Understanding and Advocating for PDF/UAKaren McCall, M.Ed.Karlen CommunicationsCopyright 2016

Resources PDF/UA in a Nutshell by Duff Johnson Structure Elements Best Practice Guide: re-elements-best-practiceguide-0-1/ Matterhorn Protocol tocol-1/ PDF/UA Technical Implementation guide de PDF/UA Competence Centre tence-center/

PDF/UA Combines the three components of accessing PDF documents into atechnical specification: The PDF document itself MUST be accessible to PDF/UA. The viewer/reader MUST be able to use the accessibility features in the PDFdocument. The adaptive technology MUST be able to use the reader’s output. Unless a person using adaptive technology has a conforming reader andconforming adaptive technology, then they do not have equal access to aPDF/UA conforming document. Can have a document identifier stating that the document is PDF/UAcompliant which might help in identifying where barriers are. Need the same identifiers for the reader/viewer and adaptive technology.

What PDF/UA Means to Us A high-quality reading experience, equal to or exceeding that provided byany other format. There is a consistency of experience and expectation when a PDF/UAcompliant document is opened. Greater access to educational material, employment based materialincluding employment forms, and any PDF document. PDF/UA conformance REQUIRES an identifier on the document stating theauthor’s claim that the document conforms to PDF/UA. As such, authors ofdocuments claiming PDF/UA are fully and properly accountable. We need to understand the plain language results of the technicalspecifications and when asked “what do you mean by an accessible PDF”we must answer “PDF/UA compliance”.

Authors and Publishers The document author or publisher determines the format of publication. It can be EPUB, HTML and/or PDF. While regular (re-flowable) EPUB can be accessible, fixed-layout EPUB is NOTaccessible. No matter which format content is published in, it must be accessible tointernational and/or country specific legislation. One format isn’t better for those of us with disabilities than another. We have to stop the skirmishes over “what is best for them” and focus onensuring any format of content is accessible to international standards. As people with disabilities we have the right to choose which format that isavailable to us we want to access/read.

Choice! One of the premises of accessible document design and access to contentis that “the end-user is able to choose how they view and interact withcontent.” This concept has been around since 2001 or earlier. Toward that goal, if someone accesses a PDF, ePub or HTML document,they should have the tools to convert that document to the format of theirchoice. Choice can be based on device, weather, built or open space environment, or theneed to have content explained or presented in a different format to facilitateunderstanding. “Print” content now has choice: print, audiobook or e-text and Amazon hasa link so you can start reading e-text and switch to an Audible book withoutlosing your place (Whisper Read). There is no such thing as “this format is best for blind people.” Whatever format content is published in, MUST be accessible.

Alternate Text Production Centres How much time would be saved if Students didn’t have to buy 2 copies of a text? Students could access digital text at the point of purchase? IF a student required alternate format, the PDF that arrived could easily beconverted to the other format using File, Save As? Students could keep their digital books for reference and not have toreturn it at the end of a semester. We could empower students by giving them the tools to convert to a“preferred” format. We don’t have to create “differently accessible” content. If we do have to create “differently accessible” content, why create accessiblecontent in the first place?

Blended Model of Remediation Not all PDF documents “have to be accessible by midnight.” There are services that facilitate an on-demand compliant remediation of PDFdocuments. There are services that do high volume remediation of PDF to compliance. There are tools to “do it yourself.” Need to take a look at how many PDF “have” to be PDF/UA compliant,what are staffing and financial resources and how to meet goals andcompliance. Use staff and outsourcing in combination. Perhaps “front facing” PDF are sent out while PDF with “short shelf life” aredone in-house. For example, reports are outsourced while flyers and restaurant menus are done inhouse.

Training PDF/UA ensures that everyone is on the same page. There is no guessing at what an accessible PDF document is orindividual interpretation as to what Tags are to be used for whatcontent. Those training remediation professionals and the remediationprofessionals themselves are all working from the same set ofspecifications and structure elements. Provide a consistent level of training and remediation based on ISO14289 or PDF/UA.

