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CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION TO LAW AND LEGAL REASONINGLAW IS "MAN MADE"IT CHANGES OVER TIME TOACCOMMODATE SOCIETY'S NEEDSLAW IS MADE BY LEGISLATURELAW IS INTERPRETED BY COURTS TO DETERMINE1)WHETHER IT IS "CONSTITUTIONAL"2)WHO IS RIGHT OR WRONGTHERE IS A PROCESS WHICH MUST BE FOLLOWED(CALLED "PROCEDURAL LAW")I.Thomas Jefferson: "The study of the law qualifies a man to be useful to himself, to his neighbors, and to thepublic."II.Ask Several Students to give their definition of "Law."A.Even after years and thousands of dollars, "LAW" still is not easy to defineB.What does law Consist of ? Law consists of enforceable rule governing relationships among individualsand between individuals and their society.1.Students Need to Understand.a.The law is a set of general ideasb.When these general ideas are applied, a judge cannot fit a case to suit a rule; he must fit(or find) a rule to suit the unique case at hand.c.The judge must also supply legitimate reasons for his decisions.C.So, How was the Law Created. The law considered in this text are "man made" law. This law can (andwill) change over time in response to the changes and needs of society.D.Example. Grandma, who is 87 years old, walks into a pawn shop. She wants to sell her ring that hasbeen in the family for 200 years. Grandma asks the dealer, "how much will you give me for this ring."The dealer, in good faith, tells Grandma he doesn't know what kind of metal is in the ring, but he willgive her 150.1.Grandma needs cash to buy medicine and therefore accepts the 150.2.The ring turns out to be solid gold and is really worth 25,000.3.Question. Can Grandma get the ring back or recover the difference between 25,000 and 150 oris she merely out of look.a.Ask was there a bargain for exchangeb.Was the ring purchased in good faith without knowledge of its valueTHIS IS WHAT WE WILL ENCOUNTER IN THIS COURSE1

III.Schools of Legal Thought.A.Background. When we look at the development of law, there are several things they have had a majorinfluence. Some of the more important element are customs, history, and logic.B.The "Problem". The major problem is that philosophers disagree on what are the major factors.C.Outcome. This disagree has lead to 2 different schools of thought on what the major factors are:1.The Traditional Approach. The first school of thought is the "traditional approach." Thetraditional approach looks to the past to discover what the principles of the current law shouldbe.a.Strict Decisions are followed. Followers of this school look to prior decisions which areon point and will usually follow them to the letter.b.2.Example. Homer left the neighbor's house and was obviously intoxicated. The neighborknew Homer was intoxicated but kept serving him drinks and then allowed him to drive.Homer lost control of his car and killed a 6 year old child. Homer has no money orinsurance.The child's parents want to sue the "Neighbor" for negligence as a socialhost.(2)Case Was recently decided stating that social host are not liable for theirguest.(3)Under the traditional approach, parents lose. The court will follow priordecisions.The Sociological Approach. The second school of thought is called the "sociological approach."Under this approach, social forces and needs are the primary factors.a.b.The key to this approach is that historical cases don't drive future law. Under thisapproach, as society changes, the law should also change.Earlier Illustrated Case. Under this approach, the social host issue would probably havea different outcome(1)IV.(1)Why? Because the court would see this as a public safety issue and would putthe (1) put the burden on individuals contributing to the occurrence and (2)provide a financial outlet for those who have been injured.COMMON LAW.A.Background. First, common law is still alive and well in many aspects. This is the law that is commonto the entire realm or population.1.As the text states, common law includes some aspects of statutory and case law dating back priorto the American Revolution.a.What is Case Law. Case law is merely the rules of law announced in court decisions.Case law may consist of interpretations of statutes, regulations and provisions in the2

