TESOL 101Free Preparation Courseby OnTESOLTABLE OF CONTENTSChapter 1: Methods and ApproachesChapter 2: Why The Communicative Approach?Chapter 3: Using Authentic MaterialChapter 4: Teaching VocabularyChapter 5: Teaching ReadingChapter 6: Teaching SpeakingChapter 7: Teaching ListeningChapter 8: Teaching WritingChapter 9: Lesson PlanningChapter 10: Teaching Abroad

CHAPTER1- ‐METHODSANDAPPROACHES1.1The Grammar Translation Method (GTM)Main features and techniques1. Learning through memorization of the rules of traditional grammar and long lists ofvocabulary items.2. Main technique: translation from and into the target language.

3. No use of the target language; no emphasis on speaking the target language orlistening to it.4. Use of literary passages as good models to analyze and translate.5. Grammar is taught deductively – that is, by presentation and study of grammar rules,which are then practiced through translation exercises. Example: a new structure isgiven (present continuous), explained in the students’ native language; then,students repeat and translate into their mother tongue.6. Teacher’s role: active. The teacher explains the rules, provides information on thepattern and corrects 100% of student errors.7. Students’ role: passive. Students learn the patterns and vocabulary, repeat after theteacher and translate into their native language.1.2 The Direct Method (DM)Main features and techniques1. Classroom instruction was conducted exclusively in the target language. Notranslation into the students’ mother tongue allowed.2. Only everyday vocabulary and sentences were taught: What is this? This is a book./What are you doing? I am writing.3. New teaching points were introduced orally. Oral communication skills were built up ina carefully graded progression organized around questions-and-answer exchangesbetween teachers and students. Grammar was taught inductively with a directassociation of the target language to the situation. For example:T: (Showing an object) ‘This is a book. What is this?’S: ‘This is a book.’Another example:T: (miming to teach the present continuous) ‘I am walking.’T: (showing a picture of someone walking) ‘He is walking.’S: Repeat4. Use of gestures, miming and visuals to present the grammar topics and vocabulary.5. Focus on speaking and listening by repeating questions and answers as describedabove.6. Correct pronunciation and grammar were emphasized.7. Teacher’s role:active. The teacher shows the new language by using gestures,miming, visuals, definitions, synonyms, antonyms, etc, providing a good model of thenew language and corrects 100% of student errors.

8. Students’ role: active. Students learn the patterns and vocabulary inductively, andrepeat after the teacher.1.3 Communicative Language TeachingMain features and techniques1. Meaning is paramount.2. Dialogues, if used, enter around communicative functions and are not normallymemorized.3. Contextualization is a basic premise. (Meaning cannot be understood out of context.Teachers using this approach will present a grammar topic in a meaningful context.Example: If the new topic to teach is Present Continuous, the teacher will not mimethe action of ‘walking’ and ask: What am I doing? I am walking. Instead, the teacherwill show, say, pictures of her last trip and tell the students something like: I havepictures of my vacation. Look, in this picture I am with my friends. We are havinglunch at a very expensive restaurant. In this other picture, we are swimming at thebeach.4. Language learning is learning to communicate and effective communication is sought.(When learners are involved in real communication, their natural strategies forlanguage acquisition will be used, and this will allow them to learn to use thelanguage.)5. Drilling may occur, but peripherally.6. Comprehensible pronunciation is sought.7. Translation may be used where students need or benefit from it.8. Reading and writing can start from the first day.9. Communicative competence is the desired goal (i.e., the ability to use the linguisticsystem effectively and appropriately).10. Teachers help learners in any way that motivates them to work with the language.11. Students are expected to interact with other people, either in the flesh, through pairand group work, or in their writings.

CHAPTER2- ‐WHYTHECOMMUNICATIVEAPPROACH?The Communicative Approach is based on the idea that learning language successfullycomes through having to communicate real meaning.In the Communicative Approach the main objective is to present a topic in context asnatural as possible.2.1 Principles of the Communicative ApproachLanguage learning is learning to communicate using the target language.The language used to communicate must be appropriate to the situation, the roles ofthe speakers, the setting and the register. The learner needs to differentiate betweena formal and an informal style.

