was produced under U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP)Grant No. HH326Q160001. Celia Rosenquist is the OSEP project officer. The views expressed herein do notnecessarily represent the positions or policies of the U.S. Department of Education. No official endorsement bythe U.S. Department of Education of any product, commodity, service, or enterprise mentioned in this publicationis intended or should be inferred. This product is public domain. Authorization to reproduce it in whole or in partis granted. Although permission to reprint this publication is not necessary, the citation should be: Weingarten,Z., Bailey, T. R., & Peterson A. (2018). User guide for sample reading lessons. Washington, DC: National Centeron Intensive Intervention, Office of Special Education Programs, U.S. Department of Education.

SAMPLE READING LESSONS 3IntroductionThe National Center on Intensive Intervention (NCII) provides a series of reading lessons to supportspecial education instructors, reading interventionists, and others working with students who strugglewith reading. These lessons address key reading skills and incorporate instructional principles that canhelp intensify and individualize reading instruction. The reading lessons are examples of brief instructionalroutines that may be used to supplement reading interventions, programs, or curricula that are currently inplace. These lessons are designed to supplement, not supplant, reading instruction and interventions forstruggling readers. They do not represent an exhaustive reading curriculum. It is expected that teacherswould customize these lessons to meet the needs of their target students.The NCII reading lessons provide standards aligned instructional routines thatincorporate the intervention principles described in Section 2 of this guide.DID YOU KNOW?The lessons are adapted with permission from materials made available fromNCII Reading Lessons generallythe Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk and the Florida Centertake no more than 5–10 minutes,for Reading Research. Teachers can use the lessons to supplement currentmaking them easy to implementinstructional programs or interventions. For example, a teacher may want toacross the curriculum.provide an additional dose of vocabulary instruction after identifying vocabularyas an area of need for a student or group of students. In this case, the teachercan incorporate the vocabulary routines into the program or intervention that is currently in place in orderto provide additional explicit instruction and practice opportunities.This guide is intended to accompany the sample reading lessons and activities on the NCII website.It is divided into four sections. Section 1: The Five Components of Reading. This section provides a brief overview of the fivecomponents of reading instruction addressed in the lesson plans. Section 2: Instructional Principles of Reading Instruction Intervention. This section summarizeskey instructional principles for intensifying reading instruction highlighted in the lesson plans. Section 3: How to Use the NCII Reading Lessons. This section describes how the reading lessonsare structured and can be used. Section 4: Additional Resources. To support further learning, this section includes a list of additionalresources to support struggling readers.

SAMPLE READING LESSONS SECTION 1The Five Components of ReadingThe NCII reading lessons are organized around thefive components of reading identified by the NationalReading Panel (2000): phonemic awareness phonics fluency vocabulary comprehensionIntervention programs for struggling readers mayfocus on just one or a few of these components,or may include all five components. The NationalReading Panel (2000) found that explicit instructionin phonemic awareness, systematic phonics instruction, guided oral reading, and direct vocabularyinstruction are effective practices for improving reading outcomes. Below is a comparison of thefive essential sWhatIs It?Did You Know?The ability toidentify andmanipulate thesmallest units ofsound in spokenlanguage Instruction in phonemic awareness helps children learn to decode and spell new words.Knowledge ofthe relationshipbetween lettersand sounds It includes instruction in basic letter/sound identification to more complex skillssuch as decoding multisyllabic words. It provides an important foundation for reading development. It does not involve teaching the relationships between letter sounds and letternames, and instead it focuses on the sounds heard in words. Phonemic awareness skills develop through oral activities such as rhyming,segmenting, and blending of letter sounds. Students benefit from practicing letter/sound relationships in isolation as well asapplying phonics skills in context by reading decodable texts. Students benefit from opportunities to practice irregular words and high-frequencysight words during phonics instruction.4

