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The History of EugenicsAlyssa Richards & Cassidy Welsh

What is Eugenics? Derived from two Greek wordsmeaning “well” and “born”Set of beliefs and practices that aim toimprove the genetic quality of thehuman populationAttempt to only allow the “fit” toreproduce considered “positive” eugenics“Negative” eugenics prohibitingmarriage and forced sterilization ofthose who are deemed “unfit”“Fit” was defined as: High IQHigh socioeconomic classCaucasianPositive eugenics existed for quite some time, even dating back to Plato whosuggested selective matingNegative eugenics came sometime after dating back to the late 19th century

https://www.nature.com/articles/gim2003376#f3

https://www.nature.com/articles/gim2003376#f3To reduce the unfit: prevent marriage, racial mixing, sterilizaation, immigration laws,deathIf the unfit are born: abort, sterilize

Sir Francis Galton (1822-1911) Galton invented the term of “Eugenics” inEngland in 1883Half-cousin of Charles DarwinCame to the conclusion that upper class Britswere this way due to genetic make upHereditary GeniusAdvocated selective breedingFelt qualified to breed a better race“Eugenics is the study of the agencies under social control that may improve or impair the racialqualities of future generations either physically or mentally” - Sir Francis GaltonGalton and Davenport felt like they were qualified to breed a better race because theybelieved they were the best and the brightest.--Considered to be the father of the eugenics movementAfter reading Darwin’s “On the Origin of Species” he changed his life goal frommathematics and medicine to study the idea of evolution to improve thehuman raceThought that a person’s environment had very little to do with thedevelopment of these characteristicsSocial and mental traits, like talent and intelligence, were inheritedHereditary Genius - a compilation of his research on whether personality traits,work ethic, and other traits were inheritedIt showed that success seemed to run in familiesHe argues that this proved intelligence could be inherited

Charles Davenport (1866-1944) American BiologistTravelled to London to meet with GaltonDecided to create an institution that would focuson experimental evolution rather than Darwiniannatural selection, when he returned to the USInstitute in Cold Springs Harbour, New Yorkopens on June 11th, 1904Eugenic Record Office founder“Two imbecile parents, whether related or not, have only imbecile offspring” Charles DavenportBelieved unfit came from backgrounds of low socioeconomic statusFavoured immigration restriction and sterilization-Station for the Study of Experimental Evolution which later changed toDepartment of Genetics at the Carnegie Institution of WashingtonEugenic Record Office - is an archive of family histories that are used to studyand promote EugenicsThis was then used to promote restrictions on immigration, segregationof those deemed “unfit”, and the sexual sterilization legislationIn 1935, the ERO was deemed unusable and unjustified and closed in1939Vaguely defined and poorly collected, unreliable measures to gatherdata, therefore he created stereotypes and inaccurate views so thateugenics would gain popularityUNSCIENTIFIC

Thomas Hunt Morgan (1866-1945) Believer in eugenics AT FIRSTA part of Eugenics Record OfficeStudied fruit fliesCould not figure out how fruit flies eyes wereinherited through generationsCould not believe Davenport could figure the samewith human traits like criminality or alcoholismDropped out of the Eugenics Record OfficeActively discouraged scientists from supportingeugenics“Two years work wasted, I have been breeding those flies for all that time and I’ve got nothingout of it” - Thomas H. Morgan-Was an open critic, because the science behind eugenics was not soundDebated that the traits Davenport and other eugenicists were trying to use,were not well defined, and if they weren’t well defined, they could not becorrectly determinedTraits like intelligence and feeblemindednessThese traits could also be due to the environment, which Davenport didnot take into account

