Beginners' corner -design your own Colpitts oscillatorELECTRON ICSWORLD11109 INCORPORATING WIRELESS WORLDSEPTEMBER 2000 2.65New rf mixer designMake betterbuffersEvaluatecapacitorsfor SMPSLight controllerfor dynamic artEye flickerfusion meterGlobal clocksynchronisationCircuit ideasJingle softenerNew use for cycle computerLiquid level sensorGlitch simulatorNiCd & lead-acid chargerPC stepper interface9 770959 833066A REED BUSINESS PUBLICATION SOR DISTRIBUTION

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OMMTektronix TAS 475 -100MHZ 4 channelTektronix 7000 Series (100MHZ to 500MHZ)Tektronix 7104 - 1GHz Real TimeTektronix 2465/2465A24658 -300MHz,350MHz 4 channelTektronix 2430/2430A - Digital storage -150MHzTektronix 2467B - 400MHz - 4 channel high writing speedTektronix TOS 320 100MHz 2 channelTektronix TOS 540 500MHz 4 channelTektronix 544A 500MHz 4 channel 1500 1250 750from 125 900 450from 125 350 2250 450 1750 1600 1995 350 350from 450 650 350 1250 600 1250 900 2950 1250 1200 995from 200from 25130from 1250from 1250 4750 850 4500 4950SPECTRUM ANALYSERSAnde AC 8211 -1 i'i.ahtzAvcom PSA-65A -2 to 1000MHzAnntsu MS 2663A -9KHz 8.1GHzAnntsu MS 628 -50Hz to 1700MHzAnntsu MS 6108 10KHz -2GHz -as newAnntsu MS 710F -100KHz -23GHzAdvanteeTAKEDA RIKEN -4132- 100KHz 1000MHzHewlett Packard 3562A Dual channel dynamic signal analyser64pHz 100KHzHewlett Packard 8505A -1.3GHz -Network AnalyserHewlett Packard 8756A/8757A Scaler Network AnalyserHewlett Packard 853A Mainframe 8559A Spec. An. 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CONTENTSOià COMMENTWither Wap?674 NEWS UK videophone setbackInternet on TV available this yearDisplay technology uses ink-jet printingElectronic product gazumping?UK lags Europe with InternetbroadbandIsolated drivers made bymicromachiningSouth Korea scraps phones subsidiesModulator scheme for 25Tbit/sBSkyB must free up encryption704 DYNAMIC ARTDouglas Clarkson argues that electronicsengineers and artists should worktogether to produce dynamic works of art,and makes suggestions for simple artisticlighting effects using opto-mechanics.709 NEW PRODUCTS720 SPEAKERS' CORNERLoudspeaker crossover networks:constant voltage or constant power'John Watkinson's answer mightsurprise you.Illustration Mark Oldroyd722 SPECIAL RELATIVITY:RIGHT OR WRONG?In telecomms, synchronising clocksaround the Earth is an important issue.Al Kelly believes that the correctionapplied to such clocks is not explainedproperly by existing theories.725 BETTER BUFFERSIs the opto-coupler dead? Find out what thebenefits of an alternative coupler usingmicro-machined inductors are on page 677.Having been unsuccessful in looking forinformation to help him designEver-changing light patterns: electronicsadds anew dimension to art. Read how.on page 706.680 A NEW LOW-IMD MIXERChris Trask's new series-shunt feedbackactive mixer offers clear advantages overboth the common Gilbert Cell activemixer and diode-ring mixers. Yet it'spossible to implement the design on thekitchen table!686 FLICKER-FUSION METERThe maximum rate of flicker that aperson can perceive relates to how tiredthat person is. It is also affected by age,by whether or not you've been drinkingcoffee and even on whether you'reintrovert or extrovert. Peter Naishdescribes how to measures it.694 OPTOELECTRONICSSPOTS CANCER CELLSA new technique called light-scatteringspectroscopy' helps detect pre-cancerouscells in afraction of asecond using justan endoscope, light beam and some DSP.Pete Mitchell reports.696 EVALUATE CAPACITORSFOR SMPS DESIGNSWhen choosing acapacitor for amodernswitch-mode power supply, highfrequencies, complex waveforms and thedemand for ever increasing efficiencymake life difficult. Cyril Batemanexplains what the problems are, and howto sort them out.complementary compound emitterfollowers, Dave Kimber set aboutdeveloping his own guidelines.730 BEGINNERS' CORNERRF oscillators play an important role inwireless communications. One is requiredin every transmitter, and there is also atleast one in most receivers. Ian