ISSN:2250-1142 (Online), ISSN 2349-302X (Print)International Journal of Digital Library Serviceswww.ijodls.inVol. 6, July – Sept. 2016, Issue - 3ENHANCING LIBRARY SERVICES USINGBARCODE, QR CODE AND RFID TECHNOLOGY:A CASE STUDY IN CENTRAL LIBRARYNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,ROURKELAWasim RahamanLibrary Trainee, Biju Patnaik Central Library, NIT, RourkelaE-mail- [email protected] library should try to keep up with the digital world through varioustechnologies in this modern age. Users‘ of the present days especially the newgeneration students are having information in just one click. They became moreused to retrieving information from the internet then a tradition library. As eachgeneration becomes more in tune with the internet, their desire to retrieveinformation as quickly and easily as possible has increased. For them, findinginformation by simply searching the internet could be much easier and fasterthan reading an entire book. So libraries must update their techniques time totime accordingly and with the necessity of the future users‘. In this article, threemodern technology initiatives in the library i.e. Barcode, QR code and RFIDwere discussed. These are becoming very useful technology not only to servethe users‘ but for library security also. The overall technology, its uses,advantages, challenges of using these technologies were also discussed here. Atthe end, a case study has been done on Central Library, NIT, Rourkela aboutimplement and uses of these technologies and accomplished their users‘satisfaction.KEYWORDS- Modern library, Technology initiatives, Barcode, QR code, RFID, NITRourkela.1. INTRODUCTIONIn the last two decades, libraries are facing tremendous changes as the modern tools andtechnologies have grown rapidly. Library materials are also changing quickly to thevarious digital formats from the traditional print formats. Information/knowledge hasbeen creating and publishing from every sector of humankind. Document types are alsonot limited to books and periodicals. Various types of materials out there like- image,audio, video, painting, artefacts, three-dimensional, software, and much more. Thesematerials are also available with various file formats so that, one information can be usedin many ways. Lastly, the internet has opened the door to reach anything or anybody fromanywhere with just a single click. So, managing this huge amount of resources becomesmore challenging day by day.IJODLS Geetanjali Research Publication39

ISSN:2250-1142 (Online), ISSN 2349-302X (Print)International Journal of Digital Library Serviceswww.ijodls.inVol. 6, July – Sept. 2016, Issue - 3Implementing various software is becoming a way to maintain these resources likeautomation, digitisation, content management, e-resource management and much more.These software are handling as well as managing all types of housekeeping works in thelibrary like- procuring materials, acquisition, cataloguing, circulation, controlling serials,digitising, archiving-retrieving, providing service to the users‘ and so on. Barcode, QRCode and RFID are some technology by which store and retrieval of resources got easierand also very important for security purpose of the resources.Central Library of National Institute of Technology (NIT), Rourkela( is an almost digital library which starts functioning since 1965.It has 76000 print books, 18000 back volume periodicals, more than 2000 onlinejournals, 86 print journals. Apart from that, it has access to the consortium, ISI codes,online video courses, cassettes, CD-ROMs and many more resources. To maintain theseresources library has almost all latest technology like- Barcode, QR Code, RFID withvarious library software like- Libsys, Koha, DSpace, EPrints and is planning toimplement Coral and Subject-guide. So, I have taken this library as a sample for casestudy to have an overview of various ways that, NIT library is taking full advantages byusing these technologies and satisfying their users.1.1 Need for these TechnologiesLibraries are going automated/digitised now a days. Users‘ have very less time to find outa piece of information from an entire content. So, these technologies are very importantfor providing quick and pinpointed services and Keep up-to-date with the modern technical initiatives. To improve access more quickly from inside the library as well as from outsidethe library at any time. To improve the working efficiency More sharing and use of materials. Cost saving. Maintaining through software is very easy. Easy to reproduce. Can create hyperlinks for more similar materials (Alhaji 2009).1.3 Objectives of the StudyThe objectives of this study are as follows To create awareness about the latest library technologies.To create awareness of using these technologies.To create awareness of their designing methods/process.To create awareness of the working mechanism of these technologies.To create awareness of the advantages and disadvantages of using thesetechnologies and, Lastly to have an overview, of implementing these technologies and providingvarious services to their users‘ on Central Library, NIT Rourkela.IJODLS Geetanjali Research Publication40