PDF/UA Tagged DocumentsHow much of what we are doing now is part of PDF/UA?

Elements of a PDF/UA Compliant Document For our purposes in advocacy: The document must have Tags. The Tags must be correct for the type of content. Tags must be in a logical reading order (which might not be the order in whichcontent appears on the page, i.e., brochures). Headings as navigational structures must be sequential and you can’t skip alevel. Alt Text for images and links. Decorative images are Artifacts. There is a core language for the document and Multilanguage documentshave language attributes on Tags for the changes in language. While the presence of Bookmarks is a “should have” in PDF/UA, whenpresent, Bookmarks are to mirror headings.

Quotes and BlockQuotes “Where quoted content exists inside a paragraph or other block-levelstructure element, the Quote tag is used. “ “Where quoted content does not exist inside a paragraph or otherblock-level structure element, the BlockQuote Tag is used.Example: for longer portions of quoted content. “ Structure Elements Best Practice Guide 0.1 re-elements-bestpractice-guide-0-1/

Sidebar Content In Word, use Section Breaks and Column Breaks to provide a logical readingorder, even for those accessing the Word document. You can switch to Draft view of the document to check the flow of contentor logical reading order. This will convert nicely to the correct structure in a tagged PDF document. See the how to document on tables and columns on the KarlenCommunications Microsoft Office for Windows 2016 page: wsAccessibility.html “Implementers should note that in PDF 2.0 the Aside and Document structure elements provide a solution to tagging sidebar content.”

Parallel Columns - Sidebar

Document Title and Heading Tags “A title is information representing the normal means of referring to thedocument. Titles can be present as both metadata entry and pagecontent.” “The metadata entry for a PDF document’s title is represented using XMP.” “A document’s title appearing as page content traditionally has often been taggedwith H1 .” “Since PDF/UA does not require any specific structure type for title content,it is permissible to tag such content with either H1 or other tags(typically, P or tags mapped to P ).” “Since headings commonly appear in Tables of Contents, and sincedocument titles do not normally appear in Tables of Contents, it can beargued that it is preferred to use the P tag, and not the H1 tag, fortagging title content.”

Correct Tagging of Headings Do not separate a Heading into two parts, for example: H2 This is a document H2 about creating tagged PDF The correct tagging is: H2 This is a documentabout creating tagged PDF This can be found in the Structure Elements Best Practice Guide 0.1 A PDF/UA conforming document can have more than 1 Heading 1. This is different from the recommendation for HTML content. Web content is separate documents linked together with navigation links. PDF documents are single documents with a Table of Contents and/orHeadings to navigate to specific topics.

Show Document Title – Initial View

Incheon Strategy Incheon Strategy to Make the Right Real which is the Asia and PacificRegion strategy to implement the Convention on the Rights of People withDisabilities. Goal 3: Enhance access to the physical environment, public transportation,knowledge, information and communication One of the “problems” with specifying a version of a standard is that by the timelegislation is passed, a new version has been published. We are in the process of working on PDF/UA 2. I would also think that WCAG 3 is being worked on. 34. “Proportion of accessible and usable public documents and websitesthat meet internationally recognized accessibility standards.” ategy

PDF and the User ExperienceSurvey Results 2015ISBN 978-0-9868085-7-9Original research, initial findings

Survey Structure 31 questions, some open ended to gather perceptions andexperiences of those of us who use adaptive technology to accessPDF documents. Total of 185 responses but 146 once incomplete surveys and falsecontact information were removed. People from all over the world, many from US and Canada.

Country Representation

Legislation for Accessible Documents60.7% of respondents stated that their country had legislation for accessibledocuments, 30.3% said they didn’t know and 9% said no.

Described Computer Literacy Levels 49% were aged 41-60 years old, 33% were aged 26-40 years. 31% identified themselves as having 20-30 years experience in digitalenvironments, 31% as having 11-20% years experience. Computer literacy: 69.7% identified as advanced29.6% asintermediate. Computer literacy when it comes to reading PDF documents: 53.1%identified as advanced and 40% as intermediate.

