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1478 Page 455 Thursday, July 15, 2004 10:01 AM18 Apples and Apple ProcessingWilliam H. Root and Diane M. BarrettCONTENTS18.118.218.3IntroductionU.S. and World Apple ProductionApple Cultivars18.3.1 Origin of the Current Popular Cultivars18.4 Handling of Apples for Processing18.4.1 Processed Apple Products18.4.2 Apple Juice Processing18.5 Processed Apple Products18.5.1 Apples for Processing18.5.2 Applesauce18.5.3 Sliced Apples18.6 Dried Apple Products18.7 Specialty Apple Products18.8 Quality Control18.9 Nutritional Value of ApplesAcknowledgmentsReferences18.1 INTRODUCTIONApple has been grown by mankind since the dawn of history. This is mentioned in early legends,poems, and religious books. The “fruit” that the Bible says Adam and Eve ate in the Garden ofEden is believed by many to have been an apple. The ancient Greeks had a legend that a goldenapple caused quarreling among the gods and brought about the destruction of Troy. The Greekwriter Theophrastus mentions several cultivars grown in Greece in the fourth century B.C. Appletrees were grown and prized for their fruit by the people of ancient Rome.The apple species Malus pumila, from which the modern apple developed, had its origin insouthwestern Asia in the area from the Caspian to the Black seas. The Stone Age lake dwellers ofcentral Europe used apples extensively. Remains found in their habitations show that they storedapples fresh and also preserved them by cutting and drying in the sun. The apple was brought toAmerica by early colonists from Europe.Some cultivars originating in Europe were grown by the colonists, but the main method ofplanting apples in the new land was by seed. As the pioneers migrated westward, they carried appleseeds with them and established plantings where they settled. Almost everyone is familiar withJohn Chapman, “Johnny Appleseed,” born in June 1774 in Leominster, MA, and the story of howhe carried apples west like many of the early settlers.In these early times, most of the apple crop was home processed into cider. The commonseedling trees were satisfactory for this cider production. Not many of the cultivars brought acrossCopyright 2005 by CRC Press LLC

1478 Page 456 Thursday, July 15, 2004 10:01 AM456Processing Fruits: Science and Technology, Second Edition50 35 0 30 45 FIGURE 18.1 Primary apple-growing latitudes of the world. Data from U.S. Apple Situation — AppleCommodities page, U.S. report, .the Atlantic by our ancestors adapted well to the North American climate. There was a need todevelop American cultivars from the seedlings to improve the apple production and storage characteristics. Those selected cultivars were given local names (Upshall, 1970).18.2 U.S. AND WORLD APPLE PRODUCTIONThe apple is more widely grown than any other fruit. Apple trees of one cultivar or another growall around the world but are mainly concentrated in the Northern hemisphere. About 95% of allapples grown, with some exceptions due to isolated microclimates, are found between the 35 Nand 50 N latitudes and between the 30 S and 45 S latitudes. These bands of primary apple growingareas around the globe are pictured in Figure 18.1.Annual world production of apples was about 45 million metric tons during 2002 to 2003.World apple production trends are given in Table 18.1. World production declined during the periodmentioned for the second consecutive season due to lower production in both China and the U.S.These reduced production rates offset increased apple production by other major producers, including Turkey (USDA, 2003). Apple production in some selected countries for this season is illustratedin Table 18.2. Northern hemisphere countries, particularly China, the U.S., Turkey, Italy, and Polanddominate the world market. During the 10-year period from 1992 to 2002, apple production inChina increased dramatically (Figure 18.2), from approximately 20% to over 45% of the worldproduction (USDA, 2003). Production and storage facilities in China are expected to improve, andlower Chinese fruit prices will also boost fruit sales. However, if urban Chinese consumers haveincreasingly greater purchasing power, China may actually import more apples.Commercial apple production for the U.S. during the 2002/03 period was approximately 3.9million U.S. tons. This was down by approximately 4% from the 5.2 millon tons produced in2001/02 due to reduced supplies, higher domestic prices, and a strong U.S. dollar which reducedU.S. apple exports. Apple production in the U.S. is primarily in the states of Washington, NewYork, Michigan, California, Virginia, and Pennsylvania (Figure 18.3). These states produce overthree quarters of the total U.S. production. The other regions — New England, eastern, central,and other western states — produce the remainder.Copyright 2005 by CRC Press LLC