SAMPLE READING LESSONSReadingComponentFluencyVocabularyWhatIs It? Did You Know?The ability toread accuratelyand at anappropriatepace Being able to read fluently is important because it allows readers to focus their attentionon the meaning of the text rather than on decoding individual words and phonemes.Knowledgeof words andwhat they mean Students learn new vocabulary both through direct instruction as well as throughconversations with peers and adults. Guided repeated oral reading with teacher feedback is an effective strategy forimproving the reading fluency and word recognition skills of elementary schoolstudents. When directly teaching vocabulary, teachers provide student-friendly definitions andconnect the word to the text that is being read. Students are provided opportunities to use word learning strategies including theanalysis of word parts and use of context clues.ComprehensionThe ability tounderstandwritten text Explicitly teaching reading comprehension strategies helps students recognizeand apply ways of thinking that strong readers use to understand text (Shanahanet al., 2010). These strategies help students become more purposeful and active when they readand can be used before reading, during reading, and after reading. Reading comprehension strategies include activating prior knowledge and makingpredictions, self-monitoring for understanding, asking and answering questions,making inferences, and summarizing or retelling.5

SAMPLE READING LESSONS 6Sample NCII Reading Lessons Available by Reading ComponentPhonemic awareness Blending First Sound Isolation Syllable Isolation Phoneme SegmentationPhonics Read and Write Words With Consonant Blends Change One Letter Short or Long Concentration Ladders Hide and SeekFluency Letter-Sound Identification 1: Quick Sounds Building Automaticity: Letter Sound Identification 2: Snap Letter Sound Identification 3: Beat the ClockVocabulary Base Words and Affixes Base Words and Prefixes New Vocabulary Identify and Define Multiple-Meaning Words in Context Identify and Sort Common Objects Into CategoriesComprehension Word Learning: Context Clues Generating Examples and Nonexamples of Words Word Knowledge: Semantic Feature Analysis Word Knowledge: Semantic Mapping Part 1: Identifying Text Structures Part 2: Identifying Narrative Text Structures Part 3: Identifying Expository Structures Part 4: Graphic Organizers for Text StructuresNCII will continue to add new sample reading lessons. Visit the NCII website for the most recent collection.

SAMPLE READING LESSONS 7SECTION 2Instructional Principles of Reading Instruction InterventionThis section defines the instructional principles outlinedin the instructional routines and provides examples ofhow these instructional principles can be applied whileimplementing the routines. The instructional principlesdiscussed in this guide are: explicit instruction; systematic instruction; precise, simple, and replicable language; repeated opportunities to practice, build fluency,and review; frequent opportunities to respond; and specific error correction and feedback.Explicit InstructionResearch demonstrates that explicit instruction is associated with improved reading outcomes amongstruggling students (Gersten et al., 2008; National Reading Panel, 2000). In an explicit instruction lesson,teachers provide modeling, scaffolding, and prompting until students are able to apply a skill independently(Archer & Hughes, 2011). Although there are no specific guidelines concerning how much time should bedevoted to each phase of an explicit instruction lesson, the bulk of the instruction is likely to occur withinthe guided practice phase (NCII, 2013). See the table that follows for further explanation of each of phase.Lesson PhaseModeling(I do)Teacher Actions Demonstrate the skill or strategy. Use “think alouds” to describe how to apply the skill or strategy. Use clear, consistent, and direct language. Involve students in the examples.Guided practice(We do) Provide prompts and scaffolds to promote student success with the new skill or strategy. Fade prompts as students demonstrate success. Ask questions to support students’ understanding.Unprompted practice(You do) Provide students with an opportunity to apply the skill independently. Monitor student understanding. Provide error correction and feedback.

