Geologic Sequestration of CO2 andClass VI WellsMolly Bayer EPA HQ 202-564-1981Brian Graves EPA Region 6 214-665-7193UIC Inspector TrainingJune 2018

Presentation Overview Carbon Capture and Storage, GeologicSequestration and Class VI Rule Background Class VI Requirements2

Carbon Capture and Storage,Geologic Sequestration (GS) andClass VI Rule Background3

CO2CaptureandTransportGeologicSequestrationUIC ProgramScope4

Coordination on Carbon Capture andStorage (CCS) and Carbon Capture,Utilization and Storage (CCUS )EPA Intra-AgencyEPA RegionsOffice of Air andRadiationOffice of SolidWaste andEmergencyResponseOffice of Water5

Class VI Rulemaking Proposed Rule for GS ofCO2– Announced by Administrator:October 11, 2007– Signed by Administrator:July 15, 2008 NODA published in 2009Final Rule published onDecember 10, 2010,revises UIC Program toaddress GeologicSequestration via Class VIwells6

Geologic Sequestration ScenariosCO2CRC

CO2 Storage Mechanisms, Monitoring &Potential Leakage Pathways8Source: LBNL

Class VI Primacy and Direct Implementation As of September 7, 2011– EPA directly implements the Class VI Program in all States,Tribes, and Territories except North Dakota States may apply for Class VI primacy at any time– States without Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA)§1422primacy must apply to implement a new §1422 Program– States with §1422 primacy for Classes I, II, III and V mustsubmit a program revision to add Class VI State primacy applications North Dakota application received June 2013 North Dakota Class VI Primacy was approved 4/24/189

Class VI Implementation Implementation– EPA has issued 6 permits Archer Daniels Midland (ADM), Decatur, IL (2 permits) The FutureGen Alliance, Jacksonville, IL (DOE suspended funding in 20154 permits – permits have expired) Limitations on CCS– Limited policies to support or encourage climate changemitigation/carbon capture technology deployment– Resources/financing of projects– There has been a strong emphasis on enhanced oil recovery (EOR)to store CO2 (CCUS) due to economics but EOR alone can’tachieve the large-scale/long-term emissions reductions needed10

Archer DanielsMidland (ADM)Decatur, ILEthanol Plant11

999,215 Mt 11/11 – 11/14Under IL EPA Class I permitRepermitted as EPA Class VI

CCS #2 Wellhead Under ConstructionCCS #2 Finished Wellhead InjectingCCS #2 Photos courtesy of Andrew Greenhagen EPS Region 5

CCS #2 Annulus Tank16

Temperature Logging Tool17

Lubricator for Temperature LoggingLogging Truck18


Flow MeterCorrosion MonitorCoupon Loop20

At 240 MW, Petra Nova is the world's largest post-combustioncarbon capture facility installed on an existing coal-fueled power plant.NRG’s WA ParishPlant SW ofHoustonThe captured CO2will be used inEOR increasingproduction from300 to 15000 bopdIn the West RanchField.21

Net Power LLC - La Porte, TexasThis 50 MW demonstration plant is the world's largest attempt to usecarbon dioxide as a working fluid to drive a turbine to generateelectricity. Therefore, CO2 emissions from natural gas combustion togenerate electricity are zero. Combustion testing began 5/31/18.

The Net Power Plant Uses the Allam Cycle Shown Below

Class VI Requirements24

Class VI Requirements: 40 CFR §146.82 – 146.95 146.82: Required Class VI permit information146.83: Minimum criteria for siting146.84: Area of Review and corrective action146.85: Financial Responsibility146.86: Injection Well Construction146.87: Logging, Sampling, and Testing (prior to operation)146.88: Injection Well Operation146.89: Mechanical Integrity146.90: Testing and Monitoring146.91: Reporting and Recordkeeping146.92: Injection Well Plugging146.93: Post-Injection Site Care and Site closure146.94: Emergency and Remedial Response146.95: Injection Depth Waiver requirements25

Class VI Rule BackgroundConsiderations for GSUIC Program Elements Large VolumesBuoyancyViscosity (Mobility)CorrosivityNew well class established:Class VISite CharacterizationArea of Review (AoR)Well ConstructionWell OperationSite MonitoringPost-Injection Site CarePublic ParticipationFinancial ResponsibilitySite Closure26

Class VI Requirements: Overview Wells used for injection of CO2 for geologic sequestration Class VI wells by permit only Lifetime permit duration including the post-injectionmonitoring period Allow for transitioning from: Class I, II, or V wells ormonitoring/stratigraphic wells Are flexible to accommodate project variability– In injection formation, volume and duration– Enable research and use of new, innovativetechnologies27

