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A01 BOYD0946 08 SE FM.indd Page 1 2/23/18 9:57 AM f-0036/206/PH03289/9780134560946 BOYD/BOYD LIFESPAN DEVELOPMENT1 SE 9780134560946/SE/MA .LifespanDevelopmentEighth EditionDenise BoydHouston Community College SystemHelen Bee330 Hudson Street, NY, NY 10013

A01 BOYD0946 08 SE FM.indd Page 2 2/22/18 9:15 PM f-0039/206/PH03289/9780134560946 BOYD/BOYD LIFESPAN DEVELOPMENT1 SE 9780134560946/SE/MA .Portfolio Manager: Priya ChristopherPortfolio Manager Assistant: Anna AustinProduct Marketer: Jessica QuazzaContent Developer: Elisa RogersContent Development Manager: Gabrielle WhiteArt/Designer: iEnergizer/Aptara , Ltd.Digital Studio Course Producer: Elissa Senra SargentFull-Service Project Manager: iEnergizer/Aptara , Ltd.Compositor: iEnergizer/Aptara , Ltd.Printer/Binder: LSC Communications, Inc.Cover Printer: PhoenixCover Design: Lumina Datamatics, Inc.Cover Art: Pentagram/Noma BarAcknowledgements of third party content appear on pages 522–525, which constitute an extension of thiscopyright page.Copyright 2019, 2015, 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Printed in theUnited States of America. This publication is protected by copyright, and permission should be obtained fromthe publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form orby any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise. For information regarding permissions, request forms and the appropriate contacts within the Pearson Education Global Rights & Permissionsdepartment, please visit www.pearsoned.com/permissions/.PEARSON, ALWAYS LEARNING, and REVEL are exclusive trademarks owned by Pearson Education, Inc. orits affiliates, in the U.S., and/or other countries.Unless otherwise indicated herein, any third-party trademarks that may appear in this work are the property oftheir respective owners and any references to third-party trademarks, logos or other trade dress are for demonstrative or descriptive purposes only. Such references are not intended to imply any sponsorship, endorsement,authorization, or promotion of Pearson’s products by the owners of such marks, or any relationship between theowner and Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliates, authors, licensees or distributors.Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataNames: Boyd, Denise Roberts, author. Bee, Helen L., 1939- author.Title: Lifespan development / Denise Boyd, Houston Community College System,Helen Bee.Description: Eighth Edition. Boston : Pearson, [2019] Includesbibliographical references and index.Identifiers: LCCN 2017038982 ISBN 9780134560946 (Student Edition) ISBN0134560949 (Student Edition)Subjects: LCSH: Developmental psychology.Classification: LCC BF713 .B69 2019 DDC 155--dc23 LC record available athttps://lccn.loc.gov/201703898210 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1Access Code CardISBN-10:0-13-457761-2ISBN-13: 978-0-13-457761-6Books à la CarteISBN-10:0-13-456094-9ISBN-13: 978-0-13-456094-6Student Rental EditionISBN-10:0-13-516419-2ISBN-13: 978-0-13-516419-8Instructor Review CopyISBN-10:0-13-455030-7ISBN-13: 978-0-13-455030-5