SAMPLE READING LESSONS 8Systematic InstructionSystematic instruction is planned in such a way that the skills presented ineach lesson or activity build upon previously taught skills in a logical sequence.Instruction begins with simple skills and move to more complex ones. Forexample, systematic phonics instruction may begin with initial consonants andprogress to short vowel and consonant combinations. Additionally, systematicinstruction includes clear student objectives as well as a plan for assessingstudents’ progress. For many students, teachers plan systematic instructionin all five components of reading and connect reading instruction across thesefive components. However, some of the components of reading are developmentaltaught after the primary grades, e.g., phonemic awareness.DID YOU KNOW?Research has identified “thinking aloud”as an effective strategy for workingwith students with learning disabilities(Vaughn, Gersten, & Chard, 2000).and are unlikely to bePrecise, Simple, and Replicable LanguageMany students in need of intensive intervention have difficulty processing the language that teachers usewhen providing instruction. Teachers use precise, simple language and ensure that their instructions andrequests are short and clearly stated. Additionally, teachers use consistent language when modeling areading skill or conducting a “think aloud.” Think alouds are ways in which the teacher demonstrate orallyhow a skilled reader thinks about a reading task. Short, clear, and consistent phrasing helps studentsfocus on key information and remember the steps involved in completing a task (Archer & Hughes, 2011).StrategyExample from theNCII Reading LessonsExplain the purpose of the“Today we are going to learn about words that have more thanlesson using simple language one meaning. This will help us understand what we read.”NCII Reading LessonIdentify and Define MultipleMeaning Words in ContextKeep instructions andrequests short and clear“I’m going to say a word. Next I’ll say the first sound of the word. Phonological Awareness:Listen: sun /sss/. /sss/ is the first sound in sun. Now let’s say it First Sound Isolationtogether: sun, /sss/”Express the concept ina consistent manner“When you are brisk in the way you move, you are quick andactive. What does brisk mean? (quick and active)”Vocabulary InstructionalRoutine: New VocabularyRepeated Opportunities to Practice, Build Fluency, and ReviewStudents benefit when teachers provide opportunities for guided practice that includes teacher support ofa previously taught skill, as well as independent practice in which students work individually or in smallgroups to develop mastery with previously learned content. Practice opportunities for learned skillsare embedded across the curriculum to increase maintenance and generalization of newly masteredskills. After students have reached an appropriate level of mastery of the new skill or content, then it isappropriate for them to engage in related tasks independently. Independent practice follows mastery toassure that students do not practice mistakes.

SAMPLE READING LESSONS Increasing opportunities for students to practice a reading skill include providing a “double dose” ofinstruction in which a previously taught skill is retaught, using small group or one-on-one instruction, andusing technology to facilitate reading practice (Gersten et al., 2008).Frequent Opportunities to RespondWhen providing intervention, teachers may consider ways of increasing students’ opportunity to respondto instruction. Instruction in small groups is an effective method for increasing students’ opportunities torespond (Gersten et al., 2008). For students with the most intensive needs, research suggests that groupsof two to four students or one-on-one instruction may be the most effective (Vaughn, Wanzek, Murray, &Roberts, 2012). The following table provides examples of strategies from the NCII Reading Lessons forincreasing opportunities to respond.Tool or TechniqueExamples From NCII Reading LessonsNCII LessonResponse cards“I’m going to show you a picture. You’ll respond by holding upthe green “yes” card if the picture shows an animal. Hold up thered “no” card if the picture is not an animal.”Identify and Sort CommonObjectsPersonal whiteboards“Now it is your turn. Use your whiteboard to write a word andthen change just one letter in it to make a new word.”Change One LetterTurn and talk to a partner“Now turn to your partners, and 1s whisper to 2s which partof the word—the beginning, the middle, or the end—needs tobe changed.”LaddersChoral responseRemember, the prefix “re” means again, so “reread” means toread again. What does “reread” mean? (read again)Base Words and PrefixesSpecific Error Correction and FeedbackProviding students with both positive feedback and error correction is essential to their learning (Hattie& Timperley, 2007). When students make errors, it is important that they receive immediate feedback sothey do not continue to practice incorrectly. Teachers use precise language to inform the student whichparts of the task were performed incorrectly. Additionally, teachers model the correct response and providestudents with opportunities to practice the skill correctly. Error correction procedures outlined in the NCIIReading Lesson Plans generally utilize the following three basic steps: Step 1. Point out that the answer is incorrect and briefly explain why. Step 2. Model the correct response for the student. Step 3. Prompt the student to provide a correct response beforemoving on in the lesson.9