Harry Laughlin (1880-1943) Superintendent of Eugenics Record Office(1910-1939)Supported Johnson-Reed Immigration Act of 1924Aided in the growth of forced sterilizationThe Virginia Sterilization Act of 1924 was based on hisModel Eugenical Sterilization Law (model act)1936: Awarded an honorary degree by the Universityof Heidelberg for work in “science of racial cleansing”“A vigilant control over anything and everything that affects the gene pool is essential to eugenics” - A.E.Samaan, H.H. Laughlin: American Scientist, American Progressive, Nazi CollaboratorJohnson-Reed Immigration Act of 1924: Law was primarily aimed at decreasing theamount of immigrants from specific European groups including; Italians, Poles,Greeks, Slavs, and Jews. And under this Act, ALL ASIANS were forbidden toimmigrate to America.The Virginia Sterilization Act of 1924: It included subjects for eugenic sterilization:the feeble-minded, the insane, criminals, epileptics, alcoholics, blind persons, deafpersons, deformed persons, and indigent persons. It became a “model act” forsterilization laws in other states. 1924-1979; over 7,000 individuals were sterilized inVirginia under this act. In 2001, Virginia General Assembly passed an apology and in2015 they agreed to compensate the individuals who were sterilized.

John Harvey Kellogg (1852-1943) Supported racial segregation; believedimmigrants and non-whites would damage thegene pool1906: founded Race Betterment Foundation withDavenport and Irving FisherBecame a major centre for eugenics movementin AmericaEugenic registry“[.] through eugenics and euthenics, the mental soundness of the race will be saved”- John Harvey Kellogg-Interesting fun fact He and his wife fostered 42 children of various racebecause he had a theory of environment over heredityKellogg also proposed creating a eugenic registry that could be used to create apedigree of proper breeding between people.Lol also known for corn flakes and such cereal

Eugenics & the United States

Eugenics and the United States 1882: Immigration law banning “undesirable”1896 in Connecticut it became illegal for theepileptic and mentally ill to marry1903: American Breeders Association1907: Indiana passes the first eugenicsterilization law1908: Better babies contests- Louisiana1910: Eugenics Records Office- New York1916: First birth control clinic1917: IQ testing of immigrants1921: American Eugenics Society1928: Eugenics was taught in universities-By the close of the 1930's, more than 30,000 Americans had been sterilizednationwide.Immigration law: restricted certain classes, criminals, insane, idiots, or unable to care forthemsevlesMarry:ABA: the first organization promoting research within eugenicsIndiana:Better babies: based on eugenic movement, mental health, physical health, and appearance,promoting healthy babiesEugenics record: research institute founded by Charles davenportIQ: found that most IQ of most immigrants were “moron-level”, suggesting genetic factor,American Eugenics Society: known today as society for biodemography and socialbiology. Provided promotion and education through fairs, presnetations etc-By the close of the 1930's, more than 30,000 Americans had been sterilizednationwide.

1907-1937 Iowa, New York, Michigan, NorthDakota, Kansas, Wisconsin, nebraska, SouthDakota, New Hampshire, Idaho, Alabama,North Carolina, Pennsylvania, last state Georgia in 1937Stripes are the laws in effect during 1935,shaded are the states with bills pendingstars repelled which is just nevada

Sterilizations in the United States First sterilization law in 1907 by Indiana AN ACT entitled an act to preventprocreation of confirmed criminals,idiots, imbeciles and rapists; providingthat superintendents and boards ofmanagers of institutions where suchpersons are confined shall have theauthority and are empowered to appointa committee of experts, consisting of two(2) physicians, to examine into the mentalcondition of such inmatesSign within Indiana 2007: by late 1800s, indiana authortites believed criminality,mental problems, and pauperism were hereditary. Various laws were enacted basedon this belief. In 1907, governor j frank hanly approved first state eugenics law makingsterilization mandtory for certain inviduals in state custody. The law was fully repealedby 1974.

