SAP BasisAbout the TutorialSAP Basis refers to the administration of SAP system that includes activities like installationand configuration, load balancing, and performance of SAP applications running on Javastack and SAP ABAP. This includes the maintenance of different services related todatabase, operating system, application and web servers in SAP system landscape andstopping and starting the system.This tutorial will walk you through the different features of SAP Basis.AudienceThis tutorial is designed for all those readers who are willing to learn SAP Basisadministration in simple and easy steps.PrerequisitesThe course is designed for beginners with little or no SAP Basis experience. But you needto have a basic understanding of SAP basics to make the most of this tutorial.Disclaimer & Copyright Copyright 2018 by Tutorials Point (I) Pvt. Ltd.All the content and graphics published in this e-book are the property of Tutorials Point (I)Pvt. Ltd. The user of this e-book is prohibited to reuse, retain, copy, distribute or republishany contents or a part of contents of this e-book in any manner without written consentof the publisher.We strive to update the contents of our website and tutorials as timely and as precisely aspossible, however, the contents may contain inaccuracies or errors. Tutorials Point (I) Pvt.Ltd. provides no guarantee regarding the accuracy, timeliness or completeness of ourwebsite or its contents including this tutorial. If you discover any errors on our website orin this tutorial, please notify us at [email protected]

SAP BasisTable of ContentsAbout the Tutorial . iAudience . iPrerequisites . iDisclaimer & Copyright . iTable of Contents . ii1.SAP BASIS — OVERVIEW . 1Transaction Codes . 32.SAP BASIS — INSTALLATION OF SAP GUI . 4Advanced Features in SAP GUI . 4Supported Available Versions for Different Platforms . 4Microsoft Windows Release . 5JAVA Release . 5Support Lifecycle . 73.SAP BASIS — SAP GUI SELECTION. 9SAP Instance and SID . 9SAP System Number . 124.SAP BASIS — SYSTEM LANDSCAPE & ARCHITECTURE . 13SAP System 3 – Tier Architecture . 145.SAP BASIS – HARDWARE & SOFTWARE INSTALLATION. 16Installation of SAP ECC 6.0 . 17Different Hardware and Software Components in SAP System. 216.SAP BASIS — NW SYSTEM . 25ii

SAP Basis7.SAP BASIS — NW ARCHITECTURE. 27Installation Options for SAP NetWeaver . 28Application Center and Instances . 28Managing Java Instances using NWA . 29SAP NW System Landscape . 30System Landscape Management using SAP Solution Manager . 30Verifying Landscape with SAP Solution Manager . 308.SAP BASIS — SAP CLIENT ADMINISTRATION . 32Advantages of Client Concept . 32Steps to Create a New Client in SAP. 329.SAP BASIS — USER ACTIVITIES . 41Creating a User . 4110.SAP BASIS — NUMBER OF LOGIN ATTEMPTS . 48Password Policy . 50Limit Users on Password Selection . 5011.SAP BASIS — JOB PROCESSING. 52Executing Background Jobs in SAP . 5212.SAP BASIS — UNSCHEDULING A BACKGROUND JOB . 5613.SAP BASIS — MONITORING A BACKGROUND JOB . 5814.SAP BASIS — DELETING A BACKGROUND JOB . 6115.SAP BASIS — MANAGING TRANSPORTS . 64Transport Management System Overview (TMS) . 64Configuring Transport Management . 64iii

SAP Basis16.SAP BASIS — MANAGING TRANSPORT ROUTES . 67Transport Request . 67Import / Export of Objects . 69Transport Request logs . 7017.SAP BASIS — PATCH MANAGEMENT. 71Support Packages and Add-ons . 71Requirements to Implement Support Package . 7218.SAP BASIS — IMPORTING A QUEUE . 7619.SAP BASIS — KERNEL UPGRADE AND PATCHING. 8020.SAP BASIS — SYSTEM MONITORING . 8721.SAP BASIS — REMOTE FUNCTION CALL. 91What is RFC?. 9122.SAP BASIS – RFC BETWEEN SAP ECC & HANA . 93Creating a Trusted RFC between SAP ECC and HANA . 93Configuring RFC Connection . 95Testing Trusted RFC . 9623.SAP BASIS — NEW DIMENSIONAL PRODUCT. 97Introduction to BI / BW . 97Basis Integration with ECC . 9824.SAP BASIS — INTERVIEW QUESTIONS . 100iv