Communicative activities are essential. Activities should be presented in a situation orcontext and have a communicative purpose. Typical activities of this approach are:games, problem-solving tasks, and role-play. There should be information gap, choiceand feedback involved in the activities.Learners must have constant interaction with and exposure to the target language.Development of the four macroskills -- speaking, listening, reading and writing -- isintegrated from the beginning, since communication integrates the different skills.The topics are selected and graded regarding age, needs, level, and students’ interest.Motivation is central. Teachers should raise students’ interest from the beginning of thelesson.The role of the teacher is that of a guide, a facilitator or an instructor.Trial and error is considered part of the learning process.Evaluation concerns not only the learners’ accuracy but also their fluency.Teaching Grammar Using the Communicative Approach: Functionsvs Structure2.2The word ‘function’ is a term we use from the time the Notional/Functional syllabus was bornand it continued to be used in Communicative Language Teaching. When we say something, wesay it to communicate that particular thought to the listener. Every single sentence – andsometimes single words- has a function (i.e. meaning that the speaker is trying to convey). Eventhe word “yes” with falling intonation expresses detachment, non-involvement. Or, a word like‘Tea?’ with rising intonation may mean an offering.Why do we need to understand the concept of functions and exponents as English teachers?Well, when we teach grammar communicatively, we teach our students how to express what theywant to say, and how to combine words to express those intentions.When we understand that language is used to communicate and that to communicate we need touse a specific combination of words, we realize that this concept can even be introduced on thefirst day of a beginner class. The important part of Communicative Language Teaching is thatwe can teach our students to communicate right from the beginning by presenting the targetlanguage through context. We do not need to teach English using the students’ mother tongue (asin the Grammar Translation method) and get the students to memorize sentences as othergrammatical oriented methods do.For example, imagine the following dialogue is on the first page of the textbook.-Hello! My name is Susanne. What’s your name?-Hi! I’m Harumi.– Hi, Harumi, Nice to meet you.– Nice to meet you, too.

– Where are you from?– I’m from Japan.What do you think the functions of these sentences are? Let’s review. There is ‘greeting’in Hello, Hi, Nice to meet you. You will be teaching how to greet someone for the first timeinformally or neutrally. There is also introducing oneself by saying one’s name and asking for thelistener’s name in My name is Susanne. What’s your name? I’m Harumi. And then, you willcontinue teaching asking and answering about origin with the question Where are you from? andthe answer I’m from Japan.What is the grammar involved in these exponents or sentences?The verb be in the present form: My name IS Susanne. What’S your name? I AM Harumi.And, the preposition ‘from’ when asking and talking about origin. So, from the grammaticalpoint of view, you will be teaching:Subject is/are/am nameWh- questions: What IS (noun)?Where is/are subject from?Subject am/is/are FROM (country).From the functional point of view, you will be teaching greetings, introductions and asking andanswering about origin.Let’s see other examples of functions and how they are connected to specific grammaticalstructures.If you ask this type of question, Can you drive?, you will be asking a question using modal verbCAN, which follows a specific pattern:CAN (modal verb) pronoun (you) main verb in base form (drive)?This combination of words is essential to the meaning, the intention you are trying tocommunicate to the listener. But, what are you communicating? What is the function of thisquestion?The function is ‘asking about ability’, the ability to drive; if the person knows how to drive. Thiscould be a question asked in the context of a job interview.Contextualization is one of the main features of Communicative Language Teaching. A sentencesaid in different contexts can change the function radically. Yet, in some cases, the grammaticalpattern remains the same. Let’s see some other examples.“Can you drive? I’ve drunk a couple of beers”

The speaker is not asking about the ability the listener has to drive a vehicle, or if he has adriving license. He is requesting, asking for a favor.What about this other example? Two women are talking about rules in a foreign country and oneasks to the other woman, who is from Saudi Arabia: Can you drive? The context clearly showsthat the question refers to ‘permission’; if the person is allowed to drive.Sometimes a change of pronoun or adding a word can change the function. Imagine that a groupof friends are planning a trip to the forest. They have a map and they have to decide how to get totheir destination. One looks at the map and asks Can we drive there?The grammatical pattern is still the same: Modal CAN pronoun verb in base form? But thespeaker is surely asking about how possible it is for them to get to their destination by car.All these examples show that the same grammatical pattern or structure in context willcommunicate different things. Same structure, different functions.Modal verb Can refers to different functions: AbilityRequestPermissionPossibilityWhen choosing a grammar topic to teach, make sure that you can identify the pattern orstructure, and the function so that you can create a good context, or situation to present thegrammar topic communicatively.WATCH VIDEO: Teaching Grammar Communicatively -nqBKrN-o U