International Journal of Digital Library ServicesVol. 6, July – Sept. 2016, Issue - 3ISSN:2250-1142 (Online), ISSN 2349-302X (Print)www.ijodls.in1.3 Coverage of the StudyTo tied up into a fixed boundary, the discussion of this paper is limited to the keyobjectives, due to the lengthiness of the paper and wide speared off the technologies.Though these technologies are now used in many sectors, but this paper is limited to thelibrary based use and services, as we are library professionals.2. LITERATURE REVIEWBarcode and QR code are a type of coding system that turns any information into a black& white rectangle or square bars or dots. Through scanners or readers, we can scan thoseand retrieve the information much faster than regular processes. On the other hand, RFIDis a coded cheap, something more than a simple barcode and with linked to an LMsoftware by which issue-return of a document can be done by self and also used forsecurity purpose to avoid stealing materials. Lots of studies have been done on thesetechnologies, I have mentioned some of them below.Jeevan explained the application of barcode in IIT Kharagpur library as well as highlightsits future applications (Jeevan 2000). Zebra Technologies shows the print technologieswith the application of Zebra Printing (Zebra Technologies n.d.). Islam and Shuvaexplores a survey of overall barcode technology, its uses, applications, merits, demerits inthe 8 libraries in Dhaka (Islam & Shuva 2010). Singh shows from the implement topresent status of barcode technology in Central Library, GNDEC, Ludhiana (Singh 2014).Farashbandi highlights on the history, structure, benefit, challenges and application of QRcodes in libraries (Farashbandi & Najafi 2014). Pones and others describe how to promoteQR code for using library resources, website, links etc. to both user and librarians (Pones& et. Al. 2011). Association of the Nova Society Museums explores that how to createcontents and use different devices through QR code (ANSM 2011). Coleman shows thevarious use and application in various devices through QR codes (Coleman 2011). Singhand Mahajan illustrated the present status of RFID and implementing it in variouslibraries in India and also some suggestion for implementing RFID (Singh & Mahajan2014). Yu defines the purpose, design, methodology and approach of RFID (Yu 2007).Kaur and others stated the principles, advantages, limitations and applications of RFID(Kaur & et. al. 2011). Pandey and Mahajan describe the role of librarians in RFIDlibraries (Pandey & Mahajan 2010).3. METHODOLOGYQualitative research methods have applied here due to this is a case study of sometechnology initiative through some modern software. It is also a case study of theimplement, applies and issues of the same technologies in a particular library. The paperstarts with an introduction, objectives, area coverage and some literature reviewing of thesimilar types of study. Later it elaborates about the technologies, a short history,designing methods with some prescribed formats, system requirements for initiatives, itsadvantages and disadvantages and the initiative and implications of these technologies inCentral Library, NIT, Rourkela.IJODLS Geetanjali Research Publication41

International Journal of Digital Library ServicesVol. 6, July – Sept. 2016, Issue - 3ISSN:2250-1142 (Online), ISSN 2349-302X (Print)www.ijodls.in4. BARCODE TECHNOLOGYBarcode is a coding technology of Automatic Identification and Data Collection (AIDC)or Auto ID method that stores real time data. Barcode is a collection of vertical orgraphical bar patterns coloured in black with white spacing, generally started using in thegrocery stores in the early 70‘. By the development of new technologies, businessorganisations and industries have adopted barcode technology for collecting theirinformation. After that, a variety of organisations has started using this zebra technologylike- manufacturing, hospitality, education, travel, retail, security, healthcare etc. wherethe main job is repetitive. Among the above centres, the library is a perfect example forrepetitive works; especially at the circulation counter, sometimes the stuff has to retypeseveral times the same thing due to typing mistakes. Barcode is the typical solution here.It reads information 3 times faster and 0.03% errorless than a skilled personnel (ZebraTechnologies n.d.).4.1 Designing of BarcodeNormally two types of barcodes are there, one is the linear barcode and second one id 2-Dsymbology. Linear barcode (Figure 1) is made by black vertical lines with white space.The height and width may vary but it specified and represents fixed information. Thistype of barcodes stores normally numerical data, and contains limited data.Figure 1: Linear BarcodeFigure 2: 2D Barcode2-D barcodes (Figure 2) are made by either stacked linear bars or matrix symbol shapedin black and white cells. Any type of data can be stored in this barcode and contains ahuge amount of information.Various formats are available out there to generate barcodes like- Universal Product Code(UPC-A and UPC-E), European Article Number (EAN-8 and EAN-13), Interleaved 2 of 5(ITF), Code-39, Code-128, Codabar etc. where UPC, EAN, ITF are used to encodenumerals Code-39, Code-128, Codabar are used to encode all types characters (Jeevan2000).4.2 System Requirements for BarcodingTo generate and run the barcoding system we need some hardware as well as softwarematerials according to library perspective. These areA Computer- it may be a laptop or a PC with all basic application software.IJODLS Geetanjali Research Publication42