SAMPLE READING LESSONS 10SECTION 3How to Use the NCII Reading LessonsThe NCII Reading Lessons use a standard format to assistteachers in implementing the lessons with fidelity andincreasing usability. This section describes the essentialfeatures of the lessons and explains how educators canimplement each part of the lesson.Part 1. Lessons Standards and ObjectivesNCII Reading Lessons are aligned with college- and careerready standards. At the top of each lesson, users will finda list of grade-level College- and Career-Ready Standardsassociated with the lesson plan. In addition, the intendedobjective for the lesson plan or routine is listed below thestandards. A snapshot of how this looks in the lessonplan follows.Phonological Awareness: BlendingCollege- and Career-Ready Standard Addressed (K): Demonstrate understanding of spokenwords, syllables, and sounds (phonemes). Blend and segment onsets and rimes of single-syllable spoken wordsObjective: Students will practice blending phonemes into words.Part 2. Suggested Materials and GroupingEach lesson includes a list of suggested materials. In some cases, the materials are provided at the endof the lesson plan. These may include teacher or student materials necessary to conduct the lesson.Some lesson plans, such as First Sound Isolation or Phoneme Segmentation, require users to downloadsupplemental materials found on the NCII website. Having the materials selected and ready prior toimplementation helps maximize the instructional time with the student(s).The suggested schedule and grouping size are meant to serve as a guide and may be adjusted tomatch student need and intervention schedule. Most lessons suggest daily instruction for no morethan 5 minutes per session. As mentioned previously, these lessons are meant to supplement existingintervention and instruction. For students who need additional exposure or opportunities, consider

SAMPLE READING LESSONS 11Phonological Awareness: BlendingCollege- and Career-Ready Standard Addressed (K): Demonstrate understanding of spokenembeddingthe lessoncontentthroughout the instructional day. Because of the explicit, systematic naturewords,syllables,and sounds(phonemes).of theis recommendedgroupsizes be no morethanfive students (Vaughn et al., 2012). lessons,Blend andit segmentonsets andthatrimesof single-syllablespokenwordsThis will provide ample opportunities for student response and feedback. An example follows of how thisObjective: Students will practice blending phonemes into words.section is looks within the reading lesson plan.Suggested MaterialsManipulatives such as blocks, magnetic letters, or Elkonin boxes (see page 3)Timer and graph paper for fluency practice (see page 4)Suggested Schedule & Group SizeSchedule: Daily, no more than five minutes per session.Recommended group size: Individual or small group (up to five students)PhonologicalAwareness: BlendingNote: The script below is intended as a model. Adjust the difficulty of words and increase independentpractice opportunities as students become more proficient during daily practice.College- and Career-Ready Standard Addressed (K): Demonstrate understanding of spokenwords,syllables, and sounds (phonemes).Activity Blend and segment onsets and rimes of single-syllable spoken wordsInterventionprinciple PrinciplesSample Scriptand ProceduresRoutinePart3. Instructionaland InstructionalObjective:blendingwords.Use precise,Studentssimple will practiceToday,we arephonemesgoing put intosoundstogether to make a word. We call thislanguageintroduceBLENDINGbecauseBLEND the soundsintoanda word.Thenext topartof the lessonplan includestheweinstructionalroutinesassociated interventionandteachconceptsandandinstructional principles.The /www/first columnthe (Don’tinstructionalprinciplesListen:/aaaa/ lists/shhhhh/stop betweensoundsdiscussedas you say in Section tructional Principles of Reading Instruction Intervention that appear in the lesson. ThecolumnManipulativessuch as nd.)3)movean objectintooreachbox asyou sayUse explicit Timerexamples.and graphUsepaper for fluencypracticepageinto4) a word: washI’ll blendthese(seesoundsmodeling, teacherled, or steps, for implementing the lesson. The following script is an example ofinstructionalroutines,let’s blend the sounds into the word together. Listen: /www/ w this part looks &in GrouptheNowlessonplan.with feedback to help the /shhhh/. (Make sure the students(s) are blending with you. Don’t stopSchedule:Daily,no more thanfive minutessession.betweensounds peras yousay them. If using manipulatives such as Elkoninstudent buildaccuracyThescriptincludeswords boxes,that arebolded,italicized,placedin boxparentheses,or asounds.)combination of these.pointormoveanas you say thewithanewskill.Recommended group size: Individual or small group object(up to intofive eachstudents)The purpose is to clarify whatthe teacherssays and doesversuswhat the orstudentsmay say or do.What’sastheword?Adjust(Say “wash”with theyourNote: The script below is intendeda model.the difficultyofstudent(s).words and ngersto cue morethe studentsto saythe wordpractice opportunities as studentsbecomeproficientduringdaily together.practice. Listen to make sure allstudents say the word.)ActivityNow it’s your turn to blend the sounds into the word together. Ready?(Studentssay /www//aaa/ /shhhh/. Make sure all the students(s) areIntervention principleSample Scriptand Proceduresblending without stopping between sounds. If using manipulatives such asUse precise, simpleToday, weare havegoingstudentsput soundsto makea word.We callElkoninboxes,pointtogetherto each boxor movean objectinto thiseachlanguage to introduceBLENDINGwe BLEND the sounds into a word.boxas you saybecausethe sounds.)and teach concepts andListen: /www/ /aaaa/ /shhhhh/ (Don’t stop between sounds as you sayprocedures.Adaptedwith permission from ridafor box orthem. If usingmanipulativessuchas Elkoninboxes,pointCenterto eachReading Research, s.htmlUse explicit instructionmove an object into each box as you say each sound.)with examples. UseI’ll blend these sounds into a word: washNational Center on Intensive InterventionPhonological Awareness: Blending—1modeling, teacher led,5606 03/16and independent practice Now let’s blend the sounds into the word together. Listen: /www/ /aaa/with feedback to help the /shhhh/. (Make sure the students(s) are blending with you. Don’t stopbetween sounds as you say them. If using manipulatives such as Elkoninstudent build accuracyboxes, point or move an object into each box as you say the sounds.)with a new skill.What’s the word? (Say “wash” with the student(s). Clap or snap yourfingers to cue the students to say the word together. Listen to make sure allstudents say the word.)Now it’s your turn to blend the sounds into the word together. Ready?(Students say /www/ /aaa/ /shhhh/. Make sure all the students(s) areblending without stopping between sounds. If using manipulatives such asElkonin boxes, have students point to each box or move an object into eachbox as you say the sounds.)Adapted with permission from Phonemic Awareness Instructional Routine: Blending, Florida Center forReading Research, s.htmlNational Center on Intensive InterventionPhonological Awareness: Blending—1