CHAPTER3- ‐USINGAUTHENTICMATERIALAuthentic material gives the students the opportunity to see and hear real language asused by native speakers. Authentic workaseffectivelyaspossible.3.1 WHAT IS AUTHENTIC MATERIAL?Anything that was written or recorded in English without the purpose of teaching English as asecond language is authentic material. The following is a compilation of authentic material

sources; however, it is not an exhaustive list, since more and more material gets created on adaily basis. Ad Banners, advertisements, billboardsCatalogues, college and university brochures, flyers, travel brochuresMovies, scripts, commercialsRadio shows, newspapers, Internet websites, magazines, TV showsSocial media, You Tube, PhonebooksTicket stubs, manuals, menus, mapsGreeting cards, horoscopesThe English used in authentic material is natural and its sole purpose is communicating whateverthe material was created for, rather than teaching a particular structure. This can make the overalllanguage in the material a little challenging, especially for students in beginner or lowerintermediate classes; however, authentic material is an excellent source of new vocabulary. Infact, the interest level rises so much when students are presented with authentic material, thattheir need for comprehension compensates for the difficulties they encounter.3.2 LEVELSSome people argue that authentic material should be used with higher-level students only, but amenu, flyers or even a newspaper (if you only focus on the headlines or certain words) can beused with beginner students. The key is to make sure that the instructions and activities are aimedfor the correct level. A simple ‘word search’ where students have to find words they alreadyknow and highlight them, or cut them out of a magazine for example, can expose beginner orlower intermediate students to authentic material in a successful way.3.3 SUPPLEMENT THE TEXTBOOKAuthentic material can be used in many different ways.MaterialActivity / TaskLevelFlyers & CataloguesVocabulary and Bingo gamesBeginnersMenuPractice ordering / Role-playBeginner – Low-intermediateHoroscopesFuture Tense / ConditionalsIntermediateTicket stubs & TravelBrochuresWriting a travel journal or ashort storyHigh intermediate

MaterialActivity / TaskLevelAdvertisementsReading Comprehension,Vocabulary and Media studyAdvancedInconclusion, authentic materials have an indefinite number of uses for all kinds of lessons andlevels. When we include authentic material in our ESL lessons, the way students learn is morenatural and resembles acquisition of the language rather than forced learning of certaingrammatical structures.3.4 CONTEXT IS KINGOk, so what do we mean by contextualization? Basically, all materials should be contextualizedto the syllabus they are intended to address. When designing your material, the objectives of thesyllabus must be kept to the fore. Although we’re not suggesting you stick rigorously to aparticular vocabulary list or to one or two specific syllabus objectives, these should neverthelessbe among your preliminary considerations.In addition to the content of your syllabus, materials should match the context in terms of theexperiences, daily realities, and even the first languages of the learners. This essentially refers tounderstanding the ‘socio-cultural appropriacy’ of things such as the material maker’s own styleof presenting material. In its simplest terms, this might mean making adjustments from what youconsider to be a good piece of supplementary material to what learners think is good. This mightmean, for instance, making materials more serious then you’d like and cutting down on the funaspect.Finally, contextualization refers to the kinds of topics and themes that can provide meaningful,purposeful uses for the target language. Relevance and appropriateness are key here; for manylearners this will actually mean sticking to tried and tested topics such as family, holidays, ormoney. One action is vital here: find new angles on those topics! Having done that, the next thingis to develop activities which ensure purposeful production of the target language or skills.Key questions for your materials What is it in your material that will make it compelling to your teaching context?Is there anything in your material that will be totally unknown or inappropriate?3.5 USING VIDEOVideos are one of the richest authentic materials because of the context, visuals, sounds, andvariety of themes they provide. Let’s look at seven ESL activities and tasks that students cancomplete before, during, and after watching a video.

1) Fill in the BlanksThis is the most common kind of activity. As a teacher you can listen to the movie and prepare apart of the script and blank out some of the words for students to listen and complete. Very oftenthe script can be found online as well. To make this activity a little more challenging you can askthe students to guess the word or phrases that have been blanked out using the context around it;and to make it simpler you can provide the first letter of the word or phrase or just provideoptions in a box for students to choose from.2) Spot the WordAnother fun listening activity is to give the students a set of words or phrases that they have tolisten for and check them off on a handout. This can be even set up as a bingo card and studentscan yell ‘Bingo’ when they have them all.3) Spot the Still ImageSimilar to the activity described above, you can provide the students with a set of still imagesfrom the movie and as the scene takes place they must let you know they’ve recognized it. Thisis ideal for lower level students and to ensure they pay attention while watching.4) Match the Dialogue to the CharacterAnother listening activity would be to give the students a dialogue that has been mixed up andthey have to match the sentences to the characters who say them. An extension to this activitywould be to ask the students to pretend to be those characters and read out the dialogue trying toimitate the way the characters speak. This extension can actually be applied to many otheractivities and it helps develop fluency and intonation.5) Silent WatchingAnother activity is to watch a scene without any sound and ask students to guess what ishappening and why. For more advanced students they can even be challenged to guess what thecharacters are actually saying and re-create the dialogue. As an extra challenge, you could askthem to read the lines they created as the movie plays silently. This is a great activity to helpdevelop more speaking fluency through practice.6) ComprehensionWhen watching a full movie, or full episode, comprehension questions in short answer form ormultiple-choice form can help you check how much the students understood. Even students who