ISSN:2250-1142 (Online), ISSN 2349-302X (Print)International Journal of Digital Library Serviceswww.ijodls.inVol. 6, July – Sept. 2016, Issue - 3LMS- an integrated library management software is required with a proper database ofpatrons and materials to encode the information.Printer- a printer is required to print the barcodes generated by the LMS.Paper and pasting materials- to print the barcodes we need papers. Many shops makethese type of page which are looks like labels and pasting materials are required forpasting the labels.Scanners- barcode scanner or reader is required to decode the information.Skilled staff- skilled staff is required to maintain these mechanisms, to handle the LMS,generate barcode, print and paste properly.4.3 Advantage of barcodeHere are some advantages of barcode Gives accurate data;Easy job;Almost no error;Less human effort and labour cost;Ease of use;Uniform;Improving workflow;Improve staff efficiency;Increased customer satisfaction, and lastlyFulfill Ranganathan‘s fourth law i.e. ‗save the time of the reader‘.4.4 Disadvantage of barcodeThere are some disadvantages too for using barcodes Maintaining is costly sometimes;Not possible without proper machinery;Not possible without skilled staff;Power-cut problems;Systems fall down problems.4.5 Barcode initiative and applications in Central Library, NIT, RourkelaAfter being transformed into a nationalised institute from an engineering college in 2003,the library developed very fast. The library initiated the Libsys LMS in the middle of2006. The barcode technology was also initiated with LMS. The barcode is used then forstoring bibliographic details of documents for issue/ return purpose as the library hasturned into an automated library system. But after some time when RFID system wasinstalled in the library, the barcode system was removed partially from the circulationdesk, and some changes were made. From then to till today, the barcode is used forIJODLS Geetanjali Research Publication43

International Journal of Digital Library ServicesISSN:2250-1142 (Online), ISSN 2349-302X (Print)www.ijodls.inVol. 6, July – Sept. 2016, Issue - 3storing the accession no of the book instated of full bibliographic details. It is also used atthe time of stock verification in the library.4.5.1 Use and Workflow of Barcodes in Central LibraryThe library uses barcode inside the books (Figure 3) for presenting the accession number.Two barcodes are generated for each book, one is for pasting on the title page and theother one is for pasting on the last written page of the book. The barcodes are generatedthrough the LMS (Libsys) and printed on labels. After pasting those labels inside thebook, a sellotape is also pasted on the label for its longevity. This process is done in theAcquisition and Technical Processing section of the library. After that, a barcode reader(Figure 3) is used to decode the information and serve to the users‘ from the circulationdesk.5. QUICK RESPONSE (QR) CODE TECHNOLOGYQR code is the type of barcode used to hold and provide additional information. It canhold a large amount of data and can be used anywhere. QR code is much faster codingmethod than other barcodes. At first, it is developed in 1994 by Denso Wave Corporation,one of the Toyota Company‘s branch in Japan (Walsh 2009). Basically this coding systemis developed for tracking of shipping, but later on, it is used fromindustrial assembly lines to marketing and also installed on thelabel, exhibits, business cards, flyers and so on in the countrieslike Japan, Korea, middle-east. But, this technology goes viralwhen Western and European countries adopted it and startedusing in every sector like, news, media, public announcement,Govt. activities and so on. Likewise, libraries are also using thistechnology so far in this present age to represent their websites,advertisements, seminars, workshops, meetings and mostly forURLs.5.1 Designing of QR CodeQR codes are 2-dimensional image sensor which is worked by some programmedprocessor. The three squares located in three corners using a smaller square are used tomaintain the size, orientation, angle of viewing etc. of QR codes. The dots are used torepresent the data by using binary digits through an error-correcting algorithm (Figure 4).There are two types of QR codes; 0ne is static QR code, which is a one-time job. Oncethis type of code is generated then, we can‘t change the code again. The second one isdynamic QR codes, which is editable. We can change the information according to thechange of time and need. A QR code can hold 7089 characters of numeric data, 4296characters of alphanumeric data, 2953 character of binary data and 1817 Kanji (Chineseletter) character (Farashbandi 2014).There are various standards used for encoding data in QR code. Some of them areAssociation for Automatic Identification and Mobility (AIM, 1997), Japanese ElectronicIndustry Development Association (JEIDA, 1998), Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS XIJODLS Geetanjali Research Publication44