Hickmanexplains how to design your own Colpittsoscillator.ogidight.Optoelectronics spots cancer cells inseconds using anew technique involvingjust an endoscope, light beam and someDSP. Dave Mitchell reports on page 694.734 CIRCUIT IDEAS Bike computer reads amps, amp.hours One-at-a-time phone switch Economical level sensor needs just 7pA Circuit simulates glitches PC-controlled bipolar stepper motor Simple charger for NiCds and lead acid Jingle softener742 WEB DIRECTIONSUseful web addresses for the electronicsdesigner.747 LETTERSTHD. Hard-drive failures, Thoughts fromalong-standing readerTo evaluate acapacitor for amodernswitched-mode power supply, agoodtest jig is vital. Find out whatCyril Bateman uses on page 696.October issue on sale 7 SeptemberSeptember 2000 ELECTRONICS WORLD

PIC Micro CIO-ROMPie BaMÇR,over 1.26b el infoWrite your PIC programs in BASIC! -No STAMP EQUIRED! Packed with information, data sheets, application notes, programsdiagrams and tutorials. Includes TETRIS and PING PONG withsound and video out of a single PIC 16F84. Basic languageassembly routines and macros for hundreds of commands. Datasheets on thousands of devices, micro's, memory and support chipsQuicker and easier than C or assembler PIC BASIC is a true compiler providing fasterexecution and shorter programs than BASIC stamp interpreters, built in I2C routinesand serial cornms upto 115K Baud and full BASIC STAMP compatibility make writing forthe Microchip PICrnicroS easy! PIC BASIC compiles your basic language programs toMicrochip Hex format for use with In-circuit emualtors or for programming directly into thePIC CHIP Supports PIC12C67x. PIC14Cxxx, PIC16C55x, 6xx. dxs.84, 92xand 16F87xFull documentation with syntax examples are provided in the 168 page user manual. Atechnical supportRIM Illa%mailinglistisprovidedforlifetime 10 Inc PaP and VATWO DISPLAYSsupport.-074 11%16x2 line super twist displays - 7.50 eaThe PIC BASIC Pro compiler instruction set is compatible with the Basic Stamp IIproviding additional functionality over PIC BASIC. feature like LCD read Write, fullycustomisable Sonal in I out (Create a senal LCD display driver In modules) Full de-bugfacilities, compile with debug to produce assembly commented with your Basic commandsPIC BASIC and PIC BASIC PRO compile tight efficient code without the use of a basicinterpreter Supplied with a 168Page manual, explaining each command and worked examplesFREE PIC Macro compilerFREE Programmers File Editor.FREE Windows Front EndPIC BASIC PRO Includes samples programs and code to support Smart card readeiwnteRIM awl Resonators4Mhz and 2,10111Av from 45pDownload the full 168 page PIC BASIC MANUAL and sample programs Online via our secure server programmer Kit Low cost programmer for PIC12Cxxx. PIC12CEiocc. PIC14Ctoot. PIC10C505. 65x. a.7xx,84. 9xxPIC 18CE82x and PIC18F87x ZIF adaptors are available for 8/18 in 40/28Pln OIL. 8.18 and 28 SOIC. 44 Pin MOFP,44 and 88 Pin PLCC Powered by 2e 9V bananas or AC adapter Connects to PC PareIle P.M Upgredable software is supplied for future PIC Micro s FREE 8051 style PIC Macro compilerWINDOWS Driver - 15.00 inc PaP4-VATPrograms the popular PIC1684 and 24 series serial memory devices.Cennects to the serial port ol PC unto pentium (not P2 or P3) and requiresNI External 35withWhenPIC BA JCpurchased power supply. The KIT Includes Diagram. layout. High Quality PCBINK all componenets. software on 3.5" FOSMARTCARD DEVELOPMENT SYSTEMParallel port extension cable - 5.9540Pln ZIF socket - 22.50Reim:1*i daax &meat8/18Pin ZIF Socket - 22.50*rat PC& careele !PIC8 Prototype board - 4.50Paige Indies.PIC18 Prototype board - 5.50Professional card Reader Writer (Chien Micro),Asserted Smart Cards (3 pars),PIC64 Prototype board - 8.50Undies of settee code r) VB3,4,5 6, Cand DelphiExarrçês Agst Read While lo Srital Cards and DJ zesDoceetc, aY!detàled ',11,:icoe DLLPIC Real-time Emulatafin Programmei k;i4e9 7 7,1,49 16F871 In Cite«aller %if%,LabProg 48LVLow Cost -High Performanceeee-E For PIC16F8111 [emulates