Sterilizations in the United States 33 states made involuntary sterilizations legalThe law was in place and unchallenged for almost 70 yearsMany of the laws differed between statesMen were sterilized due to aggression and devianceWomen were sterilized to control the “less desirable” in societyIn 1909, California sterilization law was passedSterilization was largely led by CaliforniaAgression and deviance was seen as an inheritable traitWomen were sterilized due to race, economic class

California Sterilizations Accounted for 80% of sterilizationsOver 20,000 people were sterilized between 1909-1963Happened in mainly institutions and hospitalsHuman Betterment Foundation was founded in Pasadena in1928 E.S. GosneyTo provide educational means for the protection and betterment of thehuman raceAllowed research in the area of “Sterilization for Human betterment”Encouraged the compulsory sterilization of the mentally ill and disabledFounded by E.s. gooney an american eugenicistThis foundation had ties to califronia insitute of technology as Robert Millikan (won anobel prize in physics) joined the board of memebers

1909: pass sterilization law of inmates and feeble-minded1913: added inmates of the insane, and idiots1917: include sexual degenerates in original 1909 law, rapists and homosexual1923: include prisoners who have committed sexual abuse on girls under the age of101927: Buck v Bell: permitting sterilizations of those who are mentally ill1949-1952: involuntary sterilizations decline1951: pass amendment on sterilizations of only mentally ill1979: Repeals all non-consensual sterilizations2003: Formal apology to victims of steririlization2006-2010: illegally sterilize 148 unwilling prisoners?

California Sterilizations 2006-2010 148 female prisoners were sterilized withintwo California institutions between2006-2010Supposedly a voluntary programLater determined that prisoners did notgive consentNone of these sterilizations were approvedby the stateIn 2014, California a bill that bans allsterilizations in correctional facilities unlessa medical emergency

Dr. Leo Stanley (1886-1975) Chief surgeon at San Quentin Prison in CaliforniaPerformed many sterilizations on ‘unfit’ prisoners,including those who were homosexual, minorities,suffering with diseases, and STIsAlso performed testicular transplants of deceased ‘fit’individuals to convicts believing it would make them‘fit’Used animal testicles for some implantsMost were voluntary proceduresPerformed over 600 sterilizations during his careerVoluntary but persuaded

Madrigal v. James Quilligan (1978) A lawsuit against Los Angeles County Hospital by 10 sterilized womenThese women were sterilized under misinformation Some women signed the paperwork under false impressionSome women signed the paperwork while under heavy drugs from laborOther women were not informed at allNone of these women were fluent in EnglishThe judge sided with hospitalConsent forms in multiple languages were created and women under 21would have 72 hours to think about the decision Majoirty of the women were mexicanSided with hospital- if a physician believed that a tubal ligation couldimprove a perceived overpopulation problem, he did nothing wrongPositie to come out of the trail was consent forms and 21 year old rule

Jack Skinner v. State of Oklahoma (1942) Habitual Criminal Sterilization Act (1935) sentenced criminals tosterilization if they were convicted of crimes three or more timesSkinner fought against the act due to the different treatment of criminalsThis act was not applied to white-collar criminalsViolated the 14th amendmentFive justices were in favour of the State and four againstSkinner wonBecame illegal to sterilize someone based on the type and number ofcrimesFINISHViolated 14th amendment: all citizens “equal protection of the laws”Five justices in favour of sterilization, four against: uncertainty that criminality could beinheritedDistinction between different crimes was discrimination: someone convicted for theftthree times versus someone convicted of murder three timesStone claimed that we needed to test whether criminal traits could actually beinheritedOnly Justice Jackson thought that there was something ethically wrong with forcedsterilizationSkinner won; made it illegal to sterilize someone based on type and number of crimesin the US, however, it did not alter the forced sterilization of the mentally ill

Euthanasia in the United States One method to get rid of the “unfit” within the populationDid not believe that America was ready for large-scale euthanasiaprogramsEuthanasia Society of America was founded in 1938Many doctors took it into their own handsMental Institution in Illinois, fed the patients milk infected withtuberculosis, believing that if they were fit, they would surviveGoal of society was to gain social acceptance of the right to euthanize vulnerableindividuals

Margaret Sanger (1879-1966) Birth control advocate and supporter of eugenicsShe believed that births should only happen ifyou’re economically stableRejected the ideas of eugenics about race andethnicityHer approach was to have better access to birthcontrol and family planning services to allIn 1948, she was the founder and president ofthe first Planned Parenthood“When motherhood becomes the fruit of a deep yearning, not the result of ignorance oraccident, its children will become the foundation of a new race.”Seen an issue, wealt