ISSN:2250-1142 (Online), ISSN 2349-302X (Print)International Journal of Digital Library Serviceswww.ijodls.inVol. 6, July – Sept. 2016, Issue - 30590, 1999), Chinese National Standards (CNS, 2000) Korean National Standards (KNS,2002), ISO IEC 18004:2000, 2006 and 2015 (Gupta, 2016). Several organisations likeNTT DoCoMo or open source ZXing project has been maintaining a list of encoding datatypes.5.2 System Requirements for QR CodeHere we also need some hardware and software materials to run the QR code. These areA Computer- where we can open QR code generator websites to generate the code. Itmay be a PC or a laptop.A LAN or Network Connection- is required to connect to the network for accessing theinternet.Creating Websites- we must aware of the various websites who transmits the simpleinformation into a coded information.Data- to generate the code we need the data/ information which we want to encode intothe QR code.Scanner/ Decoder- a scanner or a decoder is required for decoding the coded informationin QR code. An android mobile phone is the best example of a decoder.Decoding Apps- to decode the information we have to install an app in a camera facilityandroid phone to read and decode the information.I have given some name of websites below through these we can generate QR code, andsome mobile apps through these decoding of information can be done.WebsitesQR Code Generator – AppsBarcode Scanner (Android)BeeTagg - (iPhone)BeQRious- Snap (iOS or Android)Google Chart - Droid (Android)Kaywa- Reader (iPhone)Neoreader - (iPad)Nokia Barcode Reader (Android)RedLaser (iPhone)IJODLS Geetanjali Research Publication45

ISSN:2250-1142 (Online), ISSN 2349-302X (Print)International Journal of Digital Library Serviceswww.ijodls.inVol. 6, July – Sept. 2016, Issue - 3QR Stuff- (iPhone)QRlicious- 5: List of QR Code Generating Sites and Mobile Apps for Decoding5.3 Advantage of QR CodeHere are some of the advantages of using QR code It's fast;Can store huge amount of data;Can use anywhere;No specific skill is requiredNo additional technology is required;Can use the information later;Anyone can generate it;Increased customer satisfaction etc.5.4 Disadvantage of QR CodeThere are some disadvantages too forusing QR codes It‘s not working without the decoderlike android phones; Sometimes need internet connection; Still users‘ are not fully aware of thistechnology; Human errors happen sometimes at the time of coding; Codes are not working sometimes due to the compatibility of the decoder.5.5 QR Code initiative and applications in Central Library, NIT, RourkelaBarcode and RFID initiated in NIT library a long time ago, but QR code came to use inthe library very recent. It is being used in the library from 2014. In the beginning, it isused in the web advertisements only. But later, the library started using QR code formany purposes like, in the banners of the workshop, training, seminar, conference,induction programmes; advertisement; notices; websites; URLs etc. not only in the websbut also in the printed forms too.5.5.1 Use and workflow of QR Codes in Central LibraryNow a days NIT library is using QR codes in many places to promote its services.Through QR code, anything can be converted into coded information and present it forquick and access for later. Many websites facilitate to generate QR code and many mobileapps are there to decode the information. Here is an example of using QR code in anadvertisement banner for training in NITR library (Figure 6). The library didn‘t followIJODLS Geetanjali Research Publication46