constitution.(1)b.III.You will hear the terms "precedent" and "stare decisis" when case law isdiscussed.(A)Precedent is merely a prior case which is similar in legal principle orfact.(B)Stare Decisis is the practice of deciding new cases with reference toformer cases.What is Statutory Law. In its simplest terms, statutory law consists laws enacted by statelegislatures and at the federal level, by CongressExample 1:Rape Statutes.Example 2:Divorce StatutesExample 3:Business Incorporation StatutesREASONINGA.Background. A judge cannot merely render an opinion on an issue and stop there. He must articulate alegitimate reason why he has ruled in such a manner.B.One form of Reasoning is "Syllogism" (Sin e ism). This is deductive reasoning using a major premise, aminor premise and a conclusion.1.C.Example. For example, if an individual is charged with the crime of false imprisonment, thejudge will:a.State that the law requires that the person confined is not free to leave and he must alsoknow of his confinement.b.The plaintiff in this case was unaware of his confinementc.Therefore, there is no false imprisonment.Justification for the Ruling. A judge has a wide variety of resources to rely on when rendering hisopinion. They include:1.Previous case law and legal principles2.Statutes3.Society's values4.Customs and Course of dealingsSOURCES OF LAWSV.LET'S LOOK AT "CONSTITUTIONS"A.First Paragraph on Constitutions is "critical". Review3

1.The federal and states have separate constitutions2.The US Constitution is Supreme. Any law in violation of this will be declared unconstitutionaland will not be enforceable.a.Therefore, State statutes and regulations which conflict with the US Constitution will notbe enforceable.1.3.B.What are some of the things the US Constitution does?a.The Constitution gives the federal government the power to regulate interstate commerce(i.e commerce between or among states)b.The Constitution also details out how the powers are to be divided between the threebranches of government (i.e. the judicial, legislative and executive branches).NOTE, THE CONSTITUTION IS NOT BLACK AND WHITE AS TO ITS POWERS.1.Supreme Court Appointments. One of the key duties of the President is to make appointments tothe Supreme Court.a.Why is this so Critical. This is critical because the Supreme Court gets to interpret theConstitution.(1)VI.IF the state constitution does not conflict with the US Constitution, then it is thesupreme law within that state's borders.So? Once the Supreme Court interprets a controversial issue, then this becomesthe law of the land UNLESS CONGRESS PASSES SOME LAW THATWILL ELIMINATE THE GRAY AREASWE ALSO HAVE STATUTORY LAW. This is law passed by Congress and various state legislatures.VII. ANOTHER BODY OF LAW IS ADMINISTRATIVE AGENCY REGULATIONS. This is law created by anAdministrative Agency. Administrative Agencies are created by the executive or legislative branches ofgovernment.VIII. The Uniform Commercial Code.IX.A.The UCC will Follow in Most of Your Business Dealings.B.What is the UCC? The UCC primarily deals with the sale of goods and was designed to assist incommercial business transactions. THIS WILL BE DISCUSSED IN GREATER DETAIL INFUTURE CHAPTERS.Brief Look at the Classification of Law.A.THREE DISTINCTIONS WILL BE MADE1.2.3.Distinguish between Substantive and Procedural LawDistinguish between Public and Private LawDistinguish between Civil and Criminal Law4

B.Distinction between Substantive and Procedural1.2.Substantive Law governs the behavior of all of us in ordinary life.a.It regulates the creation and exchange of property and contracts.b.It also defines what creates a criminal issue and a tort claimA working definition of procedural law is the rules and principles that govern the behavior ofcourts and lawyer in dealing with disputes.a.C.What does one have to say to get a court to pay attention?(2)From whom a may a person with a grievance seek relief?(3)How can I obtain information from my adversary?One Sentence. Public law addresses the relationship between persons and their government,while private law looks at dealings between to persons.Criminal versus Civil Law1.Civil Law spells out the duties that exist between persons or between citizens and theirgovernment.a.2.One Example would be whether there was a valid contract between two parties.Criminal Law looks at crimes against the public. Criminal law is always public. In such a case,the government is attempting to penalize guilty persons.a.IX.(1)Public versus Private Law1.D.Procedure helps answer the following questions:Examples of Criminal Offenses include (1) Burglary, (2)Murder, (3) Rape and (4)Assault and BatteryREMEDIES AT LAW VERSUS EQUITABLE REMEDIESA.Remedies at Law are usually monetary remedies.1.Their Purpose is to return the parties to an equal footing.B.Sometimes, remedies at law is inadequate. This is when Remedies in Equity come into play.C.Equitable Remedies come into play when:1.Damages cannot make the injured party whole.2.Damages are speculative and uncertain3.Insolvency of the person committing the act4.The harm is so major it can not be fully compensated by money.5

