FACTORS INFLUENCING TOURISM INTHE CARIBBEAN1. and weatherAccessibilityThe exchange rateInfrastructureSanitation and healthSafety and securitySupply of tourists2

Getty imagesCLIMATE AND WEATHERTROPICAL CLIMATEaverage of 26ºC (range 20ºC – 32ºC) Absence of strong winds especially during the dryseason facilitates aquatic sports e.g. diving, skiing,boating, sailing, fishing, swimming tropical rain forests support eco-tourism (attractsnature-lovers from around the world) Daily3

ACCESSIBILITY TheCaribbeanRegion isstrategicallylocated between10ºN - 23ºN latitudeand 60ºW - 85ºW longitude Easy access by air and sea to tourists fromcountries to the north and the south The Caribbean attracts approximately 50% of theinternational cruise liners4

ACCESSIBILITY ManyCaribbean countries own and operateairlines (Air Jamaica, Cayman Airways, GuyanaAirways, LIAT, Caribbean Airlines (formerly BWIA)5 International airlines also service the region:British Airways, Air Canada and American Airlines

THE EXCHANGE Touristsfrom most developed countriesfind the foreign exchange rates ofCaribbean countries to be very attractive Favourable rates make the cost of theirvacations cheaper6

INFRASTRUCTURECaribbean governments provide special facilitiesneeded by tourists: Airports and Seaports Accommodation (hotels, guest houses, b&b) Transport facilities on land (roads, bridges) Reliable infrastructural facilities(electricity, water supply)7

SANITATION AND HEALTHA healthy clean andwell-kept environment isanother factor which influencesthe development of tourism in acountry8picquery

SAFETY AND SECURITY Mosttourists consider freedom from danger andharassment as key determinants in their choice ofdestination The Caribbean has a reputation as a relatively safe andpeaceful region with a stable political climatecomprising democratically elected governments and 9serious law enforcement.


FACTORS OPERATING IN COUNTRIESOF SUPPLY Income: high employment rates, high standard ofliving, paid vacation, early retirement,two-income families Favourable exchange rates Cheap, affordable vacations Climate: freezing winters Accessibility/transport Marketing: Caribbean governments vigorouslymarket the region through brochures,magazines, videos, the internet, etc.11


TOURISM’S CONTRIBUTION TOCARIBBEAN COUNTRIES1. exchange earningsJob creationDevelopment of infrastructureLinkages and leakagesYachties13

TOURISM’S CONTRIBUTION TO CARIBBEANCOUNTRIES: FOREIGN EXCHANGE EARNINGS ApproximatelyUS 11.4 billion wasearned by Caribbean countries in theyear 1993 from services provided totourists such as: Travel Accommodation Food Purchase of souvenirs Sightseeing Departure taxes Tips14

TOURISM’SCONTRIBUTION TOCARIBBEANCOUNTRIES:JOB CREATIONThe Caribbean TourismOrganization estimatesthat tourism providesdirect and indirectemployment forapproximately 500,000persons in the region.15

CAREERS IN TOURISMAirlines PilotsFlight attendantsCabin servicesSales managerCatering companiesEngineersTicket agentsMaintenance crewsBaggage handlersClerksHotels/motels Hotel managerFood and beveragemanagerCooksWaitersBar workersCashiersReservation clerksLaundry attendantsMaids16

CAREERS IN TOURISMRecreation Night club ownersMusiciansTour operators/guidesYachting servicesCoachesVehicle rentalsWatersports equipmentrentalsScuba instructorsBoat tour operatorsTaxi driversTravel agenciesAgency manager Sales promoter Reservation agents CommercialAccountants Clerks 17

CAREERS IN TOURISMTourism bureau Director of TourismDirector of marketingResearch PersonnelMarketing ManagerOverseasRepresentativesTravel PromotionConsultantsPhotographersTourism EducatorsAdvertisingAdvertising Director Journalists Printers Designers/Artists Fashion Designers 18

PERSONALITY TRAITS REQUIREDOutgoing personality Discipline Affability Flexibility Good listener Not arrogant Extrovert Charm / good graces Patience and firmness Empathy Showmanship Sociability Self-confidence Self-motivated Sound judgement Ability to put people atease Good grooming andexemplary appearance Ability to express one-selfclearly Self assurance Sense of humour Politeness 19

APTITUDE, ACADEMICS, TRAINING REQUIRED ExperienceForeign languagesWide interests (cultural,sports, artistic etc)Knowledge of the productPsychologyMathematicsCommon senseUniversity degreeAdministrativeexperienceEmergency proceduresPilot’s license Sound knowledge of localgeography, history andcustomsSound knowledge of thevisitor’s country of originTourism MarketingCommunicationtechniquesSociologyTourism StudiesEconomics and StatisticsCommunicationsCatering and FoodPreparation20

AVAILABILITY OFTRAINING Hotelschools in various Caribbean islands UWI CaribbeanAviation Training Institute Trinidad and Tobago Hospitality Institute21

TOURISM’S CONTRIBUTION TO CARIBBEAN COUNTRIES:JOB CREATION THROUGH LINKAGES Tourismhas a ripple effect on themanufacturing, industrial and servicesectors of the economy.Linkages exist in many areas, e.g.: Agriculture (great demand by airlines,cruise ships, hotels, guest houses etc forfruits, vegetables, fish and milk products) Manufacturing (rum, clothing, souvenirs,seasonings, soft drinks etc) Construction (use of local raw materials inconstruction of hotels etc) Culture (local entertainment for touristsboosts our local art forms)22


TOURISM’S CONTRIBUTION TO CARIBBEAN COUNTRIES:DEVELOPMENT OF INFRASTRUCTURE Upgradingof airports, seaports, roads Provision of reliable supplies of water,electricity and communication facilitiesLocals benefit from these upgrades as well.24

LINKAGES AND LEAKAGESLINKAGES Tourism benefitscaribbean countries inmany ways: creatingemployment, earningforeign exchange andresulting indevelopment ofCaribbean countriesLEAKAGES Economic leakageswhen some of theforeign currencyearned through tourismis repatriated abroadrather than remainingin the host country25

INFLOWSCustoms duties Departure tax Hotel bills Tour guide fees Entertainment Shopping Local transport Food and drinks Foreign investment(e.g. hotel construction) OUTFLOWSForeign consultants Marketing (in foreigncountries) Foreign appliances andfurniture Imported food anddrinks Profits from hotelsrepatriated abroad 26

YACHTIES Thenumber of yachts visiting Trinidad andTobago moved from 60 in 1990 to 2500 in1995 generating an annual income ofapproximately 30 million TT .27

YACHTIES BENEFITS: Repairsof yachts createsemployment for nationals Infrastructural development alongthe coasts where yachts are moored(due to business development) Other linkages: transport,communication, banking, restaurantsand entertainment facilities)28

YACHTIES PROBLEMS: Rawsewage disposed off close tothe shore (over 80% of yachtsentering Tobago’s waters do nothave septic holding tanks for faecalwaste) Locals swimming in filth Destruction of coral reefs Unquarantined pets29

The exchange rate 4. Infrastructure 5. Sanitation and health 6. Safety and security 7. Supply of tourists . 3 CLIMATE AND WEATHER . Ticket