PDF is NOT Portable! Interesting to find how many different types of tools are being used toreformat or convert PDF documents so that they are readable andportable. Tools such as ABBYY OCR tools, Balabalka, Victor reader Stream, VoiceDream Reader, Blio, Claro PDF, ezPDF, EdgeSharp PDF Reader, Gmail toview the PDF as HTML, I convert PDF documents to text, iAnnotate oniOS, iBooks, JavaScript PDF rendering in Firefox, JAWS OCR, KindleeReader apps on Windows laptop, KNFB Reader, KOBO ap on phone,Nitro PDF, NOOK, Okular,

Ways of Accessing PDF Documents

Consensus There were respondents who wanted EPUB and/or HTML as a “preferred”format. When a document is not tagged, it is horrible in terms of the readingexperience and ability to access/find/read content. One respondent used the word “pleasurable” when describing theirexperiences with correctly tagged, well-structured PDF. There is confusion about PDF/UA: what it is, how it will benefit those of uswith disabilities. PDF/UA is a good thing if it ensures a consistent experience. Some pessimism about the ability of the community to garner acceptance ofPDF/UA. The survey will run again in November 2016.

Advocating for GlobalAdoption of PDF/UAISO 14289 is an international standard that defines what an accessible PDFdocument is no matter where, when or how you access it.

It IS an International Standard ISO 14289 or PDF/UA (Universal Accessibility) has been aninternational standard for what an accessible PDF document is since2012. Problem: those of us who created the standard aren’t speaking tothose who will benefit from the standard. We need more outreach and communication so that those of us who useadaptive technology understand and can advocate for the adoption ofPDF/UA. Most of us start with “PDF/UA is a technical standard ” which puts everyoneto sleep.

We need to Communicate the Benefits Yes, it is a technical standard, BUT, what does it do? How will it make accessing PDF documents better for me? We need to simply state: “If it is PDF, it MUST be PDF/UA compliant orconforming.” Developers of the adaptive technology, interactive viewers/readersand document authoring tools can get the technical stuff and build itinto the applications seamlessly. We should just have to point organizations and legislators in the rightdirection to ISO 14289!

PDF/UA ResourcesWhere can I find more information on how to ensure that my documents arePDF/UA compliant?

Free Validation Tools! The Acrobat Accessibility Full Check is free and is in the Accessibilitytools in the Tools Task Pane. The PAC or PDF Accessibility Checker from xyMedia is free. ity-checker-pac.html CommonLook PDF Validator is free: nlook-pdfvalidator/?mkt tok Xxc%3D

PDF Remediation Tools CommonLook PDF Global Access: nlook-pdf/ Add-in for Adobe Acrobat. CommonLook Office Global Access: nlook-office-globalaccess/ Add-in for Microsoft Office. axesPDF: Manual is currently not available in English and I don’t know of anyone whodoes training. This tool is an add-in to Microsoft Word.

PDF/UA Resource Documents PDF/UA Technical Implementation Guide (AIIM): de The Matterhorn Protocol (PDF Association): tocol-1/ PDF/UA Competence Centre (PDF Association): tence-center/ PDF/UA in a Nutshell: The Structure Elements Best Practice Guide from PDF Association: re-elements-best-practice-guide-0-1/ Developers and software vendors will need to purchase the entire ISO standardto implement under the hood specifications.

Johnathan Metz YouTube PDF/UA Videos! Accessiblemetz YouTube Channel: BeFtQa3mjM&feature PLmfVOnJxeSEXsEKv2i20nYMHYuFEcl4fO First video starts with a Word document and walks through making itaccessible for conversion to PDF/UA conforming PDF. There are 4 videos in the series so far. Subscribe!

Contact!Karen McCall, M.Ed.Karlen [email protected]

view the PDF as HTML, I convert PDF documents to text, iAnnotate on iOS, iBooks, JavaScript PDF rendering in Firefox, JAWS OCR, Kindle eReader apps on Windows laptop, KNFB Reader, KOBO ap on phone, Nitro PDF, NOOK, Okular, Ways of Accessing . PDF Documents. Consensus There wer