SAMPLE READING LESSONS 12The following guide can help with interpreting the sample script and lesson procedures.Text FormatInterpretationBold textBold, nonitalicized text is intended to represent sample language the teacher may SAY to the students.Italicized textItalicized text represents what teachers or students will DO or SAY during the lesson. In some cases,sample student responses will be provided.General textText that is neither bolded nor italicized is used to provide information to the educators to assist them inconducting the lesson. For example, this text may provide additional examples, explanation of a strategy,or extension activities.Part 4. Error Correction ProceduresEach lesson will include a sample script or procedures for correcting student errors. The script will followWhat’s the word? (Clap or snap your fingers to cue the students to say,the same text format as describedin theprevioussection.somecases, general information about“wash.” Listento makesure allstudentsInsaythe word.)errorcorrectionare providedas opposeda samplescript.As one:with /mmm/other routines,these areProvideconcrete,proceduresGood!/www/ /aaa//shhhhh/ dasopportunitiesto users may decide to adapt parts of the script to match the individual needsoffereda model, andaccuracy, move directly to independent practice with words with threepractice theofcorrectlystudents.sounds. See “Additional Practice” below for more recommendations.)skill with feedback.Error CorrectionIntervention principleSample Script and ProceduresProvide immediate andexplicit error correction,and have student repeatthe correct response.That’s not quite right. Listen: /mmm/ /aaa/ /nnn/ is man.Now listen again: /mmm/ /aaa/ /nnn/. What’s the word? (Studentsshould say “man”)(Repeat as needed with additional words, making sure not to stop betweensounds. Have the students demonstrate the correct response for eachword).Additional PracticeSelectingAppropriateReading PracticewithLessonsadditional words with three sounds such as dog, rat, box,Interventionprinciple NCIImitt.Provide systematicEducatorsuse diagnostic data to identify instructional needs and match appropriate instruction to thoseinstruction and practice If words with three sounds are too difficult, back up and present wordneeds.Diagnostictoolscansoundsbe eitherwhich are easy to use and can be administered withby breakingconceptsintoin readingwith two(e.g.,informal,at, if, me).chunks.littletraining, or standardized,mustbe deliveredin a standardwell-trainedstaff. Educators may Aswhichstudentsbecomemore accurateand fluentwaywithbyblending,add wordswithusingfour sounds(e.g., slip,anddrop,hits, chirped)anddiagnosticlater, five soundsfind it helpful to initially considermore informaleasilyaccessibletools and data to avoid(e.g., spits, flipped, sloppy), including consonant blends.loss of instructional time. Standardized diagnostic tools that require more time to administer and interpretNote:Consonantblends(fl) can be separatedtwo sounds,whereasspecial education.may be required for studentswhocontinuallydemonstratea lack ofintoresponseor requiredigraphs (ch) cannot.)Thetablethat follows provides examples of informal and standardized diagnostic assessments that may beBuildFluencyused in the data-based individualization (DBI) process. The purpose of the table is to provide an illustrativeOnce students demonstrate accuracy with blending three sounds (90 percentIntervention principlesampling of literacy scontentis neithercomprehensive noror better),them forminute to Thesee howmanywords theycan blendProvide opportunities luency.Asstudentsintendedto be viewedspeeded practiceto buildas NCII recommended tools. Unlike our behavior progress monitoring tools chart andmaster the task, move on to blending longer and more difficult words.automaticity.academicprogress monitoring tools chart, these diagnostic tools have not been evaluated independently byan NCII technical review committee.