A01 BOYD0946 08 SE FM.indd Page 3 2/19/18 12:20 PM f-0036/206/PH03289/9780134560946 BOYD/BOYD LIFESPAN DEVELOPMENT1 SE 9780134560946/SE/MA .Brief Contents1Basic Concepts and Methods 111Physical and Cognitive Development inAdolescence 2232Theories of Development 2012Social and Personality Development inAdolescence 2503Prenatal Development and Birth 424Physical, Sensory, and PerceptualDevelopment in Infancy 6713Physical and Cognitive Development inEarly Adulthood 2725Cognitive Development in Infancy 87146Social and Personality Development inInfancy 107Social and Personality Development inEarly Adulthood 297157Physical and Cognitive Development inEarly Childhood 127Physical and Cognitive Development inMiddle Adulthood 319168Social and Personality Development inEarly Childhood 150Social and Personality Development inMiddle Adulthood 339179Physical and Cognitive Development inMiddle Childhood 179Physical and Cognitive Development inLate Adulthood 3561810Social and Personality Development inMiddle Childhood 203Social and Personality Development inLate Adulthood 37919Death, Dying, and Bereavement 399iii

A01 BOYD0946 08 SE FM.indd Page 4 2/19/18 12:20 PM f-0036/206/PH03289/9780134560946 BOYD/BOYD LIFESPAN DEVELOPMENT1 SE 9780134560946/SE/MA .ContentsPreface xAcknowledgments xivAbout the Author xv11.11.21.31.4Basic Concepts and Methods 1234Key Issues in the Study of Human Development 1.2.1 Nature Versus Nurture 1.2.2 Continuity Versus Discontinuity 1.2.3 Three Kinds of Change 5556 Research Report: An Example of a Cohort Effect:Children and Adolescents in the Great Depression 81.2.48Contexts of Development 22.12.22.32.4iv99 No Easy Answers: It Depends . . . 101.3.21.3.3Descriptive Methods The Experimental Method 1012Research Designs 1.4.1 Cross-Sectional, Longitudinal, andSequential Designs 1.4.2 Cross-Cultural Research 1.4.3 Research Ethics 14Summary: Basic Concepts and Methods 14161719Theories of Development 20Psychoanalytic Theories 2.1.1 Freud’s Psychosexual Theory 2021 No Easy Answers The Repressed Memory Controversy 212.1.22.1.32226Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory Evaluation of Psychoanalytic Theories 2.51An Introduction to Human Development 1.1.1 Philosophical and Scientific Roots 1.1.2 The Lifespan Perspective 1.1.3 The Domains and Periods of Development Research Methods 1.3.1 The Goals of Developmental Science 2.4.22.4.3Learning Theories 2.2.1 Classical Conditioning 2.2.2 Skinner’s Operant Conditioning 2.2.3 Bandura’s Social-Cognitive Theory 2.2.4 Evaluation of Learning Theories 2627282930Cognitive Theories 2.3.1 Piaget’s Cognitive-Developmental Theory 2.3.2 Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory 2.3.3 Information-Processing Theory 2.3.4 Evaluation of Cognitive Theories 3031333334Biological and Ecological Theories 2.4.1 Behavior Genetics 3535Ecological Theories Bronfenbrenner’s Bioecological Theory Comparing Theories 2.5.1 Assumptions About Development 2.5.2 Usefulness 2.5.3 Eclecticism Summary: Theories of Development 33.1Prenatal Development and Birth Conception and Genetics 3.1.1 The Process of Conception 35373839394041424242 Research Report: Twins in Genetic Research 443.1.244How Genes Influence Development 3.2Genetic and Chromosomal Disorders 3.2.1 Genetic Disorders 3.2.2 Chromosomal Errors 4646483.3Pregnancy and Prenatal Development 3.3.1 The Mother’s Experience 3.3.2 Prenatal Development 3.3.3 Sex Differences 3.3.4 Prenatal Behavior 49495052533.4Substance-Related Problems in PrenatalDevelopment 3.4.1 How Teratogens Influence Development 3.4.2 Drugs, Tobacco, and Alcohol 5354553.53.6Maternal Influences and Fetal Health 3.5.1 Maternal Diseases 3.5.2 Other Maternal Influences on PrenatalDevelopment 3.5.3 Fetal Assessment and Treatment 5759Birth and the Neonate 3.6.1 Birth Choices 3.6.2 The Physical Process of Birth 3.6.3 Assessing the Neonate 3.6.4 Low Birth Weight and Preterm Birth 6061626464 No Easy Answers: When Do Preterm InfantsCatch Up? Summary: Prenatal Development and Birth 44.1Physical, Sensory, and PerceptualDevelopment in Infancy Neurological and Behavioral Changes in Infancy 4.1.1 The Infant’s Brain and Nervous System 56566565676768 No Easy Answers: TV for Tots: How MuchIs Too Much? 694.1.269Reflexes and Behavioral States