are not good at listening skills tend to do better with movies or TV shows because the contexthelps them to comprehend more.7) Write a Summary or a ReviewYou can ask students to write a summary in order to recommend the movie to their friends; or towrite a review pretending to be a critic. Ideally you could let them read some reviews of othermovies so they can understand the style in which to do it.Other Creative ActivitiesDepending on the level of the students they can also interact with the plot by changing orpredicting the ending if they haven’t seen it before. They can write interviews to the characters oreven add ‘deleted’ scenes that they can even act out as a special project or extension of theactivity.Possible DrawbacksYounger students, children and teenagers, will definitely welcome this kind of activity and take itas a treat or special event. You must make the most of the students’ engagement, but also becareful that they do not tune out and start doing something else because they consider it anunimportant moment in the class.Older students could question the validity of such a fun activity, especially if they have grown upin an educational system that was quite strict and used only direct instruction. Therefore, youmust make sure the aim of the lesson is clear at all times and they know that they are not justwatching for fun, but also for a reason3.6 USING luableresource.Thanks to globalization and the ever present media in our lives, music in English is popular all around the world andreadily available through a number of sources. In fact, students often listen to music in English – and sometimeseven sing along – without knowing the language yet.Another reason why it’s beneficial to bring music and songs into ESL classes is because it can set a better pace and abetter mood for everyone in the class. Improving the overall atmosphere of the class by using a song can have longlasting benefits for everyone involved.Last but not least, songs can be easily adapted to fit different goals or aims in a lesson. Once the song is chosen, theteacher can easily adapt it according to the level of the students, and the need of the lesson.

WhentoIncludeSongsinTheLessonSongs can be added to any part of a lesson. If a teacher is using the Presentation-Practice-Production model, songscan be used mostly as part of the presentation and practice stages, and even the production stage if the students inthe class are very creative.With a Test-Teach-Test model songs can be used in any of the test stages and even the teach stage if the song talksabout the language point being taught and practiced in class, or if the teacher can create a song about the rules ofgrammar.If a Task-Based approach is used for the lesson, songs can also fit in several stages during the class. They can beused as pre-tasks, as the main listening task, and even during the language focus stage if the song discusses theconcepts necessary to understand the language point being taught and practiced.TipsforSuccessFirstly, there are certain things to bear in mind when deciding which song to use and how. Teachers need to do somedetective work to find out what kind of songs their students like and what they don’t like at all. Of course classes arenot “a-la-carte”, but if we can cater to students’ interests the motivation factor will always create a more lastingmemory and a better experience for everyone.Secondly, timing is also very important. Songs will change the pace of a lesson and the right type of song can beused to liven up a group of students who are slowly getting disengaged, or to calm a rambunctious group down whenit is needed.Having the right handout for the lesson is key as well because a handout with too many blanks can becomefrustrating for students. Once the handout is created the teacher should try to complete it or ask someone else tocomplete it before using it in the classroom in order to make sure it is neither too challenging nor too easy for thelevel of the students in this particular class.Finally, it is also important to bear in mind the noise level in and around the classroom when working with a song.On the one hand, the volume of the song needs to be loud enough to be clear for all students, but not too loud todisturb other classes. On the other hand, the noise level outside the classroom should be taken into account becauseit can become a hindrance when working with a song. For example, if the lesson happens to coincide with a momentor a day when there is construction nearby, the teacher will have to change the lesson plan and save the song portionof the lesson, or maybe the whole lesson for another moment or another day.Interes8ngandUsefulWebsitesThe website is a great free online resource with a varied database of songs and videos forstudents to practice and work on either in class or at home. On this website students can choose a song to work onand as it plays they have to fill in the blanks. The level of difficulty can be chosen and it is also interesting that eachsong includes the type of English it uses.As the song progresses students can complete the blanks. If they are running behind, the song is automaticallypaused and restarts when they complete the word or skip it by pressing the tab key.Finally, the website runs on a timer and it keeps track of how many words were completed correctly in order to givestudents a score at the end of the exercise.This website can be used as part of a lesson in class or it can be assigned for students to do on their own at home tocontinue practicing.Furthermore, it is believed that when students listen to music and / or sing about what they must learn, auditorylearners especially, and all students in general have a higher chance to succeed. To this effect, the was created and it provides a variety of raps that can be purchased and downloaded for use inthe classroom.