1478 Page 457 Thursday, July 15, 2004 10:01 AMApples and Apple Processing457TABLE 18.1World Apple Production Trends, 1999 through 003North AmericaEuropeChinaSouthern HemisphereWORLD .788.0321.004.1437.954.417.6520.504.3636.92Note: Expressed in million metric tons.Source: United States Department of Agriculture, Foreign Agricultural Service. World AppleSituation: Acreage Continues to Decrease in Major Producing and Trading Countries,March 2003. 2002-03.pdf; FAO Production Yearbook, Vol. 45, Food andAgriculture Organization of the United Nations. 1991.TABLE 18.2Production of Apples in Specified Countries,2002–2003Northern 0U.K.Japan912U.S.Northern Hemisphere rn HemisphereArgentina1,000ChileBrazil825New ZealandAustralia328South AfricaSouthern Hemisphere total1,0604626804,355Note: Expressed in 100 t.Source: USDA, world statistics from USDA/FAS World Horticultural Trade and U.S. Export Opportunities, March 2003.Apple production in the U.S. has declined due to continued reduction in apple acreage as aresult of financial problems that have forced many growers out of business. Apple-bearing land in2002–2003 in the U.S. is estimated at 430,000 acres as compared to 470,000 acres in 1989/99.According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) (USDA, 2003), the apple industry faceslow domestic prices, caused primarily by overproduction, stagnant domestic demand, and remarkably increased imports of lower price apple juice from China.Copyright 2005 by CRC Press LLC

1478 Page 458 Thursday, July 15, 2004 10:01 AM458Processing Fruits: Science and Technology, Second EditionWorld Production of ApplesPercent of 0991998199719961995199419931919920Marketing YearsFIGURE 18.2 World production of apples (1992–2002). Data from World Apple Situation — Apple Commodities page, 2002-03.pdf.Percent of U.S. crop grown by stateWashingtonMichiganNew YorkCaliforniaPennsylvaniaVirginiaFIGURE 18.3 Percentage of U.S. apple crop grown by major producing states. Data from World Apple JuiceSituation — Apple Juice Commodities page, -03.pdf.In 2002, the percentage of apples marketed fresh was 63% of the total, and 37% was processed.Of the processed apples, 18% was utilized in juice and cider, 13% was canned, 3% was dried, 2%was frozen, and 1% was used in other miscellaneous products such as vinegar, wine, and jelly.Over the past 10 years (1992 to 2002), the utilization of the apple crop has changed to a higherpercentage of fresh apples (from 55 to 63%) and a lower percentage of juice, canned, dried, andfrozen apple products (USDA-NASS, 2003).World apple juice production is expected to remain strong, with record production in China,which in 2002–2003 accounted for 33% of the world production. This is more than double themarket share of 15% that China held in 1998–1999. The U.S., on the other hand, now accountsfor only 12% of world apple juice production, which is half its 1998–1999 level (Figure 18.4). Inthe U.S., some processors have had to import apple juice products, particularly in the forms ofconcentrate. This was to ensure an adequate supply of raw material for their manufacturing facilitiesto maintain consistent distribution from year to year. U.S. imports of apple juice increased fromapproximately 210,000 t in 1998–1999 to 260,000 t in 2002–2003.Copyright 2005 by CRC Press LLC