1.SAP Basis — OverviewSAP BasisSAP Basis refers to the administration of SAP system that includes activities like installationand configuration, load balancing, and performance of SAP applications running on Javastack and SAP ABAP. This includes the maintenance of different services related todatabase, operating system, application and web servers in SAP system landscape andstopping and starting the system.The key responsibilities of SAP Basis Administrator include: System installation and Configuration Load balancing on servers Performance management of different components Managing interfaces and integration with servers Managing servers and different servicesWith the help of SAP Basis, different SAP modules like Finance Accounting, ProductionPlanning, Sales and Distribution, SAP EWM and other modules can integrate andcommunicate with each other.SAP Basis supports the installation and configuration of SAP applications on differentoperating systems like Windows, Unix, AS/400, etc. and different databases like SQLServer, Oracle, IBM DB2 for back end database.1

SAP BasisThis picture defines the key activities that involve the role of SAP Basis Consultant. Theroles of the SAP Basis Consultant are divided into the following categories:Solution SpecialistThe Solution Specialist is responsible for: Upgrading the SAP version of system landscape SAP Data backup archive Migration of Operating system and Database Installation of AP/Add OnInterface AnalystThe Interface Analyst is responsible for: Configuration and set up of interface between different modulesSystem AdministratorThe System Administrator is responsible for: Monitoring the performance of SAP system and modules Maintaining SAP system health and performing health checkup2

SAP BasisSAP Database AdministratorThe SAP Database Administrator is responsible for: Backup and restoring the database of SAP system Managing database objectsTransport and Batch Job AdministratorThe Transport and Batch Job Administrator is responsible for: Managing batch job scheduling and replication Managing SAP Control access in system landscapeDDIC ManagerThe DDIC Manager is responsible for: Managing changes to Data DictionarySAP ArchitectThe SAP Architect is responsible for: Designing work and data flow in the SAP system Managing SAP sizingSAP ABAP SpecialistThe SAP ABAP Specialist is responsible for: Troubleshooting and tuning of ABAP Programs Applying correction to Programs as per SAP Coding and customization of ABAP program as per requirementTransaction CodesThere are various Transaction Codes (T-codes) that a SAP Basis Administrator uses toperform the assigned tasks. The following is a list of important SAP Basis T-codes:SM02 — To send messages to users who are logged in and new users logging to the clientSM01 — To take control of transaction codes. In case, the business requires that the userswho are authorized to carry the transactions are to be stopped temporarily.SM04 — To check the number of users who are logged into the system and in which clientand how many sessions each user is generated and in each session what transaction isbeing executed.3

SAP BasisSM13 — To keep track of the status of the Update service is Active, in case it is not activethen we activate from the Update Administrator.SM37 — To monitor the status of the jobs that are created by a user and for specific dates.PFCG — This is used to maintain roles in SAP system.SM21 — SAP system log is displayed for the values inputted in the initial screen. Thevalues that can be maintained is the From Date.RZ20 — This is used for cross system monitoring. In this transaction, we have a treestructure that performs a set of transactions and also keeps a track of all the alerts thatwere captured during the operation of the system4

2.SAP BasisSAP Basis — Installation of SAP GUISAP GUI is a client tool which is used to access remote central server and runs on differentoperating systems like Microsoft Windows, UNIX, Mac, etc. This is used to manage andaccess SAP applications like SAP ECC and SAP Business Intelligence System.Advanced Features in SAP GUIThe following are the advanced features of SAP GUI:Blue Crystal designSAP Blue Crystal is a new visual design theme which succeeds Corbu. It provides aconsistent design that allows users to seamlessly experience SAP GUI and NWBC elements.It is the standard theme of Fiori applications and comes with a new color palette and iconswhich are better scalable.The background texture has a stroke pattern in white and light blue with a gradient layer.As it replaces Corbu with Blue Crystal, this integrates SAP GUI for Windows 7.40 andNWBC 5.0Complete icons redesign for Blue CrystalAll SAP GUI icons used by SAP applications have been redesigned and are now fitting theBlue Crystal Design. Additionally, they are much better scalable than before. The new setof icons is exclusive to Blue Crystal Design.New default color for Blue Crystal iconsWhen you use it with patch 2, the main color changes from blue to dark gray in order toharmonize the design with the Fiori Application design.Supported Available Versions for Different PlatformsThe following are the supported available versions for different platforms: SAP GUI for the Windows environment SAP GUI for the Java(TM) environment SAP GUI for HTML / Internet Transaction Server (ITS)SAP GUI has been released separately for Windows and Java support and the latest versionfor Windows and Java is 7.4.5