A01 BOYD0946 08 SE FM.indd Page 5 2/20/18 10:28 AM f-0036/206/PH03289/9780134560946 BOYD/BOYD LIFESPAN DEVELOPMENT1 SE 9780134560946/SE/MA .Contents4.24.34.44.54.6Growth, Motor Skills, and DevelopingBody Systems 4.2.1 Growth and Motor Skills 4.2.2 Explaining Motor Skills Development 4.2.3 Developing Body Systems 71717272Infant Health and Wellness 4.3.1 Nutrition 4.3.2 Malnutrition 4.3.3 Health Care and Immunizations 73737475Infant Mortality 4.4.1 Sudden Infant Death Syndrome 4.4.2 Group Differences in Infant Mortality 757577Sensory Skills 4.5.1 Vision 4.5.2 Hearing and Other Senses 797980Perceptual Skills 4.6.1 Studying Perceptual Development 4.6.2 Looking 808181 Research Report: Langlois’s Studies of Babies’Preferences for Attractive Faces 834.6.34.6.44.6.5Listening 83Combining Information from Several Senses 84Explaining Perceptual Development 85Summary: Physical, Sensory, and PerceptualDevelopment in Infancy 55.15.25.35.466.187Cognitive Changes and Intelligence in Infancy 5.1.1 Piaget’s Sensorimotor Stage 5.1.2 Challenges to Piaget’s Explanation of InfantCognitive Development 5.1.3 Alternative Approaches 5.1.4 Measuring Intelligence in Infancy 8788919294Learning, Categorizing, and Remembering 5.2.1 Conditioning and Modeling 5.2.2 Schematic Learning 5.2.3 Memory 94949596Theoretical Perspectives and Influenceson Language Development 5.3.1 Theoretical Perspectives 5.3.2 Influences on Language Development 979798107108108 No Easy Answers: Adoption and Development 1096.2Attachment 6.2.1 The Parents’ Attachment to the Infant 6.2.2 The Infant’s Attachment to the Parents 1091101116.3Factors Influencing Attachment 6.3.1 Variations in Attachment Quality 6.3.2 Caregiver Characteristics and Attachment 6.3.3 Long-Term Consequences of AttachmentQuality 6.3.4 Cross-Cultural Research on Attachment 1121121141151166.4Personality, Temperament, and Self-Concept 6.4.1 Dimensions of Temperament 6.4.2 Origins and Stability of Temperament 6.4.3 Self-Concept in Infancy 1171171181206.5Effects of Nonparental Care 6.5.1 Difficulties in Studying Nonparental Care 6.5.2 Effects on Physical and CognitiveDevelopment 6.5.3 Effects on Social Development 6.5.4 Interpreting Research on Nonparental Care 122122Summary: Social and Personality Developmentin Infancy 77.15.4.25.4.35.4.45.4.5The First Words The First Sentences Individual Differences in LanguageDevelopment Language Development Across Cultures No Easy Answers: One Language or Two? Summary: Cognitive Development in Infancy 102105106125Physical and Cognitive Developmentin Early Childhood 1271281297.2Health and Wellness in Early Childhood 7.2.1 Young Children’s Health-Care Needs 7.2.2 Abuse and Neglect 1311311327.3Piaget’s Preoperational Stage of CognitiveDevelopment 134 Research Report: Children’s Play andCognitive Development 1347.3.17.3.27.4103104104104123124124Physical Changes in Early Childhood 7.1.1 Growth and Motor Development in EarlyChildhood 7.1.2 The Brain and Nervous System Language