1478 Page 459 Thursday, July 15, 2004 10:01 AMApples and Apple /03ChinaPolandUSAArgentina(b)FIGURE 18.4 Share of world apple-juice production (1998/89 vs. 2002/03).18.3 APPLE CULTIVARSThere are hundreds of apple cultivars, many of them are shown with color plates in The Applesof New York by Beach et al. Only about 20 cultivars are now grown commercially in the U.S.More than 90% of the production is represented by 14 cultivars (Table 18.3). Of these, five —Red Delicious, Golden Delicious, Gala, Fuji, and Granny Smith — account for most of the worldapple production.The recent trend in the U.S. is to plant newer apple cultivars. These newer cultivars, are nowappearing in fruit markets. Gala, Fuji, Jonagold, Braeburn, and Lady Williams are relatively newvarieties that the consumer has accepted as an alternative to traditional varieties. Gala and Fuji, inparticular, have displace older varieties in terms of their market share. Most of the new commercialplantings are selected red strains of the primary cultivars. Some cultivars, like Gala, mature in 100days or less while others, like Lady Williams, grown in Western Australia, require over 200 frostfree days to reach maturity. Some cultivars are very winter and frost hardy while others are veryCopyright 2005 by CRC Press LLC

1478 Page 460 Thursday, July 15, 2004 10:01 AM460Processing Fruits: Science and Technology, Second EditionTABLE 18.3Apple Production by Cultivar in the U.S., 2002CultivarPrimary RegionProduction(000 42 lb units)Delicious (all)Golden DeliciousGalaFujiMcIntoshRome BeautyGranny hern SpyRhode Island ravensteinWest134Source: USDA 2003.tender. Some cultivars like Delicious require long cold winters to break dormancy, others like Anna,a cultivar grown in Israel, can be grown in mild Mediterranean type climates.Washington State grows 54% of the apples produced annually in the U.S., over 116 million42-lb units as compared to about 24 million 42-lb units in New York, the second largest producer.The pie chart in Figure 18.3 shows the apple production percentages by growing region. Consumersare requesting high quality apples with distinctive flavors. The trend in a Washington State treesurvey shows continuation of the dominance of Delicious, Golden Delicious, and Granny Smith.California does not produce many Delicious apples, but acreage of Gala and Fuji are increasing.Future U.S. planting densities will increase when new plantings are made, therefore annual applevolume will continue to increase.18.3.1 ORIGINOF THECURRENT POPULAR CULTIVARSThe original Red Delicious apple was discovered as a chance seedling in 1881 by Jesse Hiatt nearPeru, Iowa. Stark Bros. Nurseries, Louisiana, Missouri, bought the rights to Red Delicious in 1894and promoted it heavily. Presently over 100 strains of Red Delicious have been propagated bygrowers and nurserymen. Red Delicious is a sweet, mild apple for eating, not cooking. The treesare productive and adaptable to different growing conditions.Golden Delicious originated around 1900 in West Virginia but is not related to the Red Deliciousapple except that it was also purchased, promoted, and named by Stark Bros. Nurseries. It is ofinterest that these two most popular apples are not the result of organized fruit breeding programs.“Goldens” have a sweet, delicate flavor and store well. The Golden Delicious is the parent of severalmodern varieties such as Jonagold, Spigold, Gala, and Mutsu.McIntosh is the dominant commercial apple in New England and eastern Canada. The first treewas a chance seedling, introduced around 1811, on John McIntosh’s farm in Matilda, Ontario. It isa thick-skinned, tender-fleshed, aromatic apple. McIntosh apples ripen early and were a commercialfavorite of growers trying to deliver early to the fresh-apple-hungry metropolitan areas of New Yorkand Chicago. McIntosh is a parent of Spartan, Empire, and other hardy modern cultivars.Copyright 2005 by CRC Press LLC

1478 Page 461 Thursday, July 15, 2004 10:01 AMApples and Apple Processing461Granny Smith, the third most popular apple in the world, originated in the 1860s. It was achance seedling in Marie Smith’s back yard near Sydney, Australia, thus, the name Granny Smith.The Granny Smith needs a long growing season and is grown commercially in the U.S. mainly onthe West coast. It is a very firm, green, juicy, tart apple ideal for apple pie and contributes aciditywhen used in juice production.Jonathan was a seedling from Esopus Spitzenburg. Esopus Spitzenburg, although not a majorcultivar today, originated in 18th century in Esopus, New York, and was claimed to be ThomasJefferson’s favorite apple grown at Monticello. Jonathan was named after Jonathan Hasbrouck