E.Three Primary forms of Equitable Relief1.Specific Performance. Specific performance is a remedy by which one party to a contract isordered to perform according to the contract's terms.a.2.Injunction. This is where a person wants to prevent the occurrence of a certain activity.a.3.Example. For example, your neighbors have excessively loud parties and you want tostop them.Rescission. Rescission is the remedy whereby the original contract is considered to be voidableand thus may be rescinded.a.X.Example. An example of this would be where you contracted with the executor ofGraceland to Purchase Elvis' Cadillac. IT'S A ONE OF A KIND ITEMIn other words, rescission puts an end to the transaction and leaves the parties as thoughthe contract had never been made.HOW TO FIND CASE LAWA.State Court Decisions. At a state level, the usually which are usually published are the appellatedecisions. The appellate decisions are the decisions of the State's Court of Appeals and the State'sSupreme Court.1.How Do You Find Such a Case. After the decisions are published, they can be found by what iscommonly referred to as "citing." Each state has its own state reports.a.B.Additionally, the National Reporter System divide the states into regions and reportcases by region. "NORTH CAROLINA IS IN THE SOUTHEAST REGION."(1)Griffin v. Griffin, 45 N.C. App. 531, 263 S.E.2d 39 (1980).(2)Jackson v. Gastonia, 247 N.C. 88, 100 S.E.2d 241 (1957).(A)Note, two cites are given for each of these cases. This is called"parallel citations."(B)Note, the "2d" indicates the case was reported in the secondseries.Federal Court Decisions.1.Federal Trial Court Opinions are reported under West's Federal Supplement (F.Supp.)2.Federal Court of Appeals decisions are reported in West's Federal Reporter (F. or F.2d)3.Supreme court decisions are reported in:a.The Supreme Court Reporter (S.Ct.)b.The United States Reports (U.S.)c.The Lawyers' Edition of the Supreme Court Reports (L.Ed.)6

4.Examples.a.North American Oil Consolidated v. Burnet, 286 US 420 (1932).b.Internal Revenue v. Indianapolis Power and Light Company, 110 S.Ct. (1990).c.City Gas Company of Florida v. Commissioner of Internal Revenue, 689 F.2d 943 (11thCir. 1982).* 11th Circuits denotes that this case was decided in the US Courts of Appeals forthe 11th Circuit.XI.ANALYZING A CASE. The author states that each case presented in the text is summarized for ease of reading.A.Believe Me, reading a court case is not that simple.B.The cases in the text have the following components:C.1.The Case Name and Cite2.A brief summary of the background and facts3.The decision and the rationale behind it.Decisions and Opinions. If you ever get a chance to read an original court decisions, you will comeacross one of four terms in the opinion1.Unanimous Opinion is the First. This is when all of the judges agree.2.Majority Opinion. When there is not a unanimous opinion, a majority opinion is written. Thisoutlines the views of the majority of the judges on this particular issue.3.Concurring Opinion. Concurring opinions are usually written when a judge agrees with thedecision for but for a different reason.4.Dissenting Opinion. This is sometimes called the "minority opinion." This is written by thejudges who disagree with the majority opinion.7

CHAPTER 3: COURTS AND ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTIONI.QUESTION: How many of you have ever been in a court room either as part of he case or as a witness.II.PURPOSE. The purpose of this chapter is to give you an understanding of when a court and which courts havepower to decide a dispute.III.LET'S START WITH JURISDICTION.A.Background. Once the decision to sue has been made, a lawyer must make some procedural decisions.The first major procedural decision is the selection of a proper courtB.Jurisdiction. Before any court can hear a case, it must have the power to hear the case. This is called"jurisdiction." PARAGRAPH ONE IS "VERY IMPORTANT"1.A court of proper jurisdiction is one that can render a judgment that is binding on the partiesand is enforceable in other courts. Without jurisdiction, a court cannot exercise any authorityin the casea.C.In order for a court to exercise valid authority, one of two things must occur:(1)The court must have jurisdiction over the person against whom the suit isbrought and subject matter of the case OR(2)The court must have jurisdiction over the property involved and the subjectmatter of the case.Personal Jurisdiction. The first key point that we must remember is that " in order to consider a case, acourt must have power over the person or the propertyinvolved in th

A. Background. First, common law is still alive and well in ma ny aspects. This is the law that is common to the entire realm or population. 1. As the text states, common law includes some as pects of statutory and case law dating back prior to the American Revolution. a. What is Case Law. Case law is merely the rules of law announced in court .