SAMPLE READING LESSONS Sample Diagnostic Literacy ToolsExamples of common diagnosticdata sources Error analysis of literacy progress monitoring data* Phonics Inventory* Reading Quick Miscue Analysis Table* Running records Intervention or curricula specific diagnostic tools Word list reading (e.g., Dolch, Fry, curriculum sight word lists) Analysis of student work (e.g., classroom assignments, work samples, tests) Observation and anecdotal notes Student or family interviews or checklists about reading behaviorsExamples of published tools fordiagnostic assessment** Developmental Reading Assessment , 2nd Edition PLUS (DRA2 ) HMH Reading Inventory, formally Scholastic Reading Inventory (SRI) Diagnostic Assessment of Reading (DAR ) Qualitative Reading Inventory (QRI)/Informal Reading Inventory (IRI) Quick Phonics Screener, 3rd Edition Elementary Spelling Inventory (ESI) Spelling Inventory (PSI)*These tools are available through the NCII website at no charge.**These tools are only available through a publisher and may have an associated cost.Considerations for Using the Lesson Plans1. The NCII Reading Lessons include a script as a model that may be adapted by teachers. Beforeimplementing the NCII reading lessons, teachers are encouraged to review the plan and considerwhat adaptations, if any, are needed to meet the needs of the target student(s). For example,teachers may wish to substitute easier or more challenging words in the examples.2. Prior to implementing the lesson, gather the necessary materials and have them easily accessibleduring the lesson. Having the materials selected and ready prior to implementation helps maximizethe instructional time with the student(s).3. Because of the explicit, systematic nature of the lessons, it is recommended that group sizes be nomore than five students, though it may be necessary to adjust based on individual student needs.This will provide ample opportunities for students’ response and feedback.4. The NCII reading lessons suggest daily instruction for no more than five to 10 minutes per session. Asmentioned previously, these lessons are meant to supplement existing intervention and instruction.For students who need additional exposure or opportunities, consider embedding the lesson contentthroughout the instructional day.13

SAMPLE READING LESSONS 14SECTION 4Additional ResourcesThe following list of selected resources can be used by school personnel to support students who strugglewith reading and students with disabilities. These resources are organized by center and are not intended asan exhaustive list of resources available.Text FormatThe Meadows Center forPreventing EducationalRiskInterpretation Designing and Deliv

Florida Center for Reading Research. Florida Center for Reading Research language SAMPLE READING LESSONS 4 SECTION 1 The Five Components of Reading The NCII reading lessons are organized around the ive components of reading identiied by the National