most PIC16C6KflidevicesiEl In-Circuit run time debuggingReal Time code execution 32Klu to 20Miu real time operationE High Speed Parallel port interlacez2.5V to 6.V operating rangeizBulh in device programmer[Ann. Step. Run to Cursor etcEConditlonal Animation BreakFSollware animation trace captures 3user defined variablesin addition to encode. W. Status, ESAregisters and corresponding instructionsFSource Level and symbolic debuggingRuns under PICICD IDE twin95/98 or DTI or MPLABrz Supplied with ICD debug module, Prom board,40Pin and Min emulator headers.Cables WE software and user guideIncludes:Connection cableIntelligent Universal Device ProgrammerPlugs into parallel port of your PCAdaptors for TSOP, PSOP. UP, SOIC, PtCCTrue No Adapter Programming upto 48 Pins11!Diagnostic PODUser ManualPrograms and Verifies 2,2.7,3,3.3 a. 5V devicesCE certifiedPC Sotware DriverFREE sollviare updates 3Year Warranty240VAC/12V adaptorUniversal Serial [[prom programmerE49PreProm UNIVERSAL (mom ProgrammerAdaptors tor TSOP PSOP, QFP, SOIC, PECCAdaptors tor MicroprocesorsAdaptors tor EepromEmulator ulster,WWI ea2.00*a plow me sew, toCrownhill Associates Limited32 Broad Street Ely Cambridge Cb7 4PWVISATel: 01353 666709 Fax: 01353 666710ORDER ON-LINECIRCLE NO. 104ON

Whither WAP?5EDITORMartin Eccles020 8652 3614CONSULTANTSIan HickmanPhilip DarringtonFrank OgdenEDITORIAL ADMINISTRATIONJackie Lowe020 8652 3614EDITORIAL [email protected] SALES EXECUTIVEPat Bunce020 8652 8339ADVERTISEMENT [email protected] PRODUCTION020 8652 8339PUBLISHERMick ElliottEDITORIAL FAX020 8652 8111CLASSIFIED FAX020 8652 8938NEWSTRADE ENQUIRIES020 7907 7777ISSN 0939-8332For afull listing ofRBI magazines:http/Avww.reedbusiness.comeffl414,„. REEDfair BUSINESSM.- INFORMATIONSUBSCRIPTION HOTUNETel (0) 1444 475662Fax (0) 1444 445447SUBSCRIPTION [email protected] (0) 1444 445566Fax (0) 1444 445447hock, horror, hold the front page. sales inthe UK of WAP-capable mobile phones —youknow, the ones that work as Internet terminalsas well —have achieved just 200 000 instead of theprojected half million.But perhaps you didn't know —or didn't evencare? That seems to be the reaction of the public atlarge, even if dealers, manufacturers and pundits arewailing and gnashing their teeth. Building societiesand mobile dealers are reduced to giving awayWAP phones as acome-on, while the prophets ofdoom and desperation portray WAP as abiggertechno-flop than the Millennium Dome —as if thatwere possible. But is WAP really aclick too far?It depends on your outlook. Undoubtedly theproduct has been oversold if the following nonsenseis typical of the sales pitch for WAP —and no, Iwon't embarrass the perpetrator!"I'm in the pub, where Iorder around of drinks,paying for them from my mobile and join myfriends."We gather round one mobile to watch highlightsof what movies are currently playing at the localcinema. We make areservation through the mobileand check out the view from our seats on line."I also order some food to be ready for me to pickup when Iarrive. Ilike the film so much that Ibuyand download the soundtrack to my mobile while Iam watching."After the movie Iam too tired to walk home so Icall ataxi. Iallow the taxi company to find mylocation and Iwatch the taxi approach on amap onmy mobile. The taxi is paid automatically when Iget out and the lights in the house come on as Iapproach."As Isettle down with aglass of wine, thesoundtrack Ibought at the cinema is transferred tomy hi-fi to end agreat night out!"Perhaps life really is like that on planet WAP —but not down here.Clues to WAP's poor performance to date are nothard to find. While many people find the ability tomake phone calls on the move convenient andreassuring, it's less clear whether they have theenthusiasm, requirement or the patience todownload stock quotes or e-mail or make travelbookings and other transactions over aconnectionthat's slow — at 9600 bit's —expensive — at 5p or10p aminute —and hardly ashowpiece of legibilityor graphic presentation.For WAP browsing online, content