International Journal of Digital Library ServicesVol. 6, July – Sept. 2016, Issue - 3ISSN:2250-1142 (Online), ISSN 2349-302X (Print)www.ijodls.inany protocol for generating the code. Just put the data/ information in any QR codegenerating a website, copy the QR code image and paste it to websites, hooding, banners,ID cards, notices, for more services.6. RFID TECHNOLOGYRadio Frequency Identifier or simply say RFID is an extended technology of barcodes. Itis a combined technology of radio-wave and microchip (Yu 2007). Due to low storagespace in barcodes, IC chip like smart cards or memory cards is being used to store andretrieval of information. As a drawback of IC cards for power supply and reader baseddata transformation, contactless IC cards were implemented i.e. RFID. The datatransmitted and power supplied were done through radio wave technology. RFID wasstarted using many years back in the 1940s for replicated communication system only. In1980s many business organisations started using it for managing their commercialproducts. Later on places like- supermarkets, retailers, malls started using RFID for quickidentify and also for security purpose (Sumi & Kumar 2007). Now a days RFID is usingmany organisations including libraries.6.1 Designing of RFIDThere are broadly two types of RFID system exits; active RFID and passive RFID. Bothconsists of a tag and a reader. A tag is consists of a coupling element and an electronicchip and the reader consists of an RF module, a control module and a coupling element(Kaur & et. al. 2011). The active tags may connect to the infrastructure or use a batteryfor continuing power supply. But the passive tags don‘t need a power supply or battery.Active tags are more powerful and cover more distance for induction than passive tags,but their life is short for this effort. The control module of the reader holds the databaseand connected to the chip of the tags. The RL module transmits/received data throughradio wave technology. The distance for induction are divided into three frequency levelmainly; low frequency (30-300 KHz), high frequency (3-30 MHz), ultra-high frequency(300 MHz-3 GHz)(Yu 2007). According to the memory structure, RFID can be dividedinto four parts i.e. read only (record objects id no), read/write (like memory card, usesEEPROM/ WORM process), built-in-process chip (like smart cards) and built-in-sensor(as sensible like pressure/temperature).6.2 System Requirements for RFIDThe following hardware and software are required for RFID technologyTag- contains a silicon chip which holds a unique identification no and connected to thedatabase for data transmit/receiving.Reader- holds the database and connected to the chip and transmit/receive data throughradio wave technology.A Computer- is required for interface and deal with the users‘. It may be connected to aserver for maintaining the bigger amount of data.IJODLS Geetanjali Research Publication47

International Journal of Digital Library ServicesISSN:2250-1142 (Online), ISSN 2349-302X (Print)www.ijodls.inVol. 6, July – Sept. 2016, Issue - 3LMS- is required for maintaining the databases of materials as well as users‘.6.3 Advantage of RFID TechnologyHere are some of the advantages of RFID technology It's very fast;Nobody is required for issue/return process;We can get the data less than a second;Increases the security level;Setting up the system is one-time job;Handling is very easy;Maintenance is fully automated and easy.6.4 Disadvantage of RFID TechnologySome disadvantages are also there while using thistechnology It's very costly to implement as well as maintain; If someone removes the tag then it becomes verybig security problem; Systems fall down problem; Less skilled staff for maintenance; Invalid/damage tag problem.6.5 RFID initiative and applications in Central Library, NIT, RourkelaThe RFID technology implemented in NIT library in the year 2006. Before some time ofthe implement of RFID, barcode was used in the library for issue/ return of books in thecirculation integrated with Libsys. But after RFID initiative with the same LMS for selfissue/ return purpose, barcode was removed partially. The tags are pasted inside the bookand a NIT sticker is also pasted over the tags in such a way that, it can‘t be seen by theoutsider. It is done for the security check of the books. Because if any tag is removed byanybody, the book becomes insecure, anybody can steal it from the library. Though thesewords sound very cheap, but it is true, we still have such types of user. So, this is veryimportant so that, nobody couldn‘t harm both the tag and the book.6.5.1 Use and workflow of RFID in Central LibraryThe RFID is used in the library in the circulation counter (Figure 7). To work in RFIDenvironment we have to set some parameter so that it can perform automatically. Firstly,we have to install an LMS and set according to the library needs like; administrationrules, manage resources, manage databases etc. It may be processed by one singlecomputer or may be hosted on a server just like NIT library. Then active both the tags ofbook and patron and connect them to the LMS by sending the unique identification no toboth of them. At the time of issuing book, the system detects both the tags and coupled itto each other and record an entry in the system database. At the time of returning, systemIJODLS Geetanjali Research Publication48