Class VI Site Characterization Requirements Tailored, detailed geologic site characterizationrequirements (40 CFR §146.82, 146.83 and 146.87)– Identification and characterization of injection andconfining zone(s)– Establish baseline information and comprehensiveproject information prior to GS project construction andoperation28

Class VI Site Characterization RequirementsGS Rule Approach Director has discretion to requireidentification of additional confiningzones Owners and Operators submitinformation on the following– Structure– Stratigraphy– Seismicity– Baseline geochemistryUSDWsConfining ZoneInjection Zone29

Class VI Area of Review and CorrectiveAction Requirements Required at 40 CFR§146.84– Initial delineation of the Area of Review (AoR) Using computational modeling which accounts for the injected CO2plume and the area of elevated pressure Relies upon site characterization data– Periodic re-evaluation of the AoR at a minimum of every 5years Relies upon operational and monitoring data Allows for phased corrective action of abandoned wells in theAoR at the UIC Director’s discretion30

Class VI Area of ReviewGS WellCO2 plume31

Class VI Well Construction RequirementsGS Rule Approach Inject below USDWs (unless aninjection depth waiver isissued) Long-string casing cemented inplace for its entire length Surface casing through thebase of the lowermost USDWand cemented to surfaceWellheadTubingSurface casingLong-stringcasingCement32AnnulusPacker

Class VI Well Construction andOperation Requirements Establishes specific standards for Class VI wellconstruction and operation (40 CFR§146.81,146.86 and146.88)– Construction materials must be compatible with theinjectate and formation fluids– Owners or operators must establish site specificoperational conditions– Use of automatic shut-off devices33

Class VI Testing and Monitoring Requirements Requires tailored testing and monitoring at eachGS project (40 CFR §146.88,146.89 and 146.90)– Monitoring/sampling of the CO2 (i.e., physical andchemical characteristics)– Mechanical integrity testing of injection wells– Ground water monitoring– Surface-air/soil-gas monitoring at the UIC Director’sdiscretion34

Class VI Testing and Monitoring RequirementsGS Rule Approach Determine extent of CO2movement and associated areaof elevated pressure (pressurefront) Techniques, frequency, andspatial resolution of CO2 plumeand pressure front monitoringare not specified in theregulations35Seismic Monitoring Results at Sleipner

Class VI Project Plan Requirements Five project-specific plans must be developed, submitted andupdated during the life of a GS project– Area of Review and Corrective Action (40 CFR §146.84)– Testing and Monitoring (40 CFR§146.90)– Injection Well Plugging (40 CFR§146.92)– Post-Injection Site Care and Closure (40 CFR§146.93)– Emergency and Remedial Response (40 CFR§146.94) The final plans become enforceable permit conditions36

Class VI Financial Responsibility (FR)Requirements Clarifies and expands FR requirements (40 CFR§146.85) toensure funds are available for all phases over the life of a GSproject including– Project Operation– Corrective Action– Well Plugging– Emergency and Remedial Response– Post Injection Site Care (PISC) and Site Closure37

Class VI Post-Injection Site Care Requirements Required, at 40 CFR§146.93, appropriate monitoring andother actions (e.g., corrective action) needed followingcessation of injection to ensure that USDWs are notendangered During the PISC period, the owner or operator will– Monitor the CO2 plume and the associated area of elevatedpressure– Update models and project plans, as appropriate– Perform corrective action, as appropriate– Ensure USDW protection The PISC period ends with a non-endangermentdemonstration approved by the UIC Director38

Class VI Post-Injection Site Care Requirements Determining the PISC timeframe– A 50 year default timeframe with associated modelinginformation– An alternative PISC timeframe determined during thepermitting process based on modeling information– An updated, refined PISC timeframe may Be informed by monitoring and operational information andmodeling updates Result in PISC plan updates and a permit modification39

Class VI Injection Depth WaiverRequirements Injection depth waiver for Class VI wells (40 CFR§146.95)– Available to owners or operators applying for a Class VIpermit to inject above the lowermost USDW or betweenUSDWs– Additional requirements to ensure protection of USDWsabove and below the injection zone– Accommodates varied geologic settings and uses GScapacity at a range of depths40

Geologic Sequestration of CO 2 and Class VI Wells UIC Inspector Training June 2018 Molly Bayer EPA HQ 202-564-198