must beredesigned from scratch, without even the benefit ofopen standards. WAP technology is proprietary andsold under licence, controlled by agroup called theWAP Forum embracing the main companiesinvolved.The marketing of WAP has been less thanscintillating too. There's abundant evidence thatsuccessful extraction of customers' money demandscreating an awareness of need or desire; fewproducts sell themselves.Even when the merchandise itself is appealing, aprice that's pitched higher than the public isprepared to pay will restrict sales to all but 'musthave' early adopters. Pocket calculators, microwaveovens, video recorders, home computers, CDplayers —the list is endless of new technologies thattook awhile to catch on.It doesn't help that today's offerings are less thancompelling. Even the Carphone Warehouse —arguably Britain's most successful independentpurveyor of mobile communication —is forced toconcede:"There is alot of current hype in the media aboutwhat WAP is, and while the possibilities in the verynear future are exciting and limited only by theimagination, WAP is currently apredominantlytext-based view of the Internet. Improvements to thecurrent mobile networks and in screen and batterytechnology will all enhance the WAP experience,eventually delivering rich multi-media content inthe not too distant future."Full marks for honesty!To write off WAP entirely would be wrong,though —its time will eventually come when pricesfall and product specifications improve. CombiningaWAP-enabled phone with an electronic organiser,palmtop PC, portable FM radio, MP3 player and TVwould make afar more compelling proposition. Andthen, finally, amass market could be born.Mobile phones are aclassic examplar; those clumsyfeatureless 'bricks' that cost 1000 back in 1985 werescarcely arunaway success, yet fifteen years on morethan half the population now owns acellphone and asleek, highly featured and affordable one to boot.Commoditisation is the name of the game.And that's it. Sorry, what's WAP? Yes, Ishouldhave defined the term at the outset but nobody elsebothers to. It stands for Wireless ApplicationProtocol, aname that conveys precisely nothing tothe world at large.Years ago, successful marketeers knew that to sellan obscurely titled technology, you had to give it ameaningful name. Touch-Tone, Video Plus andWalkman all give aclue to their function —but notWAP. Time for are-launch with anew nameperhaps?Andrew EmmersonElectronics World is published monthly. By post, current issue 2.65,back issues (if available 3.00). Orders, payments and generalcorrespondence to L333, Eleorenks Woild, Quadrant House,The Quadrant, Sutton, Surrey SM2 SAS. Tlx: 892984 REED BP G.Cheques should be made payable to Reed Business Information LtdNewstrade: Distributed by Morketforce (UK) Ltd, 247 Tottenham CourtRoad London WI POAU, tel 020 7907 7777.Subscriptions: Quadrant Subscription Services, Ookfield HousePerrymount Road, Haywords Heath, Sussex RH16 3DH. Telephone01444 445566. Please notify change of address.Subscription rates 1year UK 36.00 2years 58.00 3years 72.00.Europe/Eu 1year 51.00 2years 82.00 3years 103.00ROW 1year 61.00 2years 98.00 3years 123Overseas advertising agents: France and Belgium: Pierre Mussard,18-20 Place de la Madeleine, Paris 75008. United States of America:Ray Barnes, Reed Business Publishing Ltd, 475 Park Avenue South, 2nd FlNew York, NY 10016 Tel; (212) 679 8888 Fax; (212) 679 9455USA mailing agents: Mercury Airfreight International Ltd Inc, 10(b)Englehard Ave, Avenel NJ 07001. Periodicles Postage Paid at RahwayNJ Postmaster. Send address changes to above.Printed by Polestar (Colchester) Ltd, Filmsetting by.11TypogrophicsLtd, Unit 4Boron Court, Chandlers Way, Southend-on-Sea, Essex SS2SSE.September 2000 ELECTRONICS WORLDCD Reed Business Information Ltd 1997 ISSN 0959 8332673