Development Milestones 1015.4.1 Early Milestones of Language Development 101 Research Report: Early Gestural Language inthe Children of Deaf Parents Social and Personality Developmentin Infancy 107Theories of Social and Personality Development 6.1.1 Psychoanalytic Perspectives 6.1.2 Ethological Perspectives 85Cognitive Development in Infancy v7.5127Piaget’s View of Early Childhood Thinking 135Challenges to Piaget’s View 137Other Cognitive Changes in Early Childhood 7.4.1 Theories of Mind 7.4.2 Alternative Theories of Early ChildhoodThinking 138138139Changes in Language 7.5.1 Fast-Mapping 7.5.2 The Grammar Explosion 7.5.3 Phonological Awareness 141141142142

A01 BOYD0946 08 SE FM.indd Page 6 2/19/18 12:20 PM f-0036/206/PH03289/9780134560946 BOYD/BOYD LIFESPAN DEVELOPMENT1 SE 9780134560946/SE/MA .vi Contents7.6Individual Differences in Intelligence 7.6.1 Measuring Intelligence 7.6.2 Origins of Individual Differencesin Intelligence 7.6.3 Group Differences inIntelligence-Test Scores 147 No Easy Answers: To Test or Not to Test? 148Summary: Physical and Cognitive Developmentin Early Childhood 88.1145Social and Personality Developmentin Early Childhood 150150151151 Research Report: Racism in the PreschoolClassroom 1528.2Personality and Self-Concept 8.2.1 From Temperament to Personality 8.2.2 Self-Concept in Early Childhood 1541541548.3Gender Development 8.3.1 Explaining Gender Development 8.3.2 Sex-Role Knowledge 8.3.3 Sex-Typed Behavior 157157159159Family Relationships and Parenting 8.4.1 Attachment in Early Childhood 8.4.2 Parenting Styles 8.4.3 Ethnicity, Socioeconomic Status,and Parenting Styles 1621621638.58.6167Family Structure 1688.5.1 Family Structure and Early Childhood 1698.5.2 Divorce 1718.5.3 Understanding the Effects of Family Structureand Divorce 172Peer Relationships in Early Childhood 8.6.1 Relating to Peers Through Play 8.6.2 Aggression 8.6.3 Prosocial Behavior and Friendships 173173174176Summary: Social and Personality Developmentin Early Childhood 17799.19.2Physical and Cognitive Developmentin Middle Childhood 179Physical Changes in Middle Childhood 9.1.1 Growth and Motor Development in MiddleChildhood 9.1.2 The Brain and Nervous System 9.1.3 Health and Wellness in Middle Childhood Cognitive Changes in Middle Childhood 9.2.1 Language Development inMiddle Childhood 9.2.2 Piaget’s Concrete Operational Stage 179180180181184184184Direct Tests of Piaget’s View 186Advances in Information-Processing Skills 1879.3Schooling in Middle Childhood 9.3.1 Literacy 9.3.2 Second-Language Learners 1891901919.4Achievement and Intelligence 9.4.1 Theories of Multiple Intelligences 9.4.2 Achievement Tests 191192192 No Easy Answers: IQ Testing in Schools 1929.4.3Group Differences in Achievement 193Children With Special Needs 9.5.1 Learning Disabilities 9.5.2 Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder 197197199148Theories of Social and PersonalityDevelopment 8.1.1 Psychoanalytic Perspectives 8.1.2 Social-Cognitive Perspectives 8.49.2.39.2.41431439.5Summary: Physical and Cognitive Developmentin Middle Childhood 10201Social and Personality Developmentin Middle Childhood 20310.1 Theories of Social and Personality Development inMiddle Childhood 20410.1.1 Psychoanalytic Perspectives 20410.1.2 The Trait and Social-Cognitive Perspectives 20410.2 Self-Concept in Middle Childhood 10.2.1 The Psychological Self 10.2.2 The Valued Self 20620620710.3 Advances in Social Cognition 10.3.1 The Child as Psychologi