These raps can be used as part of the presentation in a PPP lesson, or the language focus stage in a task based lesson.They can also be edited and blanks can be added to be used as the practice stage in a lesson.FromGrammarClozestoDebatesWith popular songs, one of the typical ways of including them in the classroom is to edit the lyrics and add blanks,making the song a cloze exercise for students to complete. For instance, some songs lend themselves well to beturned into exercises on verb tenses by just blanking the verbs and asking students to listen and complete. If theteacher decides to leave the base form of the verb in the lyrics between brackets, students can be asked to try to fillin the blanks before listening and use the listening portion of the exercise to check their answers. If the blanks do notinclude the verbs in base form, students would have to listen and complete the blanks and then take up answers witha classmate or as a whole class.Apart from tenses, more complex structures can also be taught or practiced with the aid of songs. The fact that oftenphrases are repeated in songs becomes a somewhat natural way of drilling a structure students need to learn.Furthermore, there are many songs that deal with interesting themes and topics that can spark great discussions inthe class. These can be used for excellent lessons focusing on listening and speaking skills in which students can beencouraged to discuss their opinions.Current events are frequently the inspiration for popular songs, and these songs can spark great debates. Whenincluding controversial topics, however, it is important to be well aware of the kinds of students in the class and besure to avoid offending anyone.In conclusion, songs can be used for a very wide variety of lessons in ESL; such a versatile resource should not bewasted!3.7 USING COMICSESL teachers can find comics on newspapers and online. This is a simple and very interesting authentic material thatmany ESL teachers often overlook. Comics can be exploited in similar ways to regular text and they have the addedelement of fun and humour to attract the students’ attention. Different comics can be used for the oints–TeachEnglishwithComicsStudents are used to grammar being a ‘boring’ topic in English class and they often dread learning new grammarpoints or practising what they have already learned. A great way to surprise them in a favorable way is to use acomic strip to do this.When presenting a new grammar point, you must make sure that the use is very clear through the context of thecomic strip. Avoid using a comic strip that has the new grammar point as part of the punchline, since comprehensionof the grammar point is tied to understanding the punchline and it could become too difficult for the students. On theother hand, if the grammar point or structure is in fact part of the punchline or even is the key part of the punchline,the comic strip becomes a perfect tool to practice this particular grammar point once your students have alreadyunderstood it completely.When you use the comic strip to present new grammar, highlight it and use eliciting questions to lead the students tounderstand its meaning and use. If, on the other hand, you use the comic strip to practice the grammar point, you canblank it out or ask more challenging comprehension questions about its meaning and use in the comic strip.

IntroducingaDiscussionComic strips are concise and to the point by nature, thus they can be used to introduce a discussion for a speakingclass in a direct, yet creative way.The fastest way to start a discussion would be to use only one comic strip and lead a whole class discussion. Thiscan be effective if it has a different kind of follow up, or if the aim of the class is not to have the students talking fora long period of time. If the aim is to make the students practice their speaking skills, it is better to divide them intogroups, or pairs, to ensure more students practice speaking at the same time. After they discuss in groups or pairs,you can ask them to share a conclusion per group or pair as well.IntroducingorPrac8singVocabularyAs comics are almost always based on dialogue, they are an excellent source of vocabulary that is used frequently.Also, they often include many idiomatic expressions.The images in comic strips can often provide a reliable contextfor students to infer the meaning of the new vocabulary words.CharacterStudyIf students are presented with a series of comic strips once or twice a week, they begin to develop an understandingof the characters in the comic that is similar to that of a character study in a novel. For students who can’t read anovel yet, this is a great precursor activity that will help them learn the basics of this literary activity.TeachingWri8ngAfter students have read different comic strips, they can be encouraged to create their own by filling in the speechbubbles of a comic strip that has been blanked out; or by creating the images to go with speech bubbles that arealready provided by the teacher. This kind of creative writing is less daunting than writing a short story, but just aschallenging – or more challenging sometimes, depending on what the students are accustomed to. If students findthis particularly difficult, working in pairs or groups is a great way to start.Awordofcau8on Humour is very different in each culture and at the beginning it might be difficult for students to find comics inEnglish funny unless their culture is similar to that of the English-speaking country where the comic strip originated.As a teacher, you will often have to explain the punchline, and sometimes that makes the comic strip less funny, butdon’t be discouraged, with time and more exposure students will

Wh- questions: What IS (noun)? Where is/are subject from? Subject am/is/are FROM (country). From the functional point of view, you will be teaching greetings, introductions and asking and answering about origin. Let’s see other examples of functions and