[111111DATEUK videophone setbackThe launch of the world's first GSMmobile videophone has been delayedfor up to six months, according to theUK companies behind the project.The videophone from Orange wasmost recently scheduled for launchthis summer but is now not expectedto see the light of day until the lastquarter of this year."The launch date is set forsometime in Q4," said an Orangespokeswoman, who refused tocomment on why the project wasdelayed.According to another member ofthe entirely UK-based project team,working prototypes of thevideophone were delivered toOrange earlier this year and havealso been on display at last week'sTomorrow's World Live exhibitionin London. In May of this year the companywas still saying it would launch inthe summer when high-speed datacapability was added to the networkin the form of HSCSD (high speedcircuit switched data). HSCSD is setto roll-out at the end of July whencorporate trials are completed.A group of UK technologycompanies was chosen to work onthe design and manufacture of thevideophone last year and Spring2000 was set as the date forlaunching the innovative product.Cambridge Consultants has led theoverall technical project managementincluding both the industrial andmechanical design of the handset andcreating the user interface.ISDN videophone firm MotionMedia, Microsoft system integratorNMI and the University ofStrathclyde have been working onvarious different aspects of theproject, with manufacturer Celestica.The development work hasincluded video compression software,video specific application software,control protocols, implementation ofthe user interface and the design,development and integration of theelectronics.HSCSD achieves 57.6kbitis dataInternet on TV available this yearDigital terrestrial TV company ONdigitalwill be offering Internet on TV to itssubscribers this year.An Internet box, around the size of alargepaperback book, which connects to the digitalset-top box and atelephone line is needed toreceive the service.French company Netgem has been chosen asatechnology partner and will be providing theInternet box which uses asystem based on theLinux operating system.Pace Micro Technology, which suppliesONdigital's set-top boxes, already has anInternet TV product on the market, but anONdigital spokesman said the French supplierwas chosen because its, "technology seems towork particularly well."The Internet pages are instantly reconfiguredand the system apparently makes the pagesreadable on aTV screen from 10-15 feet away."I haven't seen anything else like it," said thespokesman. Viewers will be able to clickstraight from programmes to the Internet whilethe TV picture remains in the corner of theirscreen."ONdigital will offer the easiest and most costeffective way of getting on to the Internet," saidStuart Prebble, ONdigital's CEO. "No dish, nocable, no computer. Simply atelevision and anONdigital subscription."The box will initially connect to the telephoneline via a56k modem but will be capable ofconnection to ADSL technology later. Details ofprice and the launch date will be made availablein the next few weeks. There are plans tointegrate the Internet box inside the digitalset-top box.Pace licensed its Web technology to Alba foruse in its Internet browsing TV in March thisyear.Display technology relies on ink-jet printingSeiko-Epson and CambridgeDisplay Technology (CDT)have demonstrated afullcolour, active-matrixlight-emitting polymer (LEP)display.The display, which is aprototype, measures 64 by64mm, has 200 by 150 pixelsand 16 levels of grey scale —achieved through acombinationof time modulation and the useof sub-pixels.The display is notable, notonly for being the first of itskind, but for being the firstdisplay made using ink-jetprinting techniques. In fact,the relationship between thetwo companies was startedwhen Seiko-Epson approachedCDT realising that LEP674technology would be anewoutlet for Epson's printingexpertise.Producing the display haspushed ink-jet technology toits current limit. Printing 30µmfeatures with 301im dropletshas required special treatmentof the printable surface as wellas custom print heads.Our reporter present at thedemonstration reports that thedisplay had no problems