SAP BasisMicrosoft Windows ReleaseSAP GUI 7.4, the latest version for Windows was released in October, 2014 and it supportsvarious features like — it is by default installed with NWBC 5.0 and SAP GUI and GUIshortcuts are launched through NWBC.However, you also have the possibility to use SAP GUI and NWBC in parallel. To do so,you merely have to select the new component Install SAP GUI Desktop Icon/Shortcuts to install the SAP Logon (Pad) Desktop Icon and to register SAP GUI shortcutsto SAP Logon.JAVA ReleaseSAP GUI 7.4 is the latest version for JAVA. This provides support to other operatingsystems and was released in October, 2014. As SAP GUI for Java 7.40 is not available onDVD right now, you need to proceed to the patches section on the SAP Support Portal todownload SAP GUI for Java 7.40.Downloading SAP GUI from SAP MarketplaceThe following are the steps to download SAP GUI from SAP Marketplace:Step 1: To use SAP GUI for accessing remote central service, you have to first downloadit from SAP Market place.Step 2: Go to- to login to SAP Market Place.Step 3: Login using SID SXXXXXXXX and password. Once you login, go to Products Software Downloads6

SAP BasisStep 4: Under Software downloads, go to Installation and upgrades. Follow thealphabetical order A-Z and select ‘G’ from list.7

SAP BasisStep 5: Select platform from the list available, you can select SAP GUI for Windows, SAPGUI for JAVA, and SAP GUI for Windows for S/4. Once you click there, you can see detailedinformation about all that is there in the latest version of SAP GUI — features, supportlifecycle, dependencies, general information, etc. on Info Page.Support LifecycleSAP GUI for Windows 7.40 was shipped in "General Availability" (released for productiveusage) on 8th October, 2014. When planning a SAP GUI upgrade, please consider movingdirectly to release 7.40.Please consider these end of support dates when planning or reviewing your frontendlandscape: On 9th of April 2013 support for SAP GUI for Windows 7.20 ended. On 15th of July 2015 full support for SAP GUI for Windows 7.30 ended. On 31st of October 2015 restricted support for SAP GUI for Windows 7.30 will end. On 9th of January 2018 support for SAP GUI for Windows 7.40 will end.Also consider, SAP Notes — 147519Go to Download - Select files to add to the download basket.8

SAP BasisYou can get it from the download basket later on. Save the file to the local system andrun the setup. You can select to choose from different components-Press Next Finish the setup.9

3.SAP Basis — SAP GUI SelectionSAP BasisAs mentioned, there are three different GUIs available and we can select the right versionbased on the requirement. The following scenario can help you find a suitable SAP GUI:When users are working rarely in the SAP systemSuppose most of the users fall in this category, then it is suggested to use SAP GUI forHTML format. This allows you to save effort and money for client deploymentWhen users are working mostly in the SAP systemIn a case such as this, SAP GUI for Windows or SAP GUI for Java is recommended.When users are ABAP developersFor ABAP developers, it is recommended that they use SAP GUI for WindowsWhen users use operating systems other than MicrosoftIt is recommended they use SAP GUI for Java and HTML or they can use the SAP GUI forWindows on a remote server.When users are integrating Dynpro transactions to the PortalIt is recommended they use SAP GUI for HTML. This allows you to integrate classic Dynprobased applications into the portal easily.SAP Instance and SIDA SAP instance is when you install and configure a SAP system. This instance defines agroup of resources — memory, processors and other resources in the system. This allowsusers to login to the SAP system and share the same resources.SAP instance is managed by CCMS. Users can login to the SAP system using an instance.A SAP system can consist of one or more instances — you can set up a SAP system witha single instance with only one CCMS or you can configure a system with two or moreseparate instances in client/server environment.Configuring a SAP instanceYou need to follow these steps to configure a SAP instance:Step 1: You need to define separate directories for UNIX, AS/400, or Microsoft WindowsNT server on which the instance is to run.Step 2: You can use a shared file system.10