International Journal of Digital Library ServicesVol. 6, July – Sept. 2016, Issue - 3ISSN:2250-1142 (Online), ISSN 2349-302X (Print)www.ijodls.inrelease both the tags, the book goes back to its own place on the shelf and the patron idreturned to its owner. The whole process is done very quickly and by users‘ himself.7. FINDINGSModern technologies are transforming very quickly. Today‘s latest technology may beobsolete tomorrow or maybe the day after tomorrow. So, it is very difficult to decidewhether we should go for the new technology initiatives or not, if so, which is/are betterfor my library? Because there are a lot of things to think of before taking the decision, forexample, is there any need for these technologies, is budget permits, purchased or opensource, types of users‘, types of resources‘, is/are skilled staff available etc. But in myopinion, we should go for these modern initiatives. We should know how to resolve theseproblems, how to make such decisions because we belong from such type of servicesector where we get trained for all these, likewise, NITR library has become one of themost developed library in India within a decade. Before that, it was just a typical libraryunder a college named Regional College of Engineering, but after becoming NIT, itdeveloped very fast. Though these libraries are having a huge amount of budget but stillthe credit goes to the decision makers of the libraries because, to utilise a huge amount, isalso a heavy responsibility.Developing countries like India where libraries are still given very less important andwhere the budget is one of the most obstacles for development, library professionalsshould take care of every bit and utilise every single opportunity. Today‘s users‘ are veryspecific and want information very pinpointed as fast as possible. So, kept these things inmind, time has come to think of the above modern technologies to fulfil the one and onlymotto- ‗satisfy users‘ through services with a smile‘.6. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTI would like to acknowledge and thank sincerely to Mr D. P. Tripathi, Assistant Librarian,Central Library, NIT, Rourkela for being a present source of information and for hisvaluable suggestions for my case study there. I would like to acknowledge to MrSukhanath Dansana, Library Attendant, Central Library, NIT, Rourkela for helping methe same to complete this article.REFERENCE Association of Nova Scotia Museums. 2011. ―QR Code How-To Guide.‖ CHIN’sProfessional Exchange. Retrieved from knowledge-exchange/ansm qr/ansm qr-eng.jsp.Coleman, J. 2011. ―QR Codes: What Are They and Why Should You Care?‖Kansas Library Association College and University Libraries Section Proceedings1(1): 16–23., F. Z., & Najafi, N. S. S. 2014. ―Quick Response Code Applicationsin Library and Information Centers.‖ Jentashapir J. Health Res 5(2): 73-78.IJODLS Geetanjali Research Publication49

International Journal of Digital Library ServicesVol. 6, July – Sept. 2016, Issue - 3 ISSN:2250-1142 (Online), ISSN 2349-302X (Print)www.ijodls.inGupta, Kapil K. 2016. ―QR Code [Power Point Slides.]‖. Retrieved from 1JmCfmFwfoGyOT63SEuN4gFlT49esXZ1CgGrMR8MdlQ.Islam, M. S., & Shuva, N. Z. 2010. ―Barcode technology and its use andapplications: A study of selected libraries of Bangladesh.‖ The an, V. K. J. 2000. ―Barcoding for Faster Library Transactions.‖ DESIDOCBulletin of Information Technology 20(3): 15-19.Kaur, M. & et. al. 2011. ―RFID Technology Principles, Advantages, Limitations& Its Applications.‖ International Journal of Computer and ElectricalEngineering 3(1): 151–157. , A., Singh, S., & Somasekharan, M. 2005. ―Implementing RFID inlibrary: methodologies, advantages and disadvantages.‖ Recent Advances e 282.Pandey, Prabhat & Mahajan, K. D. 2010. ―Application of RFID Technology inLibraries and Role of Librarian.‖ 12th MANLIBNET Convention 2010, Jaipur(India).Pons, D. and et. al. 2011. ―QR codes in use: the experience at the UPV Library.‖Serials: The Journal for the Serials Community‖ 24(3 - Supplement): S47–S56., G., & Sharma, M. n.d. ―Barcode Technology and its Application inLibraries and Information Centers.‖ International Journal of Next GenerationLibrary and Technologies 1(1): 1–8.Singh, M. 2014. ―A snapshot of Traditional Library to Modern Library UsingBarcode Technology: An Experience of Central LibraryGNDEC, Ludhiana.‖Journal of Advan

Barcode is the typical solution here. It reads information 3 times faster and 0.03% errorless than a skilled personnel (Zebra Technologies n.d.). 4.1 Designing of Barcode Normally two types of barcodes are there, one is the linear barcode and second one id 2-D symbology. Linear barcode (Fi