withfast action, was acceptablybright for shaded viewing,could be viewed easily fromthe side and had goodLCD-like colours, but not aswell saturated as CRT colours."The display uses ourprevious generation ofpolymers," explained CDTtechnical director JeremyBurroughs, "We nowhave polymers that canmatch PAL televisioncolours, but they are notsuitable for ink-jetprinting yet."The companies areaiming the displaysfirmly at the mobile-phoneand PDA markets, andexpect production withintwo years. Beyond this, thecompanies are confident theyhave the technology to pushinto all other display areas,including TVs. "We can make20 or 30in, no problem," saidMr Shimoda, head of R&D atEpson, "the feasibility is veryhigh, the advantage of lightemitting polymer is high."September 2000 ELECTRONICS WORLD

TiePieScope HS801 PORTABLE MOSTwar»ABRITARY WAVEFORM GENERATORSTORAGE OSCILLOSCOPESPECTRUM ANALYZERMULTIMETERTRANSIENT RECORDER- The sophisticated cursor read outs have21 possible read outs. Besides the usualread outs, like voltage and time. alsoquantities like rise time and frequencyare displayed.The HS801: the first 100 Mega samplesper second measuring instrument thatconsists of a MOST (Multimeter,Oscilloscope. Spectrum analyzer andTransient recorder) and an AVVG (abritarywaveform generator). This new MOSTportable and compact measuringinstrument can solve almost everymeasurement problem. With theintegrated AVVG you can generate everysignal you want.The versatile software has a user-definedtoolbar with which over 50 instrumentsettings quick and easy can beaccessed. An intelligent auto setupallows the inexperienced user to performmeasurements immediately. Through theuse of asetting file, the user has thepossibility to save an instrument setupand recall it at a later moment. The setuptime of the instrument is hereby reducedto a minimum.When aquick indication of the inputsignal is required, a simple click on theauto setup button will immediately give agood overview of the signal. The autosetup function ensures a proper setup ofthe time base, the trigger levels and theinput sensitivities. Measured signals and instrumentsettings can be saved on disk.Thisenables the creation of a library ofmeasured signals. Text balloons can beadded to asignal, for special comments.The (colour) print outs can be suppliedwith three common text lines ( info) en three lines withmeasurement specific information. The HS801 has an 8bit resolution and amaximum sampling speed of 100 MHz.The input range is 0.1 volt full scale to 80volt full scale. The record length is32K/64K samples. The AVVG has a 10 bitresolution and a sample speed of 25MHz.The HS801 is connected to theparallel printer port of a computer.The minimum system requirement is aPC with a486 processor and 8 MbyteRAM available. The software runs inWindows 3.xx /95 /98 or Windows NTand DOS 3.3 or higher.TiePie engineering (UK), 28 StephensonRoad, Industrial Estate, St. Ives,Cambridgeshire, PE17 4VVJ. UKTel: 01480-460028; Fax: 01480-460340TiePie engineering (NL),Koperslagersstraat 37. 8601 VVL SNEEKThe NetherlandsTel: 31 515 415 416: Fax 31 515 418 819Web: http://www.tiepie.n1CIRCLE NO. 150 ON REPLY CARD

UPDATEIs electronic product gazumping back due to scarcities?Gazumping could be back in thesemiconductor market after aperiodin which shortages have —surprisingly —not translated intohigher prices.Normally, when the silicon cycleturns up, prices increase sharply.However, in the present up-cycleprices have stayed broadly flat.Asked last week why this is so,Motorola Semiconductor CEO FredTucker, replied: "I wish Icouldfigure that out".Tucker added: "Price increases canbe so detrimental to acustomerrelationship. Could you give them aprice increase and get away with it?Yes —but boy would it affect therelationship".Four bad years have made chipmanufacturers nervous aboutoffending customers. But there areanecdotal signs from the industry(not related to Motorola) that thingsmay be changing."We placed an

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