SAP BasisStep 3: For each instance, there are entries created in operating system configurationfiles (/etc/services, /etc/sapconfig ).Step 4: There are communication entries created in the host.Step 5: For each instance, start and system profiles are created.Step 6: For each instance, operating system users are installed.Creating an instance for one serverYou need to follow these steps to create an instance for one server:Step 1: To create an instance, you should first define the mode of operation.Step 2: To create an instance, go to CCMS Configuration or use Transaction code RZ04.Step 3: Go to instances/operation modes as shown in shown in the screenshots below.Step 4: To create a new instance, click on create new Instance — (F6) option as in thefollowing screenshot:11

SAP BasisStep 5: Enter the host name and click on current settings. When application server isalready running, the system will display the current settings for that instance.Step 6: If the application server is not running, you should use the input help to displaythe possible entries and fill the below values.Step 7: Enter the host name and choose current settings. If the application server isalready running, the system will display the current settings for that instance. However, ifthe application server is not yet running, you should use the input help to display thepossible entries and fill in the following fields:12

SAP BasisSAP System NumberThe SAP System Number is the number that is mentioned when the SAP System isinstalled.Start Profile: Profile NameInsert the name of the start profile from Profiles to start the instance. You can also clickon “choose the input help” to display a list of available start profiles. You can select aprofile from the available list.Instance Profile: Profile NameYou have to select the name of instance profile from Profiles to run the instance. You canclick on “input help” to display a list of available instance profiles.To save the instance, click on Save button at the top ContinueMaintaining Instance DefinitionWhen you define operation modes, you need to maintain instance definition. Follow thesesteps to change the definition:Step 1: Use Transaction Code: RZ04Step 2: Select Instances/operation modeStep 3: Select an entry from the list of productive instances.Step 4: You can then change the data for that instance.Step 5: You can also delete an instance, operation mode using the same transaction code.Step 6: To delete an operation mode — From the list of productive operation modes,position the cursor on a line with the operation mode. Select operation mode Delete.This deletes the operation mode, and all the instances and work process definitionsassigned to it.13

4.SAP BasisSAP Basis — System Landscape & ArchitectureSAP system landscape is defined as an arrangement of SAP servers. Ideally, in a Sapenvironment, a three-system landscape exists. A system landscape consists ofDevelopment Server (Dev), Production Server (PROD), and Quality Assurance server(QAS).SAP Architecture is defined as a technology framework of SAP system and it changes withtime unlike the system landscape. SAP Architecture changes with new software like SAPECC 6.0, the most recent one.The following is a request in SAP System Landscape:DEVELOPMENT Quality PRODUCTIONThe following figure represents SAP three tier system landscape where work flows fromDev QAS PROD and not in backward direction.Let us now discuss the system landscape:Sandbox ServerWhen a project is implemented, at the initial stages, a sandbox server is used where allthe customization, configuration is performed.Development ServerNext is to save the configuration in development server and saved in workbench requestsand this has to be transported to Production server.Production Server14

SAP BasisYou can consider it as the final or the most refined stage where the work is done whenproject is in production/go live. All the changes that are required by the client areperformed in the DEV environment and later, the request is transported to production.SAP System 3 – Tier ArchitectureThe image given below shows 3-tier architecture of the SAP system. The presentationlayer is the topmost one. This contains the device/application to control the SAP system.This can include mobile devices, end user systems or SAP GUI or web browser based client.The presentation layer communicates with the application server to perform all theprocessing and which is known as brains of an SAP system.An application server consists of multiple instances and communicates with the databaselayer of the three-tier architecture.The bottom layer is called the database layer. This is responsible to store all the data.The database of SAP system is kept on a separate server for performance and securityreasons.The presentation layer consists of different components for ABAP and JAVA that enablesthe communication and processing of data in SAP system.The key components of the presentation layer include the following: Message Server – This is used to manage communication between distributeddispatchers in the ABAP system.15

SAP Basis Message Server – This is used to manage server processes and JAVA dispatchers.It is used to manage communication within JRE. Dispatcher Queue – This is used to store multiple work process types. Dispatcher – This is used to distribute the requests to the work processes.Memory Pipes – This is used to manage communication between ICM and ABAPwork processes. Enqueue Server – This is used to handle logical locks set by the executed Javaapplication program. Java Dispatcher – This is responsible to receive the client requests viapresentation layer and forward to the server process. Gateway – This is used to manage communication between SAP system andexternal systems. ABAP Work processes – This separately executes dialog steps in R/3 applicationsseparately.16

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Managing SAP sizing SAP ABAP Specialist The SAP ABAP Specialist is responsible for: . SAP Basis 5 SAP GUI is a client tool which is used to access remote central server and runs on different operating systems like Micr